This article examines the causes and prevalence of private tutoring as a form of supplementary education from a comparative perspective: Who takes private tutoring and why? It explains both between-country and within-country variations in after-school math tutoring as collective and individual choice through secondary analyses of the 1995 TIMSS eighth-grade student and teacher survey data sets, with a focus on the cases of Korea and the United States.
This chapter offers an historical overview of the development
of media education in Canada, the theory informing Canadian practice, common classroom practices and approaches, comments about some significant resources, and conclusions and implications for future work.
Drawing on observation data from two U.S. and two Chinese mentor-novice pairs in induction contexts, this study analyzed the content and forms of mentor-novice conversations about novices' lessons.
This paper draws on data from a group case study of women in higher education management in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. It investigates culture-specific dimensions of what the Western literature has conceptualized as "glass ceiling" impediments to women's career advancement in higher education.
This article questions a formulation of identity and argues that the field must embrace a more dynamic and nuanced notion of self.
Drawing on theory in achievement motivation and cultural psychology, the authors examine the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and social-historical perspectives of South African adolescents on education, achievement, and opportunity.
Two cases of planned curriculum change are examined to illustrate the limits and possibilities of curriculum reform.
Reviews recent trends in female employment and preschool provision in the United States and Europe, discussing how governments have responded to the issues.
A comparison of the organizational and curricular dimensions of school-based and work-based preparation for jobs in the United States and Germany.
This chapter contains only partial information on the impact of the
Taxonomy in the geographic region of our interest. The authors were
highly dependent on the information they were able to collect, and by
no means do the references in this article represent the full scope of the
In this chapter, I discuss how the Taxonomy was introduced to the
Korean academia in education, as well as how it stimulated the
improvement of school examinations, facilitated curricular and
instructional improvement projects, and has been critically examined
in educational discussions.
This article describes the school-based extracurricular programs in several societies in East Asia, suggesting that Americans use such information to develop more effective extracurricular programs.
This article is a description and analysis of how the citizens of the former German Democratic Republic are attempting to reconstruct their educational system. As the GDR has divided into five federal states in order to incorporate with West Germany, five different school systems are being established. This article focuses on Saxony, the most populous of the new states, and its efforts to reconstruct its educational system.
This article compares U.S. and German schooling processes, noting how the countries socialize their youth to adulthood and employment; mentions key elements in achieving good outcomes and preparing productive adults; recommends creating an appropriate balance between the country's labor force needs and the developmental needs of its individuals.
A visit to a prestigious kindergarten in Nanjing and a comparison of Chinese and Western learning styles.
Explores the conceptual basis of teaching in China.
This article discusses the author's attempt to understand some aspects of Japanese society and his reflections on the role that philosophy of education, anthropology, and other disciplines can play in grappling with issues of intercultural understanding.
The author speaks on the nature of the curriculum and appropriate standards in education from an economist’s point of view, and considers the issue of national standards from an international perspective.
After viewing through British eyes the problematic state of American graduate schools of education in 1982, Harry Judge now sees in both Holmes and Carnegie the possibility for genuine reform. He argues that the funding of professional development centers and of chairs in the teaching of various school subjects should have high priority.
Offering a comparative perspective, Altbach looks at the prestige accorded European secondary school teachers, the undereducated third world teaching force, the seeming lack of relation between teacher education and different levels of international achievement, and current teacher reforms in Japan and Russia.
Now, at the end of my tenure with the project and after seeing it
receiving funding for three more years, I want to take this
opportunity, as I prepare to leave for the Shanghai Foreign Languages
Institute in China, to discuss what we set in motion.
The author reviews the multifaceted policy, curricular, and economic questions relating to the foreign student issue.
Findings are given of a cross-national study that explored the processes of children's development of identity by examining how children learn what their ethnic group is and how their group should act. Adults seem to influence cultural and personality development, with social standing being more important than ethnic background.
A description of vocational education in foreign countries cannot come from a single mold. Differences among the
countries are substantial in matters of clientele, expectations, educational
methods, organization, and administration. It is best to
consider countries individually, to relate full-time vocational education
in regular schools to the national system of initial occupational
skill training, and to confine the discussion to young people
of upper-secondary age who have not been in the labor force.
Education in other nations arouses interest among Americans
more as a possible source of ideas for dealing with educational
problems than as a social phenomenon basic to the culture of
another country that reveals important features of that culture. I
assume that readers have the first purpose and wish to acquaint
themselves with approaches taken to certain issues in social studies
education in a number of countries that represent quite different
cultures. The issues to be viewed across the nations are (a) the
role of political ideology in the shaping of social studies education,
a sine qua non for this aspect of the curriculum; (b) curriculum
and content emphasis, the "bread and butter" or heart of any approach
to social studies, and (c) the impact of external examinations,
that is, those examinations that originate or at least are
legitimized outside the examinee's school.
Liberal education in Japan, and specifically at Japan's Tenri University, is described. The conflicts between the society's need for well-rounded educated individuals versus well- educated specialists are noted.
Peter Abbs, a highly persuasive lecturer in education at Sussex University, has buckled on armor to challenge society-in the United States as well as Britain-through a radical revisioning of the aims of contemporary education. The three books here under review set forth the present state of his challenge: first, a bill of particulars against a civilization dominated by a voracious industry and, second, a proposal for correction through the establishment of a single small college devoted to the formation of teachers capable of raising up a new, truly human, generation.
Within anthropology we have developed several useful distinctions in discussing the questions of how grandparents do or do not play a role in the education of children in any given society, and particularly in our own. Within the context of this article the author uses the word education to include conscious teaching of any sort, whether of speech, manners, morals, or skills, but include also the process of socialization, which occurs in all societies as children learn to restrain their impulses, postpone gratification, control their sphincters, walk, talk, and participate in social life, and the process of enculturation, by which children learn a particular culture.
Most assessments of the spectacular expansion of world education
are on the whole scarcely encouraging. They tend to show
quality sadly lagging behind increasing quantity, inadequate output,
both internal and external doubts, and moral crisis. Attention
is also drawn to the growing rift between the educational system
and a society which is (a) breaking the school's monopoly as
the source of knowledge, (b) developing through communication
media new relationships between man and the world, and (c) obliging
all men to continue their education throughout their professional
and civic life.