The Educational Significance of Physical Status and of Physiological, Mental, Emotional and Social Maturity
by Arthur I. Gates, Grace A. Taylor, Eloise Boeker & Dorothy Van Alstyne - 1924
Between scholastic achievement and general mental ability, both carefully measured by objective tests, substantial correlations are usually found. It has become customary to see in such facts evidence that educational achievement is mainly determined by innate capacity. It is recognized, however, that the correlation of achievement and capacity, as actually tested, is never perfect; indeed, with representative groups, it is rarely above a coefficient of 0.70, which allows for appreciable and numerous discrepancies. The teacher or school official, charged with the responsibility of classifying, promoting and demoting pupils, is puzzled by these discrepancies and keenly feels the need of an explanation of them. To many, it appears, upon inspection of the arrays of mental indices and scholastic performances, that factors other than intelligence should be taken into account. There is now, as there long has been, an urgent need for research directed to appraisement of human traits which may now be measured objectively or reasonably well gauged by observers, for the purpose of ascertaining what other factors, if any, should be taken into account in setting up expectations or goals of achievement.
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