Laymen and Social Agencies Study Wartime Education
by William Hodson - 1943
The problems of adjustment occasioned by the war are nowhere shown in bolder relief than in the life of the family. One of the basic difficulties lies in the question of how to preserve the values of family life in the face of the disintegrating factors now affecting the family, such as the absence of the father or the mother on a job in industry either part of the day or for considerable periods of time; the absence of the father who serves in the armed forces; the absence of the older brother either because of work or military service.
THE problems of adjustment occasioned by the war are nowhere shown in bolder relief than in the life of the family.1 One of the basic difficulties lies in the question of how to preserve the values of family life in the face of the disintegrating factors now affecting the family, such as the absence of the father or the mother on a job in industry either part of the day or for considerable periods of time; the absence of the father who serves in the armed forces; the absence of the older brother either because of work or military service. This concentration of adverse factors is putting pressures on the institution of the family in ways that may result disastrously unless we can find constructive means of cushioning these blows to family life. What is to be done with young children when the mother, engaged in work in a war industry or in other work, is away from home and her young children are either without care of any kind, or frequently under care which is entirely inadequate?
We have had much discussion of this need for daytime care without the gathering and analysis of facts so essential to the formulation of a sound program. May I point out in the first instance that the whole question of nursery school care for children is not exclusively a wartime matter. In wartime, however, the problem becomes more acute because more children in more families need special service and attention. In time past we have had inadequate nursery school facilities and now that inadequacy becomes more evident than ever before.
A committee of fifteen members, recently appointed by the mayor of New York to deal with questions of the wartime care of children, has undertaken to discover what the actual extent and character of this problem is. Two ways in which this question could be approached were considered: first, to provide an opportunity for mothers seeking care for their children, to register at designated places, and second, to undertake some kind of, block study or block analysis based upon the reports of trained people sent to the homes to discuss the problem briefly with the mother and to gather information on a detailed and organized basis. The committee has chosen the second procedure on the theory that the results will be sounder, more complete, and will stand the test of analysis in the long run more satisfactorily. We are now in the process of setting up teams under the direction of experienced research people. These teams will go to selected blocks which are regarded as fairly typical of the situation in a particular neighborhood. On the basis of this carefully selected sampling, we hope to get a fairly accurate indication of what the problem actually is on a citywide scale: how many mothers are employed; the types of industry they are engaged in; the number of children in a family; what ages the children are. In other words, we should like to get directly from the families themselves the facts regarding their needs and how they are being met.
Many different questions need answers, such as how much care is needed, where to locate nursery schools, after-school facilities, and the extent to which boarding care in homes is essential. We do not know how our problem is concentrated throughout the city. Obviously it is not desirable to set up centers for childcare in war plants. Where should they be located? People from all parts of the city and some from outside the City of New York will be found working in a particular plant. We hope that the block study will indicate to what degree and at what places we have a concentration of need for extended daytime care.
The matter of financing the facilities for childcare has many ramifications. As many of you probably know, we have an extensive WPA program which has some thirty day nurseries operating at the present time. Whether they can be continued is a matter of some doubt because of the discontinuation of the WPA. The terminus of WPA support has been definitely indicated, since no appropriation will be made beyond the end of this fiscal year, June 30, but the end may come sooner. One of our problems, therefore, is the maintenance of the facilities now provided through WPA. Federal funds were appropriated in the beginning under the Lanham Act to finance the construction of schools, hospitals, and welfare institutions. These funds cannot be used for the original purpose because of construction priorities. To a limited extent these funds are now being used to set up nursery schools and to operate them. But Lanham Act funds are not available unless there has been established a definite connection between the existing need in any community and the war. This means briefly that we must prove that daytime care for children is required as a result of mothers working in war industries. We are interested in finding out what kind of industry these women are working in because financing from the federal point of view requires proof of war connection.
