In an attempt to explore innovative models to improve student achievement, close the opportunity gap, and deepen the knowledge and skills of current and future educators, the Washington State Legislature passed a bill in 2012 that created a pilot project called Collaborative Schools for Innovation and Success (CSIS). This introduction describes the processes followed by the site teams as they prepared and then implemented their school improvement goals. It also highlights several broad contributions of the CSIS effort and introduces the articles of the special issue.
This three-year, multi-site case study examined the college-going messaging at three racially and economically diverse public high schools in different regions of Texas. Findings suggest the need to: reconsider what a strong college-going culture entails, re-envision college-going cultures as dynamic, multi-layered, and responsive, reframe postsecondary opportunities so they are more expansive and varied, and re-evaluate inequities in college-going messaging and academic rigor.
Beyond deficit-based approaches to involving parents, a growing body of work has begun to re-envision how nondominant families might become powerful partners in equity-based educational change. The present study contributes to this literature by identifying how—through key turning points marked by critical discursive shifts—the co-design of a parent curriculum cultivated the collective transformative agency of nondominant families to more equitably collaborate with formal educators in changemaking work.
This article conceptualizes “vanishment” as a form of school-based, state punishment through ethnographic stories from inside a juvenile detention center school.
This study investigates the affordances of two contrasting pathways into teaching secondary mathematics through examining the recruitment, placement, and early career trajectories of 158 Grades 6–12 mathematics teachers who entered teaching via two preparation programs focused on staffing high-need schools in the same region.
The article examines the extent to which public colleges use the additional revenue gained from enrolling higher percentages of nonresident students, who typically pay higher prices, to make college more affordable for in-state students.
The purpose of this study is to learn how school and community leaders in a rapidly growing suburb make sense of rising poverty and homelessness.
We ask the question: What distinguishes leaders’ practices in more effective high schools from those in less effective high schools that serve large proportions of at-risk youth? We identified a total of four more and less effective high schools using value-added scores (two of each), and we then analyzed interview, observational, and survey data collected in the schools to compare and contrast how leaders support key practices and organizational routines by their staff.
This article uses data from 61 in-person interviews and data drawn from the Education Longitudinal Study to examine how social class stratifies adolescents’ use of school-based social ties and the resources they receive from these school-based ties.
This article aims to explore the unique impacts of homelessness—above and beyond poverty—on students’ academic growth.
This article describes how and why youth engage in making in an after-school, youth-focused, community-based makerspace program. Using a mobilities of learning framework, authors discuss how youth appropriated and repurposed the process of making, and unpack how the program attempted to value and negotiate youths’ ways of making from an equity-oriented perspective.
This introduction to the Yearbook focuses on: conceptualizations of engagement, the processes of engagement, portraits of engaging learning environments, and whole-school approaches to education.
The authors examine changes in the level and dispersion of student engagement across the transition to high school. Changes in the total dispersion in engagement among all students, as well as divergence in engagement between students of differing gender, race, socioeconomic background, and initial levels of achievement are reported.
This chapter explains the links between relational developmental systems theory and the strength-based, positive youth development (PYD) perspective. The Five Cs model of PYD (involving competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) is used to assess the role of school engagement in PYD.
A body of research has emerged during the past three decades focusing on how students engage in the schooling process and the broader positive developmental outcomes associated with high levels of engagement and lower involvement in high-risk behaviors. This chapter suggests that gratitude might offer a unique contribution for understanding how affective engagement and positive relationships could enhance student school bonding and thereby student social-emotional and academic outcomes.
The quality of students’ relationships with teachers and peers is a fundamental substrate for the development of academic engagement and achievement. This chapter offers teachers and researchers a motivational framework that explains how positive and negative student–teacher and student–peer relationships are sustained in the classroom, and strategies for creating solutions to improve relationships.
