by Alfredo J. Artiles & Janette K. KlingnerAn introduction to this special issue of the Teachers College Record.
by Margaret A. Gallego, Grace Zamora Durán & Elba I. ReyesIn this paper, the authors examine the official definition and the means for the identification of learning disabilities and their constancy in view of surrounding historical chronologies.
by Eugene E. Garcia & Delis CuéllarThe national demographic transformation that has become more evident in the last decade was easily foreseen at least 10 years ago. Our future student growth is as predictable: In a mere 35 years, White students will be a minority in every category of public education as we know it today, and non-English-proficient students will grow significantly. Unfortunately, these emerging majority ethnic and racial background students continue to be “at risk” in today’s social institutions.
by Janette K. Klingner & Beth HarryThe purpose of this study was to examine the special education referral and decision-making process for English language learners (ELLs), with a focus on Child Study Team (CST) meetings and placement conferences/multidisciplinary team meetings.
by Jamal AbediThis article discusses psychometric issues in the assessment of English language learners and examines the validity of classifying ELL students, with a focus on the possibility of misclassifying ELL students as students with learning disabilities.
by Jeff MacSwan & Kellie RolstadThe authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs’ disproportionate representation in special education.
by Kathy EscamillaLanguage differences in the United States are largely viewed as problems that schools must remedy. This paradigm has created the pervasive belief that Spanish is a root cause of underachievement for Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs). This article examines teacher beliefs systems with regard to the above paradigm.
by Guillermo Solano-FloresThis article examines the intersection of psychometrics and sociolinguists in the testing of English language learners (ELLs).
by Judith K. Bernhard, Jim Cummins, F. Isabel Campoy, Alma Flor Ada, Adam Winsler & Charles BleikerThe authors describe in this article an innovative language intervention program involving the creation of bilingual, student self-authored identity texts. Called the Early Authors Program (EAP), the intervention stands as an example of how spaces and opportunities for literacy development among young ELLs can be created in a classroom instructional environment.
by Nonie K. LesauxThe growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools and the low academic achievement of many of these learners have been the subject of much debate. A significant related issue is determining the sources of ELLs' difficulty, namely, understanding the distinction between learning disabilities (LD) and learning difficulties due primarily to contextual factors and second-language learning. This article addresses the future directions for research in this area, with an emphasis on the need to build consensus through converging lines of evidence.