Fostering Moral Development
by Martin L. Hoffman - 1980
Since Freud and Durkheim, there has been agreement among social scientists that most people do not go through life viewing society's moral norms (for example, honesty, justice, fair play) as external, coercively imposed pressures. Although initially external and often in conflict with one's desires, the norms eventually become part of one's motive system and guide behavior even in the absence of external authority. The challenge is to find out what experiences foster this internalization. The aim here is to pull together the relevant findings and theories.
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