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Dialogue, discourse, and debate are essential to a vibrant and engaged educational community in an interconnected, global society. We welcome commentaries from scholars, practitioners, policy makers, community-based organization members, K-12 teachers, administrators, and other stakeholders who share in our commitment to education for the public good. Commentaries are original essays that address topics, issues, or events that are relevant to the field of education. We encourage diverse perspectives and questions that sustain deliberation, and engage multiple audiences and stakeholders to address educational and societal inequities. The commentaries are generative and lead to conversations across multiple communities to have broad impact in the field and beyond. Commentaries are reviewed internally by the Teachers College Record Editorial staff and published on our website soon after acceptance and copyediting. Submissions typically run between 1000 and 1500 words.




Commentary
by Kendra Strouf - 2020
Today there are nearly half a million Indigenous citizens from Mexico residing in the United States. Discriminatory policies in the United States homogenize these culturally and linguistically diverse individuals, considering all people from Mexico to be Spanish speakers. However, Mexico is home to approximately 287 languages, many of which are not mutually intelligible. Federal law guarantees public education for all children, yet it does not guarantee linguistically appropriate education. As such, Mexican immigrant children who speak an Indigenous language are wholly neglected in formal educational spaces and can experience linguistic isolation. Our system relegates these children to a lesser status than children whose mother tongue is English and systematically disadvantages them to lead a life of poverty in the United States. These are the unintended consequences associated with immigration. Educators in the United States must have language awareness. Linguistically appropriate education is necessary; otherwise, the notion of free public education for all children is feeble. Students, families, communities, educators, and school districts can be advocates for linguistic and cultural rights for these students. We must simultaneously bring policymakers’ attention to this issue and implement grassroots, creative solutions in our own community schools.

by Sara Kotzin & Phyllis Solomon - 2020
As educators envision school for Fall 2020, they are charged with balancing physical safety and emotional health. Schools therefore face an urgency to address trauma, inequity, and racism that has been exacerbated by the global pandemic. This commentary urges schools to prioritize an intersectional approach to social and emotional health that disrupts racism and simultaneously acknowledges trauma and inequity. There will be temptation to rely on Social and Emotional Learning programs (SEL) as there is a widespread yet false assumption that the manualized programming can meet these needs while managing a classroom. However, SELs do not incorporate an anti-racist, trauma-informed practice.

by Mical Raz & Frank Edwards - 2020
As the start of the academic year approaches, schools across the nation are struggling to find an acceptable balance between providing much-needed in-person education, alongside the imperative to prevent further spread of COVID-19. This spring, more than 50 million schoolchildren abruptly found themselves outside the classroom. There is broad agreement that enabling children to return safely to schools is of utmost importance, both in terms of children’s academic and emotional development. These decisions also have profound economic implications; an estimated 27 million American adults rely on the school system for childcare in order to participate in the workforce.

by Joseph Murphy - 2020
Over the last 50 years, school improvement has been heavily driven by assumptions, philosophies, and beliefs. When put to the test, many of the ideas embedded in these reforms have proven ineffective. And our understandings of reasons for failure are not robust. We sometimes simply ignore the failure or see it and ignore it. We have become adept at justifying poor outcomes, blaming others, and moving on absent change to newer ideas.

by Peter Fahey, Garth Kydd & Jeanne Marie Iorio - 2020
The current COVID-19 crisis we find ourselves in, whilst devastating, may provide an opportunity for disruption of inequity and narrow practices utilized throughout schooling. While in isolation, schools are quickly responding to this situation, making visible how schools enact standardization and perpetuate the status quo as well as the inequitable access for children and families to resources and to teaching and learning that support complex thinking. This leads us to wonder if our education system creates opportunities to further the capabilities of children who contribute to their local and global communities. This recognition offers a pivotal moment for all of us to consider what could be if we rethink education and schools in response to children, families, and communities (Mineo, 2020).

by Nicola Yelland - 2020
The current debate around the teaching of reading in primary schools is a global phenomenon, even framed as being the “reading wars.” In the western world, education departments in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States have implemented phonics packages from the start of compulsory schooling (usually beginning at five years of age) and “screening” test regimes in the second year of school (in Australia, Year One). The stated aims of these tests imply that there is one element that is common across successful readers: being able to decode text using what is technically called the synthetic phonics approach. According to the information for parents provided with South Australia’s phonics screening test, “Phonics is vital in learning to read… The phonics screening check is a short, simple assessment that tells teachers how students are progressing in phonics.”

