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Do We Really Want To Close the Achievement Gap?

Posted By: Sherman Miller on August 24, 2006

As I read David J. Armor・s comments in :Can NCLB Close Achievement Gaps?,; I was distressed at his apparent fatalist stance. As an African American who specializes in helping college students pass basic mathematics and the algebra gatekeeper courses, I see students coming to college with the need of an academic acculturation program that includes such things as having a teacher who believes that they can learn and willing to assist in filling in the holes in their academic preparation. I have found over the years that once the students know that I care then I can start moving them towards closing their background deficiencies.

I spent my early childhood growing up between two public housing projects, so I find once the students realize that demonstrating gang banger attitudes are unacceptable in my classroom their persona will often change to persons wanting to become normal college students. What I am suggesting is that the students understand that I truly care about their wellbeing. Hence, I am in favor of NCLB for it offers accountability for all children. This means that allowing children to sleep in class or just cluster with their homeboys or girls is no longer acceptable.

I would like to offer you some food for thought through a 7/18/2004 paper I wrote for a University of Delaware graduate course on NCLB. This paper was written while I was still instructor of mathematics at Delaware State University, a Historically Black College.

Is No Child Left Behind a Matter of National Security?


Sherman N. Miller
Visiting Instructor of Mathematics
Delaware State University

It is easy to perceive the :No Child Left Behind Act; debate as merely an ideological struggle between the big business Republican Party and the labor unions leveraged Democratic Party. Some would argue that with the overwhelming opposition to it, NCLB should have already fallen out of favor with the American people. However, the NCLB movement has not died, so it is more than merely a passing fad.
Before engaging in a political debate over the merits of NCLB, the purpose of this act needs to be appreciated. This federal purpose statement is given in the book entitled, :Wrightslaw: No Child Left Behind,; by Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright, and Suzanne Whitney Heath. The government states, :The purpose of this title is to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic assessments.; (Wright, Wright, and Heath, p.21)
President George Bush, facing a tough and potentially close election, is not abandoning NCLB in the 2004 General Election season knowing that the teachers・ unions have a great passion to dismantle this bi-partisan act. One scenario that makes a bit of sense is perhaps President Bush is seeking to improve his dismal showing in the African American community in the 2000 General Election. President Bush eroded the small Black vote that the Republican Party garnered in the 1996 General Election. David A. Bositis, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, reported, :Vice President Gore・s share of the black vote was 90 percent in 2000, up from President Clinton・s 84 percent in 1996. Governor Bush・s eight percent of the black vote was less than Senator Bob Dole・s 12 percent in 1996K; (Bositis, p.2)
With the 2004 General Election dawning, the African-American community・s political interest in NCLB is worthy of some debate. The 1954 US Supreme Court ruling in Brown versus the Board of Education that knocked down the infamous 1896 US Supreme Court :separate but equal; ruling that legitimated racial segregation in the United States of America failed to offer racial integration in the economic mainstream. One can argue that the Black leaders fell victim to the delusion of believing desegregation was tantamount to racial integration when it came to educating Black children. The Black leaders・ dream was to garner the opportunity for Black children to be in the same classrooms as White children.
Fifty years of purported desegregation has shown racial desegregation means Black children can sit in the same classroom with White children, but it does not signify that they will get educated to the same level. The teacher must believe every student can learn and be motivated to understand their students・ backgrounds to teach them. Hence, the hole in the Brown versus the Board of Education ruling was teacher accountability simply was not there for every student.
The aftermath of missing accountability for Black children is felt in the degradation of the Black family structure over the last fifty years. The African American male has become vilified and relegated to a ward of the criminal justice system. The Cybercast News Service reports on the bleak outlook for African American males when it comes to being incarcerated. :K the Bureau of Justices Statistics report reveals that a black child born today faces a strong likelihood of spending as least some time in prison. Black men had a 32.2 percent chance of going to prison in 2001, while white males had a 5.9 percent chance and Hispanic men had a 17.2 percent chance.; (CNSNews.com, 2004)
Cybercast News Service went on, :In 2001, for example, 16.6 percent of black males were current or former inmates, compared to just 2.6 percent of white males.; However, this article is short on solutions to this socioeconomic genocidal dilemma in Black America.
The Reverend Eugene F. Rivers, III (Co-founder, Boston TenPoint Coalition) speaking at the 14th National Conference on Preventing Crime in the Black Community offers a valuation of education. He writes, :Forty years after the beginning of the civil rights movement, younger Black Americans are growing up unqualified for gainful employment, even as slaves. Given the demands of a radically new labor force, these young people are ill-equipped to get a job. They buy what they want and beg for what they need--$200 sneakers, $100 gold, Fubu, and can't read a book.