Another aspect of the committee's work has been its decision to set up throughout the City of New York a series of information and consultation centers. We hope to have located in the health centers throughout the city a small staff of trained people who will be in a position to do three things. In the first place, they would advise mothers as to the facilities available and where and how they may be obtained. In the second place, they would provide a place where a mother may come to consult with someone of wisdom and intelligence as to whether or not she ought to leave her children and enter industry in this or some other community. There can be no difference of opinion over the fact that if the manpower in this community becomes so depleted that there is no way of meeting the demands of industry except by the employment of women with small children, then they will have to be employed. In the meantime, there is a great difference between systematic recruiting of mothers, and recognizing their right to work in war plants if they wish to do so on their own initiative. The committee is very anxious to maintain a reasonable and sensible balance in this particular matter and it will not assume that every mother with small children must of necessity answer the call to industry rather than remain in the home and provide personal care for her family.
In the third place, this trained staff would provide through its records of the volume of applications, a kind of barometer or index of the extent of the problem at a given time as well as its past trends, and thus enable us to plan more intelligently and effectively to meet whatever needs present themselves in the field of daytime care. We hope to be able to meet those needs as they arise in terms of the specific situation which we find in our own community.
Other phases of our deliberation might be of interest. For example, it is the consensus in the committee that when the war is over and peace restored there will continue to be need for nursery schools as there was before the war began. All that is done in the war period should look toward the absorption by our established school system of these nursery facilities. It is a function of public education.
May I turn from this consideration of a particular problem in the community to one other point which I think is of great importance to all who have responsibility for wartime education and to those of us who are concerned with the world which will face our young people in the armed forces when they have done their duty and have returned to their homes and families. I received a letter the other day from my oldest boy who is in the service. I had written him and asked him what the boys were thinking and talking about. Were they interested in the postwar world? Did they see what some of these problems were going to be? Were they talking about the world they would like to have? What was being discussed in the camp? He replied that they were primarily concerned with when they were going to get their next leave and when they would get back home. From this point on, he said there was a sharp difference of interest. There were relatively few who seem to be very much concerned at this time about the postwar world. Some were pretty cynical about what is going to happen when the war is over and the world settles back to peacetime civilization. Furthermore, he noted a narrow sense of nationalism, a failure to recognize that we are a part of a world brotherhood. Those of us who have been through one world war and one world peacesuch as it was and then lived through the postwar world, are especially troubled, I think, by the fact that we are now facing, in the middle of the second world war, precisely the same kind of forces that we had to face at the end of the last world war, forces which actually dictated the abortive peace that followed the end of the first world war.
Basically there are two things, it seems to me, which stand in the way of the kind of postwar world we want:
(1) racial prejudice and antagonism;
(2) a selfish, self-centered national spirit. I had recently a most disillusioning experience bearing on the first point. We have an amendment to the city budget which provides that no institution caring for children may receive public funds unless it opens its doors to all children alike, be they white or Negro. A few institutions, after careful deliberation absolutely refused to accept Negro children. Now these were people, most of them, I think, of good willpeople whose names in this community stand, by and large, for good citizenshipand yet they were unwilling to have Negro and white children sleeping under the same roof. Only yesterday one of the members of one of these institutions, who has devoted his life to good works, told me in my office that he would not consent to the care of Negro children in his institution because it would reduce the real estate values of the property owners in the area surrounding the institution. He added that persons who had left money to this institution in their wills would never have done so, in his judgment, if they had thought that Negro children would be received. I give you the story exactly as it was given to me!
When one thinks of the problems of the postwar world in terms of black, yellow, and white races, and finds here at our own doorstep the extent of racial prejudice which exists, he almost despairs of the hope that America might have a decent, statesmanlike judgment on postwar India. We have a long way to go before we can point the finger of scorn at Great Britain or any other country on earth.
