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New Studies in Education: Education in Utopias


by Gildo Masso, Hugh Stuart & Hans C. Olsen - 1927

THIS study has four purposes: (1) To show the place of education in Utopias; (2) to present the educational views of the authors of Utopias; (3) to discuss the Utopian educational agencies; and (4) to determine to what extent there is any realization of Utopian theories in present-day practices or any promise of such realization in the future.1 Besides considering the ideal schemes from Plato to Wells, the study discusses the proposals of such Utopian Socialists as Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier.

THIS study has four purposes: (1) To show the place of education in Utopias; (2) to present the educational views of the authors of Utopias; (3) to discuss the Utopian educational agencies; and (4) to determine to what extent there is any realization of Utopian theories in present-day practices or any promise of such realization in the future.1 Besides considering the ideal schemes from Plato to Wells, the study discusses the proposals of such Utopian Socialists as Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier.


To realize these purposes, the first and most important step was a thorough study of the sources; namely, the Utopias from Plato's Republic to Wells's Men Like Gods, and the works of the Utopian Socialists; critical works on Utopias in general and on individual Utopias; recent educational literature and works dealing with the history and philosophy of education; and, finally, recent works on the various subjects that are discussed in the study. The author has been painstaking in his analysis of individual Utopias and in his endeavor to show the affinities between Utopian and modern thought and to point out Utopian ideas from the application of which man may derive profit.


A brief chapter first gives the reader an idea of the field of Utopian literature. Then follow the Utopian criticisms of education in our world and the place that the Utopians give to education in their ideal commonwealths. Education is considered throughout in both its formal and its informal aspects. Consequently, not only the school but the home, the church, work, and the community are included in this work as agencies of education. In view of the peculiar and important part that women play in Utopias, their education and the place assigned to them in the Utopian social order are considered. The book closes with an account of the Utopian ideas and ideals that have been thus far realized or are in process of realization in the world we live in.


Because of the comprehensive character of this study a summary of the findings cannot be presented here. Suffice it to point out that the Utopians drew up their schemes as serious contributions to the literature of social thought; that applied utopianism is evident in the actual counterparts of the various social institutions included in this survey; and that the consensus of opinion among the Utopians is that the full realization of their ideal schemes is within the bounds of possibility.

THE TRAINING OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES2


THIS study, which is but one part of a thoroughgoing investigation of the status of modern languages in American and Canadian higher institutions of learning, is an attempt to ascertain the amount and kind of training given to prospective teachers of French, German, Italian and Spanish in American secondary schools.


The problem is divided into three parts:


1. The administration of modern foreign language departments.


2. The number, content, and method of conducting departmental courses.


3. The amount and kind of observation and practice-teaching afforded teaching candidates.

PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY


The data were collected by two questionnaires. The larger one was compiled with the assistance of subject-matter experts in the several languages and directed to teachers of the modern Ianguages in every university, college, and teacher-training institution on the collegiate level that was listed in the United States directory of schools on college level.


To supplement the information contained in the first questionnaire, a second one, dealing with the more purely professional aspects of the subject, was compiled and sent to the educational department of each representative institution.

THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


The first fact that stands out with marked clearness is that regions, institutions, and even departments of the several languages do not differ greatly in either practice or opinion about many of the questions raised in the questionnaires. In the matter of administrative organization and policy, the number, kind, and content of courses, or even the amount and kind of professional training afforded, there seems to be decided homogeneity. What differences of opinion occur are of an intra-language nature.


If a young man desires a college education, whether he prepares himself to teach a modern foreign language or not, he will be required to take fifteen semester hours of some modern language before he will be admitted to the baccalaureate degree. If he majors in a language, he will be required to take from twenty-eight to thirty-three semester hours of work in that language. If he should decide to teach the language upon graduation, he will be expected to announce that fact at the beginning of his junior year and will be required to take about four semester hours more work in the language department than in the other language majors. This work is usually in the nature of a course in special methods. In addition to this extra-departmental work, the institution will require him to take about eighteen semester hours of education courses.


The modern foreign language departments place great emphasis on subject matter. About fifty per cent of the work required by language departments of prospective teachers is in literature and the remainder is scattered among composition, grammar review, history of civilization, and special methods courses. In all these courses the foreign language is used to some extent and the teaching candidate is expected to acquire what proficiency he can in its use. Many language instructors advocate ability to speak the language fluently as a requirement for all prospective teachers, and state that formal conversation courses are found to be highly efficacious in developing this ability.


An outstanding feature of the replies to the questionnaire on departmental courses is the absence of any attempt to meet the needs of prospective teachers on the professional side by offering a different kind of work in the language. The professional training seems to be left to the educational departments. This is regretted by many teachers of modern foreign language, who believe that both subject matter instructors and instructors in education should share in this responsible work.


Some time during the latter part of the college course, usually in the senior year, about half of the institutions replying to the questionnaire give teaching candidates an opportunity to take some work in observation and practice teaching. These subjects may be offered in separate courses but are often combined and given in conjunction with the methods course.


In the majority of cases, the observation work is directed and the practice teaching is supervised. The course in practice teaching is required more often than the one in observation, about twenty states requiring some practice teaching before certification.


This type of professional work is usually carried on in public high schools. It is generally directed by some member of the department of education, but in many institutions the language specialists assist in various ways. Observation is directed by a list of topics with a series of questions under each. Following the observation work, the prospective teacher is permitted to teach a group of pupils for one or more periods each day, as his college program permits. The practice work, distributed in this way, is about eight weeks in length. During this time he will usually teach his major subject and one other under the constant supervision of the classroom teacher.