;A Black boy has a one in 3,700 chance of getting a Ph.D. in mathematics, engineering or the physical sciences, one in 766 chance of becoming a lawyer, and a one in 395 chance of becoming a physician. A Black boy has a one in 195 chance of becoming a teacher, but his chance is one in two of never attending college. Even if he graduates from high school, he has a one in nine chance of using cocaine, a one in 12 of having gonorrhea, and a one in 20 of being in prison while in his 20's.;
Rivers offers an appreciation of the impact of the lack of a good education in the Black Community. However, there is a need to look at prime marrying age Black males・ prison plight to fully appreciate the valuation of education in the Black Community. Caroline Wolf Harlow, writing for the Bureau of Justice Statistics, reported, :Males between the ages of 20 and 39 dominate the State prison population; they constituted about two-thirds of all State prison inmates in 1997. Approximately 21% of the State prison population were white males between ages of 20 and 39, 33% were black males in that age range, and 12 percent were Hispanics. In the general population these groups constituted a significantly smaller percentage of the total populationX22%. White males ages 20 through 39 were 17% of the general population, black and Hispanics of any race about 3% each.
:Within the 20 through 39 age group, male inmates consistently had lower academic achievement than their counterparts in the general population. Young white and black male inmates were about twice as likely as their counterparts in the general population to have not completed high school or its equivalentX(14% versus 28% for whites and 16% versus 44% for blacks). Young Hispanic males・ educational achievement did not differ by such magnitude; 52% in prison and 41% in the general population did not have a high school diploma or its equivalent.; (Harlow, p. 6)
Harlow・s report is suggestive that the lack of a good education for Black and Hispanic males is comparable to getting a go-to-jail card in the game of Monopoly. Furthermore, the 20 to 39 age group is the prime marrying age and the fathers of many of the youth in public schools today.
A holistic look at the impact of this high incarceration rate of Black males is valued in a January 7, 2004 article that this writer released to the Minority Press Service in Kansas City, KS, the Delaware State News, New Pittsburgh Courier, Baltimore Times, and other newspapers. It is entitled, :Who Holds the Players Accountable for Today・s Children?; Miller writes,
:As we look at the Hip Hop generation, we see anti-moral value concerns that portend to finish decimating the strength of today・s Black family. The Black leadership should be losing sleep over the fact that gangsters and thugs are idolized; the denigration of Black women is okay; the racial epithetic :N; word is a part of the popular lexicon; and the player is a folk hero.

:Although Black America must hope that this disregard of moral values is merely a fad, Black Americans must highlight the deleterious impact of this anti-mainstream tomfoolery on our children・s and American children・s future. The terms :Baby Mama; and :Baby Daddy; may draw attention to the fact that the stable married family structure is a relic of yesterday・s moral values. Young men are no longer marrying girls that they get pregnant to give their children a family structure.

:In a 1996 article by Sue Christensen and Ann Rosen writing for :The Family Connection of St. Joseph County, Inc.,; they offer some distressing teen pregnancy facts that suggest that the age of the :player; (irresponsible father) is now upon us. :The fathers of babies born to teenage mothers are likely to be older than the women: Half of the fathers of babies born to women aged 15-17 are 20 years of age or older. K In early 1980s more than half of all births to adolescents occurred outside of marriage, compared with only about one-third in 1970. Only 34% of men 20-29 years old were married in 1993, compare with 58% in 1973.;

:The serious family stability threat that the player presents is appreciated in recounting a reality television show where a Black fellow was asked to take a lie-detector test to show that he was not cheating on his girlfriend with his baby・s mother. Everyone was surprised because the player passed the test. However, this chap left the audience in shock, revealing that he already had children with five different women. In killing the euphoria, this :player; intimated that de facto polygamy is now legitimate in many inner-city communities.