How do we educate our people, how do we bring home to them some sense of the dignity of man, some sense of the interdependence and interrelationship of every nation on the face of the globe? We have spent much time talking about what a wonderful nation we are, and what a powerful people we are. The trouble is we have sometimes become suspicious or contemptuous of other people in foreign lands. If we are going to have the kind of postwar world that will protect and strengthen family life, is it not perfectly obvious that this ignorant, benighted attitude toward people who speak a different language from ourselves must be changed? We cannot build around our country a tariff wall, a spiritual wall, or a Maginot Line which will give us peace and prosperity. Certainly, the educators and the fathers and mothers of the children who are fighting this war, must fight the selfish, narrow forces that destroyed the hopes and ideals of the last war and will destroy them again if they can. America can have no peace and no prosperity unless this peace and prosperity is shared throughout the world. This may be the last chance to achieve the brotherhood of man and the federation of the world.
WARTIME EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATIONAL AGENCIES
EVERY wartime problem of national /scope has its educational aspect. In order that the educational forces of the nation may work intelligently to meet war needs, numerous national agencies, some governmental and some conducted under private professional and other auspices, have undertaken to formulate these needs and suggested methods of meeting them through education. Brief reports of the recommendations of such agencies in five areas are here given.2
CONSUMER EDUCATION PROGRAMS3
The work of the Office of Price Administration is primarily devoted to price control, rent control, and rationing. "The purpose of price control," said Dr. Cocking, "is to maintain the relationship between the value of a piece of goods and what we pay for it.
An individual who is interested in the wholesaling of eggs said yesterday, according to the daily press, that if it were not for price control the retailers in this country could secure without any difficulty up to $1.25 a dozen. The price of eggs in Greece just now is $27 per dozen. We in America are endeavoring to maintain some relationship between value and purchasing price.
"When it comes to rationing, we are interested in quite a different aspect of the matter. We are interested in scarce goods getting to the people who need them and must have them for use and so when there are not enough goods to go around, instead of permitting persons who have sufficient money to outbid other persons, the government is now saying, 'We will determine a fair distribution of these scarce goods and all of us will participate accordingly.'
"The success of price control and rent control and rationing measures at this particular time, in my judgment, is dependent upon the understanding of the American people. It is not dependent upon policing measures. Can. the American people understand in time the purpose of price control, rent control, and rationing, and can we understand the measures which are to be followed with respect to those particular things? If so, we will gladly cooperate in making them work. If we do not understand, I doubt if all the policing in the world will make them work. Consequently, the Office of Price Administration has said that a rather important educational program must be conducted with the American people in an endeavor to give them all the information basic to the understanding of the question and basic to the type of action which it is necessary to have in the weeks and months ahead. This cannot be done unless we particularize this information and this understanding in terms of individual people and individual communities. I am sure that the only way in which it can be done is through organized groups in communities and through the American school system. We teachers have one thing that a great many other people would give a great deal to have. The public school system has something which other agencies would like to have. The thing we have is a little building of some kind, a schoolhouse in every neighborhood in America. That schoolhouse is the center and can be made the center, we all believe, of the neighborhood life of each particular community. The OPA has no program regarding price control and rent control and rationing when it comes to education, but you and I as professional educators do have; the people who live in these neighborhoods do have, for it is our welfare which is at stake, and the issue, it seems to me, is something like this: Are we willing to take the trouble to do what is necessary in order to understand price control, in order to develop attitudes about it, in order to create programs which will result in doing those things which we need to do for our own good? I believe that the most mighty force in bringing this about is the American school system, busy as the American public school system is in many other tasks. There is no glamor, there are no emblems, no stars to go on shoulders if we do it. Nevertheless, it is a job for us to do. How and when are we going to do it?"
WAR SAVINGS PROGRAMS4
The Treasury Department has developed an educational program to be conducted through the schools and with the aid of local lay committees throughout the country. Mr. Stouffer described this work, in part, as follows:
"The objectives of the Schools at War Program are fourfold: (1) to enlist the active cooperation of students and adults in serving school, community, and nation effectively; (2) to teach the urgency of conserving everything of value; (3) to develop in pupils an understanding of the importance of War Savings in relation to all wartime economic problems and peace aims; and (4) to establish a systematic in-school organization for the regular and consistent purchase of War Stamps and Bonds.
