by Terrance L. Green & Mark A. GoodenIntroduction to the special issue on Milliken v. Bradley.
by Terrance L. Green & Mark A. GoodenThe purpose of this study is to examine the context and contradictions in Milliken. In doing so, we review select federal school desegregation cases that informed the judicial and plaintiff’s thinking in Milliken, and provide an in-depth description of the city of Detroit and Detroit Public Schools, prior to and during Milliken. We also analyze how the Milliken decision reinforced what we refer to as the “contours of privilege” as well as materialized property rights for white, suburban students and school districts at the expense of African American students in Detroit Public Schools.
by Muhammad A. Khalifa, Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas & Terah T. ChambersThis theoretical article examines the historical underpinnings of racialized policy discrimination in Detroit. With a backdrop of Detroit’s restrictive residential racial covenants, the Sweet Trials, the Detroit Race Riot of 1943, the destruction of Black Bottom, the refusal to place mass transit systems in Detroit, and more recently, the racialized implementation of Emergency Management Laws, we argue that White actions toward Detroit are based on deep-rooted and historical biases, stereotypes, and fears of Blacks.
by Jennifer Jellison Holme, Kara S. Finnigan & Sarah DiemThis article examines the contemporary implications of the Milliken v. Bradley (1974) decision for educational inequality between school districts in U.S. metropolitan areas.
by H. Richard Milner IV, Lori A. Delale-O'Connor, Ira E. Murray & Abiola A. FarindeIn this article, we draw on the concepts of place and race to understand interview data from three experts on education segregation and desegregation to shed light on the nature and complexity of Milliken that are under-explored in public and policy discourses and examinations.
by Sonya Douglass HorsfordIn this article, I consider school desegregation as a form of social justice for blacks and racial equality for all, 40 years post-Milliken. Drawing from research on school desegregation as social justice and Bell’s theory of interest convergence, I argue that integration and equality in the post-Civil Rights Era requires attention to the competing visions of social justice I describe as black equality and white freedom.
by Mark A. Gooden & Terrance L. GreenNathanial Jones was born May 12, 1926, in Youngstown, Ohio, and served as the general counsel for the NAACP from 1969–1979. During that time, he litigated the Milliken v. Bradley case before the U.S. District Court in 1971 and the U.S. Supreme Court in 1974. Our conversation with the Honorable Judge Nathanial Jones entails his reflections about Milliken 40 years later, origins of his involvement in the case, and suggestions for school desegregation advocates in the 21st century. To begin, we briefly describe Milliken and how the conversation with Judge Jones came about. We organized our conversation around topical areas about the case, which reflect our interview questions.