:Today・s :player; relishes his harem because Black women are finding it very difficult to find Black males due to the social genocide underway in the Black American community. Paige M. Harrison and Allen J. Beck, in a special report for the Bureau of Justice Statistics, highlight the high number of Black male incarcerations. Their article entitled, :Prisoners in 2002,; states, :KExpressed in percentages, 10.4% of black males age 25 to 29 were in prison on December 31, 2002, compared to 2.4% of Hispanic males and about 1.2% of white males in the same group. K

:What is alarming is that the Harrison and Beck data also offers a glance at the disappearing Black males ages 20 through 39 due to a high incarceration rate. Their data shows the number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 2002. This data suggests that approximately 35 percent of Black males of prime marrying age are unavailable to be husbands. Hence, Black :players; (quasi gigolos) now have a free hand to exploit Black females with reckless abandonment and to pay only lip service to the children resulting from their gigolo services.

:What is very disturbing is that a high prisoner recidivism rate suggests that the Black community cannot expect to see Black female exploitation abate in the near future. Patrick A. Langan and David J. Levin, writing in a special report for the Bureau of Justice Statistics in June 2002 entitled, :Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994,; gives a chilling recidivism assessment. :Within 3 years from their release in 1994 V 67.5% of the prisoners were rearrested for a new offense (almost exclusively a felony or a serious misdemeanor). K; Does this suggest that roughly 70 percent of the Black males in prison today will spend the remainder of their lives in a revolving door in and out of the prison system?

:It would be easy to get off on a debate of how unfair Black male treatment is in the criminal justice system; however, there is a need to look at the potential long-term damage that the high Black male incarceration rate is doing to the socioeconomic upward mobility of the American community. The Black :player; is becoming a father figure in many poor neighborhoods. African American children are doomed to second-class citizenship because they do not have the advantages that come from guidance and help from both maternal and paternal parentage.

:It is common knowledge in education circles that parent involvement in their children・s education means that the child will do better in school because they understand that education is important. Black baby boomers and older males must start holding young Black :players; accountable for all of their children・s progress. Merely paying some small amount of money on child support is unsatisfactory. Attempting to write off the mothers for appearing promiscuous is no longer a reason for merely manipulating Black women sexually without regard for the consequences of the sexploitation.

:Black grandfathers must step forward and make it clear that players, pimps, thugs, gangsters, and so on, are no longer the modern role model for inner-city African American boys. There needs to be a public manhood defrocking ceremony for players who ignore financial and emotional support for their children where they are officially labeled :Deadbeat Daddy; in the media. Thus, parental involvement in Black children・s lives mean both parents・ shouldering their parental responsibility and not solely Black females acting as single parents trying to be both a father and a mother.;