by Peshe Kuriloff - 2020
Children all over the country are sitting in front of screens at home doing school as best they can, some more motivated than others to consent to learn. Their teachers, many ill-prepared to use the new tools and methods effectively, are equally distracted and questioning the value of the education they are required to deliver to their students online.

by Jennifer Green & Elizabeth Bettini - 2020
When teachers return to work in the fall, the schools they reenter will look quite different from the schools they left behind in March. Schools are anticipating substantially increased demand to support student mental health, as many will return to school having experienced loss and grief, months of social isolation, and heightened rates of familial violence and poverty (Galea et al., 2020). To meet the needs of these youth, it will be crucial to support the mental health and wellness of teachers and school staff who provide their care.

by Martin Scanlan - 2020
Educators, parents, and community members all recognize that reopening PK-12 Schools plays a central role as communities strive to respond to and recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. As communities plan to reopen PK-12 schools this fall, we need to bear in mind that doing so is not simply a matter of solving logistical problems to ensure health and safety. The process must be driven by educational professionalism that serves the broader purpose of maximizing learning and addressing students’ holistic needs.

by Jordi Díaz-Gibson & Alan Daly - 2020
As we write this, many of us across the world are sheltered in place, not being able to safely leave our homes. This pandemic has its roots in how connected we are as a planet. Ironically, we only seem to attend to our human connectivity when it comes to historically negative events such as a pandemic. However, what if we really focused on the fact that these connections also hold the potential for equally positive impacts for our world? Sadly, it seems we rarely activate these systems for this purpose.

by Olivia Marcucci - 2020
Scholars and practitioners started noting the disproportionate disciplining of Black students around 45 years ago with the release of a seminal report from the Children’s Defense Fund (1975). While the historical trend likely predates the first study, recent research indicates that Black students are up to 300% more likely to be disciplined, even when controlling for poverty and misbehavior (Goplan & Nelson, 2019; Gregory et al., 2010; Owens & McLanahan, 2019; Pearman, et al., 2019; Skiba et al., 2014). In the 45 years of scholarship on the issue, scholars have used terms like “discipline gap,” “discipline disparity,” or “discipline disproportionality.” Following Ladson-Billings’s (2006) call for a renaming of the “achievement gap” to “education debt,” the objective of this commentary is to argue for a shift in how we talk about the phenomenon at hand. This commentary explains why I have chosen to use the alternative term “hyper-disciplining” in my own scholarship.

by Joanna Weidler-Lewis - 2020
This commentary considers the rise of augmented and virtual reality simulators (AR and VR) as a proxy for teacher education preparation in classrooms through the example of Mursion. AR and VR Simulators are a promising technology to meet the educational and clinical training needs of student teachers in the face of the current global pandemic that has canceled in-person options. Simulators allow pre-service teachers the opportunity to practice interactions with student avatars by either walking through pre-recorded scenarios or engaging in real-time sessions with a simulation specialist. The discourse surrounding this technology and simulators is one of reducing “mistakes” and “risks” and maximizing “authenticity” and “safety.” In some cases, these concepts have taken on new meaning post COVID-19, particularly with respect to keeping students, both pre-service teachers and PreK-12 students, healthy and safe. However, we must interrogate what these concepts entail and ask for whom is the learning environment made authentic and who is taking what risks. In this commentary, I call on teacher educators and professionals to examine the broader consequences of implementing AR and VR simulations, the underlying theories of learning and behavior that influence their design, and the costs incurred by this technology.

by Emily Schnee & Liesl Schwabe - 2020
As both the pandemic and its uncertainty continue, college students, their families, and professors are looking ahead to fall, wondering how or if anyone will be able to return to campus. But the implications of how we, as a country, navigate the future of higher education will have ramifications for years, if not decades, to come.

