A commentary on the experience of launching RateMyTeachers.com.
This article reports on a research project in which a digitally based assessment model is being developed for the Pacesetter program. This program, established by the College Board to prepare culturally diverse students for higher education, is built around a curriculum that reflects not only the world that these students come from but also the rapidly evolving technological society that they are expected to participate in.
This commentary considers the contradiction of using standardized tests to assess authentic learning.
This article explores the possibility of using inquiry as a way to understand, and hence to assess, learning.
This is a study of assessment of groupwork. Students are informed of evaluation criteria. As hypothesized, groups that knew the criteria used to evaluate their group product, had higher quality discussions and better group products than groups without these criteria.
This article addresses informal classroom assessment in a manner consistent with a practitioner's perspective. Using results of teacher interviews, we present an alternative view of practitioner objectivity. This leads us to frame the reliability and validity of obervation for classroom assessment in a non-statistical way.
Based on English experiences, the author describes four different models of observing classrooms, varying in their value for opening up teaching to greater discussion and improving the quality of instruction.
An alternative to the consumptive approach to reform is a productive model which utilizes practitioners' knowledge and seeks ways to enhance this knowledge. A dialogical evaluation method, such as horizontal evaluation, is one way to encourage teachers to recover what they know and to articulate and assess this knowledge.
In the attempts to improve teaching and learning through the use of psychometrics and its underlying science, conditions have been set inadvertently that are unlikely to encourage and support learning and self-evaluation.
Amid the incantations that permanent schooling is the new way to a better future, and Presidential cajoling that career education is the path to "genuine reform in the way we teach," we should direct our attention to the image of the world these "reforms" demand and the alternatives at hand.
More fundamentally, however, looking beyond the school makes evident the need for a basic shift in perspective in studying education, directing attention anew to the learner. When we consider that individuals learn from many significant others—parents, siblings, grandparents and other kin, peers, and clergy as well as schoolteachers—we are impelled to examine the character of the teaching and learning experience in each of these educative encounters. Once that inquiry has begun, we soon see the need to chart the content and course of the individual's various encounters, and above all to gain understanding of how he engages in, moves through, and combines diverse educative experiences over a lifetime.
The 1970s has become the time for reevaluating the intended purposes of tests, and for considering meaningful alternatives to the test score. Author considers the criterion-referenced versus the norm-referenced test.
Study compared subject requirements for college admission with those for ongoing study in the corresponding subjects reflected in the college liberal arts program''; author concludes that colleges have arbitrarily determined high school curriculum, and urges reform.
This article discusses the influence of society and culture on the goals and content of educational problems.
This article discusses different well-known educational philosophies and how improvements can be made in the educational system.
The author discusses teachers' and school board opinions of being evaluated and their initial hostile reaction to the process. At the termination of the evaluation, most teachers and boards come to realize its value.
The research design commonly used by educational researchers is not inappropriate for evaluative research. But narrow or rigid adherence to traditional experimental design can lead to inadequate curricular evaluation.
Our technological society demands new legislation to restrain people and groups from causing injury to others.
The author states that we need to evaluate most carefully our assumptions about when to introduce particular topics and how concepts and information can be most effectively presented. We have only arrived at the beginning of understanding, and our approach to reforming the secondary school curriculum must become more scientific.
A major effort by a well-known university to improve the reading skills of its students is described.
The author examines some of the paradigms which have emerged in the development of a science of learning. The behaviorists, he believes, have never moved far enough beyond the S-R approach with its presumption of a passive, reactive learner. Drawing his conception of reflective teaching from Deweyan experimentalism, the author concludes that cognitive-field learning theory provides a paradigm most suggestive for "problem-centered, exploratory teaching."
The author's concern is to examine three teaching environments—the talking typewriter, the coursewriter, and the SAID system (a speech auto-instructional device).
Although National Assessment is now well under way, seemingly all opposition has melted, and the bandwagon effect of getting "on board" is evident, it may, nonetheless, still be appropriate for the uncommitted to consider the contributions this project may make to educational evaluation and its shortcomings.
Evaluative behaviors are discussed as to the need to establish what constitutes admissible evidence for a given evaluative undertaking.
Originally this yearbook, The Measurement of Understanding, was entitled "The Measurement of Meaning." Being unsatisfactory for a number of reasons, this first name was abandoned successively in favor of "The Measurement of Meaningful Learning," "The Measurement of Learning," and "Measuring the Higher Mental Processes in Education"—all before the present title was adopted. The Measurement of Understanding may or may not define the purpose and scope of the yearbook better than one of the previous titles; but this rehearsal of the committee's attempts to name its product should serve two ends. In the first place, it should illustrate the difficulty of arriving at precise and unambiguous terms in the area under consideration. In the second place, it should reveal, even if somewhat negatively, the nature of the task which the yearbook committee set for itself.
"Knowledge is power" is a familiar maxim, but it is not always a sound maxim. It is not a sound maxim when "knowledge" is made to mean merely the possession of a great many facts. Such "knowledge" affords one little "power." To have real power in the sense of the maxim one must know, besides the facts themselves, the relationships which link them together; and one must know when and how to use them. In a word, the kind of "knowledge" which makes for "power" is that which includes understanding.
When a geometry student sees the usefulness of the Pythagorean theorem for laying off the comers of a tennis court, we may be sure that he has some understanding of that theorem. When a fifth-grade pupil by means of his maps discovers for himself a probable connection between the physical features of a region and the manner of life of its inhabitants, we may be sure that he too has some understanding, in this case of the geographic principles involved. And when a primary-grade pupil translates the statement 5 + 2 = 7 into a concrete representation, by setting up one group of five objects and another of two objects and then' combining them into a new ,group of seven, we may be sure once again that he also has some understanding, this time of the abstract relationships in the statement.
The importance of developing and appraising understanding was pointed out in chapter ii. A detailed discussion of the nature of understanding followed in chapter iii. The present chapter is concerned with the problem of obtaining evidence to show the degree to which understanding has been acquired. Nine general principles governing the evaluation of understanding will be presented and discussed.
The objectives of instruction in the social studies have been stated and restated by experts and by scholarly committees working in this field. Limitations of space make it impossible to cite these statements at length or to make clear the ways in which they differ from one another.
The development of understandings in the context of the material and method of science is one of the most important objectives of science instruction. Although the emphasis in this chapter is placed on understandings, from science instruction, other important outcomes such as desirable attitudes and interests are also assumed to be necessary if science instruction is to result in happiness for the individual as a member of a democratic society.