"We do not believe that the students and the adult citizens should be expected to participate in this program blindly. We believe that there should be developed through education, an understanding of why these objectives are necessary and important. We therefore feel that the schools should utilize every opportunity to integrate this programmuch of which is important in peacetime as well as in war with the various areas of the curriculum with which it is most closely related. Through an understanding of the objectives by the children we hope that the Schools at War Program may become functional throughout the entire community.
"During the year 1943, it is estimated that the cost of the war will approximate 80 billion dollars, whereas the revenue measure recently passed by Congress will probably yield only about 27 billion dollars. It is extremely important, therefore, for every man, woman, and child to invest as much as possible in stamps and bonds in order to provide the funds needed for the prosecution of the war; to help control inflation; and to provide security for the future. It is the hope of the Treasury Department that the people of America will invest at least 12 billion dollars in War Savings during the current fiscal year. In order to do this, every school and individual should establish a systematic plan for regular and consistent purchases. Your country needs your help not only for a day, a week, or a month, but for the duration.
"The idea of conservation is by no means new, but the war has brought this lesson home to us more forcibly than ever before. Most of our peacetime factories have been required to devote their entire energies to producing materials that are necessary for the armed forces. This means that less consumer goods are available while the income of the nation has been greatly increased. Unless everybody cooperates to the utmost in making all kinds of materials last longer, it is evident that scarcity in many essential commodities will soon become acute. Moreover, conservation in helping reduce the demand for materials will help lessen the danger or the rising tide of inflation.
"Perhaps the most important means that we are utilizing in attempting to implement the Schools at War Program is to assist in the planning of a number of projects designed to integrate the program with the various school subjects or areas. For example, we have tried to help the directors of summer school workshops include in their course outline materials that we hope will be useful in giving background information and which, therefore, will enable students better to understand the War Savings Program. In cooperation with the National Council for the Social Studies, a Resource Unit entitled, 'Paying for the War' has been developed. In cooperation with the Music Educators National Conference, a special music bulletin has been prepared for the use of all music teachers and state administrators. The National Council of Teachers of English has a publication in the manuscript stage. Bulletins have been or are being prepared by the home economics, the art, and other teacher groups.
"Further to assist teachers in educating toward War Savings and conservation goals, the Washington office has in preparation a teachers' news bulletin. This will reflect the best practices we can find for the benefit of all teachers and school programs as well as show the use being made of the teaching materials I have already cited.
"Other materials have been provided in the form of posters, speeches, assembly programs, etc. Outlines have also been developed for the 4~H Clubs, the Future Farmers of America, the WPA and Americanization classes.
"I take it that the problem with which the administrators and teachers are wrestling at the present time, is how to meet the numerous requests that are being made not only by our own agency, but by other governmental agencies as well. Obviously there is no one best type of organization or method of procedure in solving this difficult and intricate problem. It seems to me, however, that it has two distinct aspects. The one is to provide for immediate wartime services, such as rationing, sale of stamps and bonds, salvaging, etc. The other is the more difficult long-range problem of modifying the school program to meet the numerous problems that have arisen as a result of the war and that will continue after the war is over.
"The Schools at War Programsave, serve, and conservecan be integrated with almost every subject in the school curriculum. For example, the English pupils might write themes, conduct debates and discussions, or prepare skits and plays to reproduce at assembly programs or over the radio or at other appropriate times. Pupils in the music department can write songs having to do with the various aspects of the war effort. The art pupils can prepare posters and slogans. Manual training students can make model airplanes and learn to make various types of home repairs. The homemaking students can repair and make clothing for themselves and other members of the family. The Schools at War Program lends itself admirably to the teaching of the social studies, mathematics, health, safety, and, in fact, nearly all the areas of the school curriculum."