The data above suggests that Black America should have a keen interest in NCLB becoming operational. The Black civil rights goal of the Twenty-First Century must become economic enfranchisement in the economic mainstream. Therefore, a quality education is paramount in the struggle for Blacks・ Mainstream American legitimacy. President Bush has offered the catalyst to encourage a movement from the 1954 racial desegregation illusion to racial integration by making accountability the cornerstone of public school education. However, many high profile national Black leaders are former Democratic Party operatives whose demeanor suggest that President Bush・s actions are mere misguided intentions.
These Black Democratic Party zealots got a wake up call when President George Bush decided to skip an opportunity to address the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People・s annual convention in the midst of a Presidential election year. Cable News Network reported, :NAACP spokesman John White said Wednesday that Bush has declined invitations in each year of his presidency -- becoming the first president since Herbert Hoover not to attend an NAACP convention.; (CNN.com, July 8, 2004)
The NAACP national influence dropped one order of magnitude with this President Bush stance. Thus, a President Bush win will mean that the NAACP may need new leadership or remain relegated to an insignificant role in fostering policy changes with The White House for another four years.
The Reverend Jesse Jackson has gotten his jab in President Bush on NCLB. Fox News aired Jackson・s feeling in an interview with him. :JACKSON: Well, [Bill Cosby is] not quite saying that, although he talked about only having one full psychologist for three schools as being inadequate. He's aware that on the No Child Left Behind by Mr. Bush, two million have been left behind and 300,000 don't have after school programs.; (FoxNews.com, 2004, July 8).
However, in the Fox News interview, Reverend Jackson was pussyfooting as he attempted to address the Black education issue. :The fact of the matter is most children that go to school do graduate. Most parents do take care of their children as best they can. But there are too many who are doing less than their best and they're recycling their pain, recycling self-destruction, recycling self-degradation, and Bill is saying, "That course will not work. We, in fact, must study diligently and lift our spirits above our predicament.;
Now let us turn our attention to the political jousting between the two major parties. The teachers unions are vilified for being anti-No Child Left Behind proponents that put fear in the hearts of Democratic politicians to tow the line on their opposition to NCLB. Terry M. Moe makes this case well in his article entitled, : Politics, Control, and the Future of School Accountability.; (Moe, p. 93)
Moe reports, :K a recent academic study of state-level politics ranked the teachers unions as the single most powerful interest group in the country.
:The teachers unions use their power almost exclusively on behalf of Democrats. They normally do everything they can to see that right-thinking DemocratsXthe most pro-union, pro-government, and antimarketXget nominated and that Democrats defeat Republicans in general elections. They are also forceful in letting Democratic officeholders know what is expected of them: the unions want favorable policies enacted, and they want threatening policies blocked. K;
Moe・s comments suggest that the teachers unions clearly have a great deal of political leverage on Democratic officeholders. Moe continued, :The unions・ prime goal in the politics of accountability is to weaken or eliminate any consequences that might be associated with standards and tests. K Among their highest priorities is ensuring that pay is not linked to performanceK; (Moe, p. 96-97)
Moe offers a very distressing assessment of the future of accountability in the public school system. :KElected officials will continue to govern the schools and respond to the power of the teachers unions. The only realistic conclusion is that, for some time to come, we should have low expectations for what accountability systems can achieve.; (Moe, p. 99)
Jennifer Hochschild, in a chapter entitled, :Rethinking Accountability in Politics,; offers a positive assessment of what accountability can do. She writes, :Another study that disaggregates scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) by state finds that .state activism has a significant independent effect on teachers・ use of classroom practices consistent with a standards-based model of mathematics education . . . . These policy effects on instruction may operate by promoting greater teacher receptivity to reform.・ In other words, standards with accountability lead to higher test scores, in part because teachers teach differently. In short, the momentum so far is toward greater, not lesser, accountability, with at least some desirable results.; (Hochschild, p. 109)
Hochschild writes that the Republican Party is embracing the public school accountability need position that runs counterpoised to Moe・s contention that the Democrats are forced to embrace the teachers unions・ anti-accountability stance. She writes, :K The national Republican Party has moved to claim public responsibility for schooling outcomes, despite its historic commitment to stay out of local affairs and the fact that federal dollars cover only 7 percent of schooling costs. K Most surprising of all, leaders of the Republican Party insisted that NCLB require the disaggregation of students・ test results, so that it will be clear whether the children whose scores have proven the most intractable and whose parents are not Republican votersXpoor children, African Americans, English language learnersXactually do better.;