by Caroline Wylie & Margaret Heritage - 2020
Our commentary notes the challenges faced by many teachers amid the COVID-19 pandemic as teaching and learning abruptly shifted from site-based to distance learning, with learning opportunities relying on a combination of asynchronous and real-time interactions. Discourse opportunities are inevitably reduced in remote teaching, lessening possibilities for formative assessment. Here, we offer some suggestions for how teachers might use technology tools to preserve the essence of formative assessment practices and the potential of these practices to mitigate equity concerns.

by Marybeth Gasman - 2020
A short essay based on conversations with my daughter.

by Richard Fossey - 2020
The closure of a small liberal arts college is a traumatic event for faculty members who lose their jobs. Is there anything a college can do to relieve the hardship on professors who are thrown out of work, perhaps after spending their entire careers at an institution that ceases to exist?

by Mary Hermann & Julie Gorlewski - 2020
This commentary builds on the authors’ recent research on teachers who are also mothers. The study was completed just prior to the current world-wide health crisis. Study findings indicate that combining teaching and motherhood has become more challenging in recent years as both societal motherhood norms and expectations in the teaching profession have risen significantly. As teachers in the United States encounter the effects of new shelter-at-home directives, teacher mothers are experiencing unprecedented responsibilities related to remote teaching expectations and their recently acquired role of homeschooling their children. Challenges related to these experiences as well as opportunities provided by this crisis are explored in this commentary. Recommendations are provided for managing the dual roles of teacher and mother during the pandemic and beyond.

by Harrison Yang, Lam Kwok & Xuan Wang - 2020
In the span of just a few weeks, the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has quickly become the world’s most salient common concern. One of the most significant challenges during this unexpected crisis is the continuation of K-12 education for students who have been instructed to stay at home.

by Michael Feuer - 2020
Contrary to recent critiques, economics and economists have made substantial contributions to education and public policy. Scapegoating the profession is misdirected and undermines the value of scientific evidence in government.

by Carrie Ashcraft, Petra Chou & Cindy Jones - 2020
Advanced coursework in high school is often viewed as stepping-stone to future educational opportunities, such as technical school or college. However, students from minority populations and lower socio-economic classes continue to be underrepresented in advanced courses. Desegregating classrooms begins with making visible the effects of racism and classism keeping marginalized students from advanced coursework and a rigorous curriculum. Evaluation of current structures must include open dialogue to make visible disparities within schools, thus promoting a rigorous curriculum for all students and avoiding the long-term consequences of unequal access to high-quality secondary education.

by Joseph Jones - 2020
This commentary explores how relational pedagogy should guide educational leaders through times of crisis.

by Brian Oh, Heather Hong & Emily Park - 2020
Court cases such as Students For Fair Admissions v. Harvard (2019) and Fisher v. University of Texas (2016) have brought around tensions around the practice of affirmative action. Time and time again, affirmative action’s use of race in the admissions process has been deemed appropriate from the U.S. Supreme Court. While this is the case, news outlets throughout the political gamut and over the years such as CNN, Fox News, and PBS have weighed their support on socioeconomic status being considered as a factor in the college admissions process.

by Sarah Hurwitz, David Nguyen & Suzanne Eckes - 2020
From equity and school discipline to affirmative action and sexual harassment, the current political climate is affecting the civil rights of P-16 students. The U.S. Department of Education (“Department”) has proposed to rescind, or has already rescinded, numerous rules and regulations that were developed by previous administrations. Rather than providing state and local education agencies with clarification, these policy changes are causing uncertainty. In this article, we focus on three areas that impact the civil rights of students, providing policymakers and educators with a timely explanation of the changes that are currently underway.

by Tiffany Noel & Padmashree Rida - 2020
Building on Karalis Noel’s (2019) research surrounding belongingness of women in STEM fields, this commentary aims to address the critical underrepresentation of and prejudice inflicted upon minority women in STEM higher education. Rida, a current graduate student at a large, R1 midwestern institution, and Karalis Noel, a previous graduate of the same institution, came together to compose a commentary that calls attention to the crucial underrepresentation and alienation of minority women in STEM.

by Hope Nye - 2020
To support every student’s educational progress, the IDEA provides a framework through a system of measurable annual goals listed within student IEPs. Benchmark objectives following the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction scaffold supports for students to master skills identified within their measurable annual goals. When fading these supports through benchmark objectives, students transition from external to internal motivation when achieving independence with their target skill.

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