PRE-INDUCTION TRAINING PROGRAMS5
Imminent military service for young men in the last years of the high school puts a different cast upon traditional concepts of their educational needs. One purpose, above all others, now guides their education, namely, to make themselves ready emotionally and intellectually to be good soldiers in the war for the preservation and advancement of the ideals of democracy and to secure whatever technical knowledge and skill may enable their abilities to be most effectively used in the war effort.
Our experience to date in building a modern army indicates that skilled manpower is more of a bottleneck than materiel. Dr. Meister pointed out that the training of adequate technical personnel requires a considerable period of time. "For example, in training signal communications men," he said, "279 hours of pre-induction training are required. One hundred and fifty of these 279 hours consist of rather basic, general material of the kind that can readily be undertaken in the schools. The fact is that the schools have the teaching personnel and the teaching equipment for doing a better job with this basic material than can the hastily assembled corps of Army trainers. General Somervell pointed out that this job is a job for the schools; that the Army ought to be given opportunity to fill its own unique function, that of fighting the war. The Pre-induction Training Section was established with the fundamental purpose of analyzing post-induction training in order to determine what, if anything, the schools can do to achieve two purposes: (1) to do a certain part of that work for the Army; and (2) to screen the flow of manpower to the Army. Coming from the schools this would have a better opportunity and likelihood of succeeding. General Somervell specified that the approach to the schools would be chiefly through the Office of Education. He called in people who were essentially civilians and those familiar with education. A number of us had the opportunity to make a first analysis last summer. We had available to us, first, a group of technical and field manuals written by the curriculum experts of the Army, covering 610 special Army jobs. For each we had also a careful job analysis of what a man was supposed to do. We had also tables of requirement and placement tables projected for an Army of seven and a half million men, so that we knew how many for each kind of job would be required, how many were being supplied by selective service, and the areas of shortages and of surpluses. We had available also the curriculum men of the Army themselves who were ready to stand by and advise with us and examine our efforts and render judgment concerning them, so that we could check and determine just how useful our proposals would be. It became very clear after examining these data that the modern combat division was a very complex unit, requiring many different kinds of skill to operate its various parts. The human beings in charge of these parts had to know something about machines and something about communication. These certainly were the primary needs. In terms of school work we had at that time a general expression on all sides, and, in this, every Army man who was asked, agreed that what the soldiers needed was more mathematics, more science, or more physics.
"But curriculum experts from the schools pointed out the waning enrollments in these subjects and" the inability of a great part of the students to profit from instruction in these fields as now presented. Hence the approach we decided upon was this. We made a careful analysis of certain understandings and skills needed in the job of being a soldier and we developed several organizations of topical outlines. Knowing the schools to be what they were, we viewed the problem in terms of three levels: the foundational level, beginning specialization, and operational skills. With the necessary items from our outlines we developed, on each level, either a semester or a year of work that we hoped would make a maximum contribution.
"These outlines have recently been definite sent to the schools of the nation through the Office of Education. There are three on the foundational level: Fundamentals of Machines; and Fundamentals of Shopwork. Each is organized on a semester basis and they are offered to the schools as a recommendation of what might be done in the eleventh and twelfth grades of the senior high school. On the beginning specialization level there are two courses which would meet the most critical needs, each arranged as a year's work: Fundamentals of Radio and Automotive Mechanics. Three others will be off the press shortly, indicating what might be done on the operational skills level.
"The implication of this program is not that the curriculum of the high school is to be changed in any fundamental way. The thought is that in this critical emergency it is not too much to expect that in the eleventh and twelfth grades of our senior high school, one, or possibly two, periods a day out of the six or seven devoted to study will be spent in these courses or in other types of war courses that meet critical war needs. Furthermore, it is very much in the minds of our Department that certain constants in the curriculum serve just as important a war need as these special courses in the field of technology. I have in mind English and the social studies and the program of physical fitness which, it seems to me, must remain constant, because any analysis of the job soldiers would indicate a definite need there.