A case has been made for NCLB to die and it has not. It appears that President George Bush can garner no short-term political benefit from sticking to his guns to see that accountability becomes a part of the United States of America・s mainstream educational psyche. This President Bush stance suggests that perhaps we have been looking at the data above through the wrong interpretative lenses. Therefore, let us start thinking outside of the stereotypic political jousting box.
One scenario that appears to fit the above data is to think about President Bush・s actions from the point of view of Homeland Security. If we picture al Qaeda exploiting US madrassas to teach radical Islam to young men who may some day sacrifice their lives in a Jihad, this sends shivers down the spines of most Americans. Kenneth Adelman reports for Fox News, :Can it be true? That Islamic schools in the United States teach hatred towards American Christians and Jews?; (FoxNews.com)
Let us look at three paragraphs in Adelman・s article. :The Washington Post on Monday revealed that one such school outside Washington, D.C., uses textbooks teaching 11th graders that "the Day of Judgment can't come until Jesus Christ returns to Earth, breaks the cross and converts everyone to Islam, and until Muslims start attacking Jews."
:Other accredited Islamic schools in America have world maps on classroom walls that exclude Israel. Some such schools promote class discussions that portray Usama bin Laden as "simply the victim of K prejudice" against all Muslims in America. K
:K At the Al-Qalam All-Girls School in Springfield, Va., seventh graders learn that Usama bin Laden may be not a villain but a victim of Americans' biased views toward great Islamic leaders. Hence "some students question the government's claim that bin Laden is responsible for the terrorist attacks X disputing that videotapes actually show him taking credit."
These students become venues from whence to look for secret agents. The great Chinese war philosopher Sun Tzu defined the characteristics of a secret agent in the Fourth Century B.C. Sun Tzu wrote, :Living agents are K. people who can come and go and communicate reports. As living spies we must recruit men who are intelligent but appear to be stupid; who seem to be dull but are strong in heart; men who are agile, vigorous, hardy, and brave; well-versed in lowly matters and able to endure hunger, cold, filth, and humiliation.・;
Sun Tzu defined five types of secret agents:
:Native agents are those of the enemy・s country people whom we employ.
Inside agents are enemy officials who we employ.
Double agents are enemy spies who we employ.
Expendable agents are those of our own spies who are deliberately given fabricated information.
Living agents are those who return with information.; (Sun Tzu, p. 145-147)
Adelman・s alarm suggests that we also need to pay attention to zealot teachings in parochial schools be they Christian, Jewish, Islamic or other religions. The last thing the US needs in the future as the population becomes increasingly ethnic diverse is to allow balkanization to offer beachheads for anti-American terrorist groups. Yet, we must be very careful not to allow Adelman type alarms to evolve into the catalyst to kindle a modern day version of McCarthyism or religious inquisition that divides the nation into a religious crusade or Jihad depending on what side you are fighting. Americans need only look at Northern Ireland to see what happens when a nation is consumed by a sectarian conflict.
Sun Tzu writes about strengths and weaknesses. He speaks to the ability to create an illusion. :I make the enemy see my strength as weaknesses and my weaknesses as strengths while I cause his strengths to become weaknesses and discover where he is not strong. K I conceal my tracks so that none can discern them; I keep silence so that none can hear me.; These comments suggest that America can ill afford to allow minority communities such as Black and Hispanic to remain outside of the economic mainstream because they become excellent places for al Qaeda sleeper cells to hind. Furthermore, downtrodden drug infested neighborhoods may have gangster lookouts who may unintentionally apprise al Qaeda sleeper cells of police activity in their neighborhoods. This means neither the Republican nor the Democratic Parties can write off any neighborhoods indicating that every child, man, and woman must now participate in the bounty of this great nation or they are potential candidates for exploitation by terrorists groups. Hence, we can see that NCLB is evolving into a national security issue and not merely some political debate topic on which Democrats and Republicans gain media points with proclamations.
Sun Tzu spoke to probing the enemy to find out how he will respond, so that you know how to plan for battle. He wrote:
:Agitate him and ascertain the pattern of his movement.
Determine his dispositions and so ascertain the field of battle.
Probe him and learn where his strength is abundant and where deficient.
The ultimate in disposing one・s troops is to be without ascertainable shape. Then the most penetrating spies cannot pry in nor can the wise lay plans against you.; (Sun Tzu, p. 100)
It sounds like al Qaeda must have studied the teachings of Sun Tzu. We see alerts coming on regular intervals, so surely they are probing for our weaknesses. This indicates that America must have its people feeling enfranchised, so they will go against some neighborhood customs (as not being rats in the hood V sharing information with the police) to report suspicious activity. NCLB sends the symbolic message that everyone is valued, hence people living in distressed situations have hope of a better tomorrow.
Sun Tzu speaks to the enemy not knowing where you are to do battle which forces him to cover everywhere. Each time we hear a new alert color go up from the Homeland Security Secretary, we must wonder where al Qaeda will strike within the US, so the terrorists achieve points in their mental torture game. Sun Tzu wrote, :The enemy must not know where I intend to give battle. For if he does not know where I intend to give battle he must prepare in a great many places. And when he prepares in a great many places, those I have to fight in any one place will be few.; (Sun Tzu p.98) Clearly, America is trying to cover every portion of the nation and the terrorists know that they need only find a weak spot to attack. One of our current vulnerabilities is economically depressed neighborhoods where people do not see a brighter tomorrow on the horizon. Al Qaeda knows these neighborhoods are ideal recruiting venues. The purpose of the NCLB act must become a reality in downtrodden America or the nation is at risk no matter who becomes President on November 2, 2004.
Sun Tzu presents the case of knowing your enemy. You might conclude that they are virtues that al Qaeda is following today. Sun Tzu wrote:
:Therefore I say: .Know the enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never be in peril.
When you are ignorant of the enemy but know yourself, your chances of winning or losing are equal.
If ignorant both of your enemy and of yourself, you are certain in every battle to be in peril.; (Sun Tzu, p. 84)
It is no big secret that the Americans did not understand the Arab and Islamic cultures well before 9/11/2001. However, the al Qaeda people understood our culture and they exploited it. This suggests that studies of other cultures are now as important in primary and secondary schools and college as learning mathematics, English, science, history, writing, and reading.
There are many other lessons that Sun Tzu offers for our contemplation. However, we will end this discussion on two points on secret agents that pique our understanding of the importance of foreknowledge to national defense. Sun Tzu offers:
:Now the reason the enlightened prince and the wise general conquer the enemy whenever they move and their achievement surpass those of ordinary men is foreknowledge.
What is called .foreknowledge・ cannot be elicited from spirits, nor from gods, nor by analogy with past events, nor from calculations. It must be obtained from men who know the enemy situation.; (Sun Tzu, p. 144-145)
Hence, Sun Tzu suggests that we cannot treat workers with access to confidential information as if they are cannon fodder. Workers must feel some allegiance to their jobs, corporation, government, or social program. We also want children to feel that they belong to the nation as a whole and not be influenced to be suicidal into wanting to do harm to other people as Richard Reid from England attempted to do by carrying a bomb in his shoe on an airplane bound for the United States of America. Therefore, it is imperative that NCLB become a part of the nation・s culture as soon as possible. President George Bush should be commended for sticking with his guns in the midst of a Presidential campaign when the most powerful union in the nation is working aggressively to up-end NCLB.
We looked at NCLB from the prospectus of its full implementation as a political struggle between Democratic Party elected officials acting as surrogates for the teachers unions and Republican Party operatives being the front line troops for Corporate America. We also discussed the importance of NCLB to the African American community and suggested that high profiled Black civil rights leaders may be on the wrong side of the debate. It was concluded that NCLB growing in the midst of all of the negative forces viewed through traditional thinking may be unsatisfactory in explaining what is occurring. We, therefore, advanced a scenario based on Homeland Security to example President Bush・s stance on seeing NCLB become the mindset of the economic mainstream. Hence, it was concluded that the national security of the nation is dependent upon NCLB enfranchising America・s downtrodden to prevent terrorist groups from exploiting this nation from within.

