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Early Childhood Education

by John Nolan - 1973
This paper will attempt to dull the distinction between conceptual and rote learning.

by Milton Akers - 1972
To speak of offering a broad program of services for young children without recognition of the fact that it will necessitate money--and lots of it is not only an exercise in futility but sheer hypocrisy. We also must come to grips with the human problem of learning how to share and coordinate funds and energies without the threat of loss of personal or institutional identity. When and only when this nation really understands the significance of offering the young child the best beginning in life that our knowledge can produce will we accomplish a real commitment expressed in terms of necessary funds. With such a commitment, possibly a brighter, more productive present may be expected for the young child, with boundless possibilities for his future functioning as a socially competent adult.

by Irving Sigel - 1972
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues relevant to the relationship between developmental theory and practice in preschool programming. The rationale for advocating "the match" is that such a match is essential if we are to create curricula that are relevant and appropriate for maximizing the potential of young children.

by Marvin Lazerson - 1972
Each of three themes of childhood education in the U.S.—the ethic of social reform, the uniqueness and importance of childhood, and the reform of educational practices— has had a variety of manifestations. Occasionally one theme has dominated a particular debate; often the themes are hardly distinguishable. As a group, however, they have appeared consistently, and they have shaped the development of early childhood education in the United States.

by Merrill Read - 1972
It has long been recognized that nutritional deficiencies, either of individual nutrients or of total food intake, retard physical growth and delay sexual maturation. Similarly, malnutrition and infection have synergistic actions thus adding to their effects on the individual. In the past fifteen years attention has focused on the possibility that malnutrition in early infancy and childhood may also adversely influence behavioral and intellectual development. If true, this will have serious consequences for technological development, for educational programs, and for achievement of each individual's inherent capacity to contribute to society.

by David Weintraub - 1972
Health concerns relative to the preschool and early school age child understandably have different meanings to each individual involved. Parental concerns often differ from those of the physician; the physician's concerns, in turn, may differ from those of the teacher and community, and yet all have similarities and overlap. Furthermore, the communicating of facts of health among all participants is far from ideal and often suffers from misunderstanding, misstatement, unnecessarily long delays, over-concern, under-concern, and even failure to communicate at all. In addition, over-attachment to traditional methods of obtaining and administering health surveillance and care to children may contribute to delay in the emergence of innovative and experimental programs in this field.

by James Gallagher & Robert Bradley - 1972
The problem of early identification of developmental difficulties would seem at first blush to focus on the technical efficiency of our current identification measures. Instead, as we explore beyond the surface issues of how effective our various instruments are in detecting developmental problems of early childhood, we find ourselves in a thicket of problems of measurement, of definition, and of the will of the society to provide services that should follow such identification.

by Aletha Stein - 1972
Recently, public and professional attention has focused on the few television programs designed to contribute positively to the development of cognitive and social skills. Simultaneously, empirical literature devoted to observational learning and imitation has burgeoned in the field of child development. In the following discussion, direct studies of the media are integrated with those of imitative learning in order to draw conclusions and implications concerning media effects on "young children," that is, those of preschool and early elementary school age. The review is restricted to studies of publicly distributed media, primarily television and films, which are the subject of most publications.

by Ira Gordon - 1972
This chapter will be mainly restricted to an analysis of three types of characteristics: pupil, instructional situation, and goal characteristics. It will not reflect the means used by the program sponsors to implement their programs, their logistical arrangements for consultation and inserviee training, their means for monitoring and data collection, except insofar as these reflect on the characteristics. The analysis, therefore, is limited to the instructional and curriculum phases because it is believed these have the most direct application to an understanding of future academic (as distinct from political or economic) movements in the field of early childhood education.

by Samuel Messick & Thomas Barrows - 1972
The key issues in research and evaluation in early childhood education are the same as those arising in research and evaluation at any educational level. The major recurring questions are these: What characteristics or variables should be focused upon? How adequately are these variables being measured? Can observed effects or changes be defensibly interpreted—in particular, can they be attributed to specific experimental or educational treatments? And, finally, can the findings be generalized to other populations and other conditions? These are difficult questions at best, but in the area of early childhood education they are made even more complicated by the vagaries of measurement with very young children and by the occurrence of rapid changes during the early years.

by Nancy Robinson & Halbert Robinson - 1972
In the brief space available, it would be impossible to describe meaningfully the actual programs as they exist in these eleven countries. Rather, we will examine a number of conceptual and practical variables which seem to underlie differences and similarities among this sample of nations in their programs for the young. Every nation acknowledges that its children are its most important resource. For planners, practitioners, and citizens everywhere it is important to consider alternative means to improve the care and enhance the development of the young child. It is important, too, to understand that a broad range of issues and circumstances must be taken into account, that what is "best" in one country may not fit another at all.

by Edith Grotberg - 1972
The position of the present chapter is that parent participation in early childhood education is vital to child development. The defense for this position rests on moral grounds as well as on research evidence. It does not seem possible for a society to morally justify the encouragement of parent abdication. Parents must be involved in decisions affecting their children, and their role in influencing early development must be recognized.

by Bernard Spodek - 1972
Early childhood education takes place in many settings. Public educational systems have generally been responsible for the education of children above age six. While kindergartens have been a part of these systems since before the beginning of this century, only recently have more than half of the five-year-olds been enrolled in public school kindergartens. In recent years the movement downward has included a number of children in public education programs even before the age of five.