Certain secondary needs for which courses are being set up are as follows: Army clerical procedures, one years duration; driver education; also, some type of analysis in the field of mathematics that would solve some of the curriculum problems there with greatest benefit to the Army at the present time. We have problems of teacher training and equipment in all of these areas. The Department has prepared textbooks and teaching aids which are now in press.
While this analysis and these recommendations deal solely with the male population, many of us feel, and I am now speaking not for the Army but for myself alone, that the program makes just as fine a contribution to the education of girls as of boys, and of boys who, for physical reasons, will not go into the armed service.
It is impossible accurately to estimate the extent of the influence of modern developments in aviation upon the character of the economies and the lives of the peoples of the world that will emerge following the war. During the war the need for trained flying and ground crew personnel is tremendous and the readjustment of basic outlooks of the population to supply this need and to prepare for future developments is probably no less important.
Various types of educational effort are needed in this connection. Professor Renner spoke as follows, "An aviation education program, like any other educational development, is understandable only in terms of the conditions which have produced it. Let us go back, for a moment, therefore, to April, 1941. Germany overran Greece in fifteen days and compelled the British Army to evacuate the Peloponnesus in a second Dunkirk. The British withdrew to the island of Crete, but German parachute troops and airborne infantry quickly swarmed into the island. The British again evacuated into Egypt. Germany then began to amass air power to follow them and to drive them out of Egypt. All through that summer and fall we saw an inundation of German air power. Then, and only then, did America begin to appreciate air power. We realized that something had to be done or Germany would win the war.
"Hitler entered the war with perhaps 500,000 trained pilots and a total of 1,200,000 men with flying experience. When the United States entered the war, we had only about 40,000 pilots, most of whom had been trained by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Now, where did Hitler get this great reserve of pilots? On November 17, 1934, he launched a secret program 'air-conditioning' Germany's entire school system. He began in the primary school with the story hour and with tales of exploits in the air. In the elementary school the whole course of study was rewritten to make the child air-minded. High school students were taught to make scale airplane models, given pre-flight courses, and given instruction in building gliders and sailplanes. Finally, they formed glider clubs and learned to fly gliders themselves. Then they were given flight instruction in planes. This program produced a vast reservoir of pilots and ground crews.
"A still more important result of this type of program, perhaps, was the fact that the whole German nation learned to think in terms of air power and air war. Hitler took Crete with his high school glider clubs of 1938.
"By the middle of 1941 a few educators began to mobilize to meet this challenge, despite the current general apathy of the American people. In January, 1942, the Aviation Research Project, with a national committee of four professors was organized at Teachers College, under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Authority and with a federal appropriation to finance its work. The United States Office of Education lent its backing and the project was supported by the War and Navy Departments. A special course for teachers was offered at Teachers College. The project was begun in March, 1942, and breaking all records for such work, had published nineteen new textbooks for use in the schools by September, 1942, in addition to completing supplementary teachers' manuals, new maps, and educational films. These books are now available and are widely used at prices less than cost. The project has also included numerous educational conferences in states throughout the country.
"Probably half of the high schools in the country are now offering courses in pre-flight aviation. From them thousands of boys will be fed into the Army and Navy air corps training schools. America has met the immediate war challenge. The coming battle of Germany will be fought by pilots now in American high schools.
"This pre-flight training program, however, is only an emergency measure. The next phase of the work is much more important. There must be a permanent 'air-conditioning' program. Our whole education must be revised to fit an 'air age,' an age of air power, air war strategy, air struggle for world mastery. Air commerce is already in sight. We will never go backward. The postwar peace will be an 'air-patrolled' peace.
"We must 'air-condition' every young American. Moreover, we shall have to 'geographically condition' them also. They must learn some real human geography if America is to understand the tightly knit global community that has been created by the airplane. With the exception of this needed addition of geography, this program calls for no additions to the curriculum, but it will necessitate a very great shift in the emphasis and teaching aims of many school subjects."