Works Cited

Adelman, K. (2004 February 27) U.S. Islamic Schools Teaching Homegrown Hate. FoxNews.com

Bositis, D. (December 2000). The Black Vote in 2000. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. Washington, DC

CNN.com. (2004 July 8) Bush declines NAACP invitation

CNSNews.com (2004). Experts Differ on Reasons for Widespread Incarceration of Blacks. Townhall.com News Wire

FoxNews. Com (2004, July 8) Transcript: Bill Cosby Criticizes Black Community

Harlow, C. (January 2003). Education and Correctional Populations. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report NCJ 1958670 Revised on 15 April 2003

Hochschild, J. (2003). Rethinking Accountability Politics, No Child Left Behind? The Brooking Institutions Press. Washington, DC

Moe, T. (2003). Politics, Control, and the Future of School Accountability. No Child Left Behind? The Brooking Institutions Press. Washington, DC

Rivers, E. (1999) From Conference to Action. 14th National Conference on Preventing Crime in the Black Community, June 2-5, 1999 in Orlando, FL

Sun Tzu. (1963). The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith and forwarded by B.H. Liddell Hart. UNESCO Collection of Representative Works Chinese Series. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England

Wright, P.W., Wright, P.D., and Heath, S. (2004) Wrightslaw: No Child Left Behind. Harbor House Law Press. Hartfield, VA

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 Do We Really Want To Close the Achievement Gap? by Sherman Miller on August 24, 2006
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