by Robert Anderson & Harold Shane - 1972
The impact of ECE on the elementary school should be studied novo. There are at least six reasons why programs involving early learning should be examined with respect to their possible influence on elementary schools.

by Vera John & Sarah Moskovitz - 1970
This chapter will be divided into the following sections: (a) a discussion of differences in language skills as a function of social class; (b) an exploration of the role of language in learning and thought; and (c) a description of various preschool programs with a language focus.

by Fred Busch - 1970
The author contends that the bland, insipid content of first-grade readers not only complicates the process of "learning to read," but may, in fact, later contribute to an adolescent's anxiety.

by Samuel Kliger - 1970
In this article the author adds his voice to the discussion of the popular children's program, Sesame Street. A consultant on early childhood education, he suggests several more effective techniques for teaching young children that Sesame Street might employ.

by Richard Brandt - 1970
The more we know about diverse children, the more complex becomes the problem of readiness. The author reviews relevant research and proposes a number of suggestive new guidelines.

by Catherine Brunner - 1967
Early childhood is a period of rapid growth. Changes, some of which are the greatest that occur in the total development of the individual, become evident as the child manifests differences in physical appearance and abilities and develops, in a few short years, a multiplicity of complicated skills and behavior patterns. Some developmental tasks, such as walking, running, jumping, and talking, emerge dramatically and can be observed readily as they are initiated and refined. Feelings, attitudes, and concepts, which are personality components, are also engendered by early experiences but may evolve relatively unnoticed due to their less perceptible nature.

by Dorothy Eichorn - 1963
Human biology encompasses the study of all the structural and functional characteristics of man, from the cellular to the organismic level, and their ontogenesis. Advances in technology have made it possible to extend cytologic and histologic studies to the point where behavioral correlates may be sought even at these levels, and progress in both the biological and physical sciences has resulted in the emergence, within the broader interdisciplinary fields of biochemistry and biophysics, of highly specialized disciplines such as histochemistry and cytochemistry. The topics singled out for discussion here are ones which offer a group of studies with some direct behavioral implications. Each section demonstrates a different way of systematizing the biological data and their potential behavioral correlates.

by John Clausen & Judith Williams - 1963
By the expression, "sociological correlates of child behavior," we may designate the effects of social arrangements, relationships, and expectations, which are not primarily reflections of unique personality constellations surrounding the child but which influence the probability of occurrence of particular types of behavior opportunities and outcomes.

by Susan Ervin & Wick Miller - 1963
The most important contribution that modem linguistics has brought to child language studies is its conception of what a language is. A language is a system that can be described internally in terms of two primary parts or levels—the phonological (sound system) and the grammatical. A complete description of a language would include an account of all possible phonological sequences and also a set of rules by which we can predict all the possible sentences in that language.

by Eleanor Gibson - 1963
The primary purpose of this chapter will be to present a framework for the developmental study of perception and to formulate some important issues.

by Sheldon White - 1963
Learning, as the psychologist defines it, is a relatively permanent behavior change which is the result of experience. Since learning in childhood and adolescence plays an important part in shaping adult behavior, psychologists have long been intensely interested in the learning process. Their concern has been with learning as process with the minimal conditions which are necessary for learning to take place, with the surrounding conditions which better or worsen learning, and with the question of what the basic changes which constitute the learning process (or processes) might be.

by Michael Wallach - 1963
This chapter is concerned with current research on the development of children's thinking, concentrating on the work of the last two decades. Within this period a new tradition of research, that of Piaget and his Geneva collaborators, has made its appearance and has contributed extensively to knowledge in this area.

by Lawrence Kohlberg - 1963
In spite of this tradition of theoretical interest in children's morality, early research in the area was dominated by obvious, practical concerns about good behavior in children. Only in the last twenty years has research focused upon basic theoretical problems in the development of morality. The present chapter reviews the results of recent research as these results clarify the psychological nature of moral development and the psychological processes leading to such development.

by Willard Hartup - 1963
This chapter will place greater emphasis upon dependent than upon independent behavior because the literature relating to the development of the latter is not extensive. The large majority of systematic studies of dependency and independence have been completed since 1946. Occasional findings relevant to dependence may be found in the earlier literature, but for the most part such results are by-products of investigations whose main emphases lay on childrearing practices, disciplinary techniques, and the like.

by Albert Bandura & Richard Walters - 1963
For the past thirty years, the psychology of aggression has been dominated by the hypothesis of Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, and Sears, according to which, as it was originally propounded, aggression is a natural and inevitable consequence of frustration. In later modifications of the hypothesis, aggression was regarded as a natural, though not inevitable, consequence of frustration, since nonaggressive responses to frustration could be learned.

by Vaughn Crandall - 1963
This chapter summarizes research concerned with factors influencing the development of children's achievement propensities and actions, and the role children's achievement motivations play in determining their achievement performances.

by Britton Ruebush - 1963
In recent years there has been a metamorphosis in the study of anxiety in children. Once a concept primarily of clinical interest and of central scientific importance only within psychoanalytic theory, anxiety has become a concept of ubiquitous theoretical relevance and the focus of considerable systematic research with normal children. While the causes of this transformation are diverse, two factors seem especially implicated. These are the increasing interest of methodologically sophisticated researchers in testing psychoanalytic hypotheses concerning the interrelationships between affective and other behavior systems and the meteoric rise to prominence of anxiety as a drive or drive-related construct in learning theory.

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