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FITNESS PROGRAMS7
The maintenance of a. high level of general health and physical fitness would be widely accepted, at least theoretically, by educators and laymen as a fundamental aim of education in war or in peace times. The needs in this area, however, have been highlighted by the unprecedented demands of the present war upon the human organism.
Our armed services are contending with enemies and are, indeed, fighting along with allies who have developed tremendous endurance and supreme vigor through determined programs of education that have been in operation for many years. Under the circumstances, we can afford to give no less attention to this matter.
While there has been considerable misintepretation of what appeared to be very adverse findings from the operation of the Selective Service Act, nevertheless it must be admitted that our educational system has failed to place adequate emphasis upon health and physical education in recent years. This failure, in Dr. Hughes' opinion, is an indication of a lack of implementation of the aims of progressive education which are directed toward the provision of experiences in all areas for "the whole child." Even in theory, to some extent, and notably in practice, education has operated in terms of a mind-body dualism for which there is no longer justification on any ground.
There is at present a program for wartime physical fitness which represents the needs and interests of the Army, the Navy, and leaders from the educational profession. Coordinating the work of various agencies that have previously worked upon the problem, a joint committee has prepared three manuals, as follows: Physical Fitness through Physical Education (for schools); Physical Fitness through Health and Physical Education (for colleges and universities); and Physical Fitness through Health Education (for schools).
The new wartime program of physical education differs from the familiar peacetime programs in only two important respects: (1) in asking for a larger amount of time from the school dayone hour daily is recommended, exclusive of the time devoted to health instruction, from kindergarten through college; and (2) in advocating more strenuous activities, stressing agility, endurance, and combative activities for men, and activities requiring moderate endurance for women. Military training is not included at any point. A major correlative objective is a continuous program of health care and health instruction.
Schools and colleges are now confronting a number of difficult problems in attempting to put this work into effect. In the first place, it is not a simple matter to provide the additional time allotment in an already crowded schedule. To do so will require major adjustments in the overall plan of education. In the second place, there has been a serious loss from the ranks of specialized teacher personnel for this type of work. In the third place, teachers from other fields, particularly upon the elementary level, who are now needed to assume the additional responsibility of assisting with this health work, have been very inadequately trained from the point of view of any such responsibility. Finally, in both high schools and colleges, the customary instruction in hygiene has been highly academic in character and it will have to be drastically modified to meet the practical needs of young men and women.
To expect that these difficulties will easily be overcome would be very unrealistic. But they must and will be overcome, if they are persistently attacked. There can be no doubt of the urgency of the matter and education can be of most significant service in the war effort through improvements in this area.
1 With a view to facilitating the fullest possible cooperation among all individuals and groups concerned with education today, the Program Committee of the conference invited an outstanding representative of a social welfare agency to speak at the opening session. This article was prepared as a resume of the address of Mr. William Hodson, Commissioner of the Department of Welfare of New York City. Since Mr. Hodson did not use a manuscript, it has not been possible to present his entire address. The excerpts here given are taken from a partial stenographic record.
DONALD P. COTTRELL
2 The Conference Committee selected the particular areas here presented, not with the idea that they -were necessarily more important than some that were omitted, but in the belief that they were representative of programs being recommended to the schools for action and in the knowledge that these areas had come widely to the attention of educational workers. Where the speaker did not use a manuscript, excerpts here given are taken from a partial stenographic record. DONALD P. COTTRELL
3 The report in this area was presented to the conference by Dr. Walter D. Cocking, Chief, Educational Services Branch, Consumer Division, Office of Price Administration.
4 The report to the conference was made by Mr. S. M. Stouffer, Education Section, War Savings Staff, Treasury Department.
5 The report to the conference was made by Dr. Morris Meister, Head of the Program Unit, Pre-Induction Training Section, Manpower Branch, Services of Supply, War Department.
6 Dr. George T. Renner, Professor of Geography, Teachers College, Columbia University, spoke to the conference on problems in this area.
7 Dr. William L. Hughes, Professor of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, reported to the conference on these programs.