Drawing on interviews with 25 Latina/o ninth-grade leavers and school policy documents, this article examines how uncertainties about high school completion arise and are negotiated in the school context in ways that contribute to risks for school-leaving. The article employs a theoretical framework that considers both objective and socially constructed dimensions of risk.
This article uses figured world theory to explore how college-bound youth construct college-going identities in an urban magnet high school.
This article provides secondary statistical analysis of data from New Hampshire regarding the timing of information and decision-making in the college choice process.
In this article we explore the ways in which the work of counseling departments in two different school environments shape students’ STEM participation in high school, with important potential consequences for STEM in college and beyond.
This article examines how students negotiate the “college-for-all” norm in two diverse, high-achieving high schools. The findings indicate that in these contexts, the norm was interpreted as “four-year college-for-all,” leading to the development of a stigma surrounding two-year community college attendance.
This study explores youths’ perspectives on school-based emotional expression, emotional suppression, and emotion coaching in urban high schools.
This article summarizes research, conducted in three small high schools, on teachers’ conceptualization and enactment of the advisor role. Implications for advisory work in small high schools, teachers assuming social-emotional support roles, and role complexity are discussed.
The role of relationships in mediating immigrant newcomers’ academic engagement and performance is examined using a mixed-methods approach.
The authors examine the career and college advice that high school counselors and vocational teachers give to the forgotten half and make suggestions about how schools can better assist in postsecondary planning for workbound students.
Drawing on four case studies, the author considers the activities of mentors that help the students they guide become more prepared for schooling and careers.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the educational development of youth cannot succeed solely through the efforts of the schools. Learning must be enhanced through exposure of young people to a variety of opportunities to test themselves in the community and in the workplace alongside supportive adults. Schools must find ways of working together with other organizations in the community to make this possible. It is in the context of such issues at the forefront of current events that riffs yearbook examines the relationships between education and work.
Since the beginning of the 1960s manpower policy in the United States has taken on an affective quality reflecting concern for a work force which has not only occupation-specific skills but also personal commitment to work, positive self-concepts as effective workers, and employability skills, including skill in searching for work and in adjusting to a new job.
The dramatic physical and psychological metamorphosis that occurs during adolescence places a tremendous stress on the equilibrium within the organism itself, as well as on the equilibrium existing between the organism and its environment. The physician and the educator are in a unique position to evaluate this balance and to intervene when disequilibrium occurs.
Since Freud and Durkheim, there has been agreement among social scientists that most people do not go through life viewing society's moral norms (for example, honesty, justice, fair play) as external, coercively imposed pressures. Although initially external and often in conflict with one's desires, the norms eventually become part of one's motive system and guide behavior even in the absence of external authority. The challenge is to find out what experiences foster this internalization. The aim here is to pull together the relevant findings and theories.
In 1972 the Board of Directors of the National Society for the Study of Education sought the advice of several educators with respect to the nature of a possible yearbook on secondary education in the United States. A large majority of the respondents urged that such a yearbook should focus on central issues.
In the United States, public secondary education is being vigorously examined today. The criticism has been sharp during the past decade. Some critics have concluded that there is no hope whatever for public secondary education as currently conceived, organized, and practiced. Others have called for reform through new educational partnerships between the school and community.
In the history of education all issues with which the writer is familiar have originated in what people have thought desirable for education. Thus, the history of issues in American secondary education involves perceptions of, and sometimes debates on, what is desirable. In this discussion, we shall deal with a few crucial issues, which we shall call core issues, plus a very few conjoint issues. Both will be discussed in terms of their respective social and cultural milieus, and within broad periods of time.
Whatever is done to improve high school education must be related to some conception of the nature of learners and of the learning process. For several generations our thinking about high school education has been based primarily upon behavioristic views of what people are like and how they behave. Those concepts may have been useful guides when high school goals were simpler, curricula were limited, and the pace of societal change was slower. Secondary education of today and tomorrow must be much more complex and geared to the satisfaction of quite different student and societal needs.To meet these demands, new theoretical concepts are required to orient our thinking and to point the way to new techniques and processes designed to meet current needs. Fortunately, such concepts are available in modern humanistic psychology.
Behind any theory of learning is to be found an image of humankind. The image that responds blindly to external influence is not the only one available.
The paramount social reality is that the technologically advanced nations of the world are approaching one of the great transformations of human history. Even a few years ago it would have been necessary to hedge that statement with tentativeness and qualification. At this point few would question it. In this chapter we undertake the delineation of this transformation—its salient characteristics and the choice of responses—and the identification of the most important implications for education.
In this chapter, we shall examine the ways man's experience is made available to the young, with special attention to the fact that the official version of what is most meaningful in man's experience is offered in school. In systematic school instruction, knowledge is offered in three forms. The confusion of these forms with one another explains in some degree the feeling of meaninglessness many high school students associate with formal school learning. They take what they can, but many of them consider nonformal experience to be more meaningful than school experience. From our consideration of this situation, certain recommendations pertaining to formal school instruction will emerge.
Where should learning take place? On an airstrip? At an aquarium? In an artist's studio? In a computer center? At a drug crisis center? In a hospital? In a hotel? At a medical center? In a museum? In a national monument? In an office building? At a Playboy Club? In a railroad station? On a showboat? In a storefront? In a TV studio? At a theater? In a Victorian mansion? In a warehouse? On wheels? At a zoo? These are a few of the settings for alternative schools and action-learning programs currently in operation.
The question to which this chapter is addressed can be phrased in many ways. Herbert Spencer expressed it as "What knowledge is of most worth?" To Robert S. Lynd, it was "Knowledge for what?" To the contributors to a yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development it was "What shall the high schools teach?" and to the authors of a later ASCD pamphlet, "What are the sources of the curriculum?''
A cartoon prominently displayed in countless school administrators' offices shows two recumbent figures, one of whom says, "One of these days we've got to get organized." The message of this chapter is that organization--the fitting together of all the elements necessary for an institution to achieve its purposes--is truly a major factor in the success of any program of secondary education. We will especially consider the domain of secondary education and, in particular, curriculum organization, staff organization, other structural elements, and patterns to enhance motivation.
In this chapter some selected observations on behaviorally oriented approaches to counseling are presented. A discussion of historical developments and current definitions of behavioral counseling is followed by an examination of current techniques. The relevance of behavioral techniques to contemporary social problems is discussed.
Study compared subject requirements for college admission with those for ongoing study in the corresponding subjects reflected in the college liberal arts program''; author concludes that colleges have arbitrarily determined high school curriculum, and urges reform.
This article discusses the importance of the development and change in philosophy of teacher preparation programs.
In 1965, the Department of Education and Science eliminated the Tripartite System where the grammar school was favored, the secondary modern school ignored and technical schools never materialized. The system was reorganized so that individuals were not penalized because of social background and everyone's potential could be fully developed.
The current "crisis in American higher education" has been lamented by many and cheered on by others. There are those who hope and those who fear that current events portend the passing of the university as we have known it. Explanations and diagnoses of what is actually taking place, however, are more than a little confusing.
The author's ambivalence toward the school and "the system" is not uncharacteristic of the conflict experienced by so many of today's students; and our purpose in presenting her piece here is to underscore the warnings that the teaching process must be changed.