This chapter presents findings of a three-year longitudinal study of academic motivation and school engagement among low-income high school students enrolled in a corporate work–study program. Our findings demonstrate ways in which the workplace functioned for students as a conduit of emotional resources, offering instrumental support from caring and competent adults, knowledge about the connection between work and school, and an opportunity to occupy the essential adult role of worker.
Callahan and Chumney use a comparative case study approach to examine the experiences and outcomes of remedial writing students enrolled in two urban public institutions: a community college and a research university. Applying Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this ethnographic study reveals that institutions further determine the advantage or disadvantage of remedial students by controlling their access to cultural capital, which is critical for navigating the field of higher education successfully.
The growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools and the low academic achievement of many of these learners have been the subject of much debate. A significant related issue is determining the sources of ELLs' difficulty, namely, understanding the distinction between learning disabilities (LD) and learning difficulties due primarily to contextual factors and second-language learning. This article addresses the future directions for research in this area, with an emphasis on the need to build consensus through converging lines of evidence.
David Berliner's 2005 Presidential Invited Speech to the American Educational Research Association meeting in Montreal, Canada, May, 2005.
The authors argue that society holds largely negative views of youth. As a result, at least in part, too many youth are left alone or are given very little guidance and support. We must begin to view youth as an investment instead of a burden if we are to sustain the quality of our society.
This article draws on the author’s experience both as a teacher in inner city schools and as a researcher to explain the cause of student's blank stare when asked open-ended questions, and the keys to eliminating the problem.
Drawing on an interpretive study of classroom authority relations in a U.S. metropolitan high school, this article describes and analyzes the character of these relations, and their connection to social theory and educational ideologies.
The article examines how zero tolerance policy is enacted in schools, and how the policy is supported by developments in technology, crime and prison policy, and social science theories of delinquency. The reseach is based on qualitative research and policy analysis, and has an interdisciplinary focus that would be of interest to educators, policymakers, and school administrators.
A story about "tacit to explicit" learning and the importance of conversation to the learning process.
This commentary argues that we must understand and respond to the emotional issues posed for students by violent school environments so that all students can begin to prepare for the academic challenges envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act.
Study examines the relationship between pedagogy and classroom control in traditional and progressivist teaching practices. Based on study of current Israeli school reform program, I argue that this relationship has been inadequately addressed, both in theory and in practice.
What factors place a child at risk of academic failure and dropping
out of school? In this chapter, we argue that educators, researchers,
and policymakers are developing a richer and more complex understanding
of the conditions and experiences that lead to negative educational
outcomes. In the first section, we describe how thinking
about risk in education has begun to shift from identifying risk factors
solely in terms of students’ individual and family characteristics to an
acknowledgment that substandard teaching and learning environments
allow far too many children to fail. In the second section, we
examine the scope of risk through an examination of individual/family-level
risk indicators. In the third section, we explore school-related
risk factors to round out our assessment of risk. We conclude with a
brief summary of the extent and consequences of risk of educational
failure in the U.S. in which we emphasize the need to focus on the
compound nature of risk, specifically interactions between
individual/family-level and school-level risk factors.
This chapter explains how a perspective on educational resiliency
might improve the education of at-risk students. Such a framework
may also help educators design more effective educational interventions
that specifically take into account those “alterable” factors that
distinguish resilient from nonresilient students. First, we discuss issues
related to the definition of resiliency. Next, we review several recent
studies in the area of educational resiliency, specifically those that focus
on differences between resilient and nonresilient students’ characteristics,
family background, and perceptions of the classroom and school
environment. The final sections of the chapter focus on implications
for educational practice and research.
The issues considered in this chapter overlap with concerns for all
students. For example, the issues of educating the whole child, the role
of teachers, and school choice, which we will address below, are part of
the educational discussion in all segments of American society. However,
our focus will be specifically on the schooling of urban African
American children, because of their unique experience of racial oppression
and the distinct cultural adaptations that occur in inner-city environments.
We begin the chapter with a cursory treatment of race, class,
culture, and learning outcomes.