College teachers of modern foreign languages and members of education departments emphasize the value of this professional training and deplore the difficulties, mainly of an administrative nature, which interfere with these professional courses. The need of adequate training school facilities is urged by both groups of educators.


THE WORK OF BOARDS OF EDUCATION3


WORKERS in the field of school administration have long been attempting to determine the proper relationship between a board of education and its superintendent of schools. Analysis of the literature in this field makes clear the need for specific and right allocation of duties and responsibilities to the school board and to its superintendent.

PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY


In this study is traced the development of this problem, and it is shown that heretofore there has been no technique available for determining the part a school board and its superintendent, respectively, should assume in handling the problems and jobs that occur in the administration of their school system. Having done this, the study sets out to discover the functions a board of education should itself perform, to determine the functions it should delegate to its employed professional chief executive and his subordinates, and to ascertain how a board of education should do its work.


Previous studies in the field make it possible to summarize the general functions of a board of education as follows:


(1) Select the superintendent of schools. (2) Determine the policies of the school system. (3) See to it that these policies are carried out by the superintendent of schools and his associates.


Study of these general functions of a board of education discloses that the difficulty lies chiefly in evolving a valid working definition of the term "policy," and in distinguishing a policy from an administrative detail. This the present study does as follows.


"Analysis of the word 'policy' as it is used in the field of administration reveals that it is intended to signify a decision, or set of decisions, whether definitely formulated or not, as to how given problems and jobs shall be solved and administered. The term 'administrative detail,' on the other hand, invariably has reference to a single case or some aspect of an individual case. The two criteria, therefore, that are to be applied in this study may be expressed as follows:


"Decisions determining how problems and jobs shall be solved and administered ire policies.


"Application of policies to single or individual problems and jobs is an administrative detail.


"A major function of this study, then, is to apply these two definitions, as criteria, to the problems and jobs that occur in administering school systems and by that means determine the exact part a school board and its superintendent, respectively, should play in meeting the jobs and problems as they occur in the administration of their school system."


To ascertain the actual problems and jobs occurring over a period of years in the administration of schools, a meticulous study was made of school board minutes of thirteen cities. These cities range in population from approximately five thousand to nearly a million, and are scattered through nine states from Kansas and Nebraska on the west to Rhode Island and Massachusetts on the east. Moreover, practically every type of school board organization and method of functioning was to be found in these cities during the period covered by the minutes studied.


Next the problems and jobs found confronting school administrations are grouped under 142 heads. This done, by the application of the definitions previously evolved for "policy" and "administrative detail," the work of the board of education in handling each problem and job is definitely separated from that of its employed chief executive and his associates.

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


It is freely admitted that a school board has the legal right and authority to assume any and all of the work connected with the numerous problems and jobs occurring in the administration of its school system. But it is shown that for a board to attempt to perform other work than that assigned leads to inefficient administration and to divided responsibility.


No claim is made that all problems and jobs occurring in administering a system of public schools are listed and analyzed. Neither is it argued that every possible issue is raised under each problem and job. The study does present a careful analysis of by far the major portion of the work of public school administration, and suggests how other problems and jobs may be treated as they arise.


The study points out that, although the board of education is to determine the policies of the school district, it is not the function of the board itself to do the research and study necessary to arrive at the decisions that are to be its policies. By means of an analogy the respective functions of a school board and its superintendent in the matter of policy determination are made clear. The following specific statement summarizes the relationship that should prevail between a board and its superintendent.


"If it (the board) does not have confidence in its superintendent, it should call in other experts in the field of school administration. In no case, should the board itself attempt to do the work of the expert. But the board should always approve or reject the recommendations of the superintendent and of the consulting experts it may employ."


The final part of the study is given over to a consideration of how a board of education should do its work in order that it may exercise the proper control over its schools and that the school system may be most efficiently administered.


It is pointed out that authority and responsibility are located in the board acting as a unit. The study then goes on to say: "The problem confronting it (the board) is how to exercise that authority so as to provide a system of administration in which responsibility can be definitely fixed and in which control remains for the board as a whole. The scheme of administration must require a minimum of time and energy on the part of board members and it must be such that the schools are administered efficiently. Delay and waste must be reduced to the minimum and results must be the best that can be produced for the money expended. Moreover, the scheme of administration must be such as to make the best use of the employed professional talent.

SUMMARY


Summarizing the findings on standing committees of the board, we read: "It may be said that the evidence at hand shows a pronounced tendency on the part of board committees to determine school policies and to control the schools. This tendency is shown to be due to the fact that committee reports and recommendations are most frequently accepted and adopted without change and without adequate consideration by the board as a whole. Such functioning of a board leads to divided responsibility and inefficient administration. Furthermore, it fails to make the most profitable use of the employed professional talent and it makes for unwarranted demands on the time and energy of board members."


It is therefore argued that except for special and unusual situations the board should function as a committee of the whole. It should require of its superintendent of schools adequate and complete information on every phase of the school system in order that it may have at hand the basis for making intelligent decisions. All decisions of the board should be made only after consideration by the whole board. When the board has determined its policy on the problem in hand, it should leave the execution of it to the employed professional chief executive. It should then require such reports from him that it may know its policy is carried out.


Following this, it is shown to be of the utmost importance that a board consider only major issues. In support of this thought, the author writes: "Only by the consideration of large issues and the determination of policies on these can the board really know the true condition of the school system and legislate wisely for its present and future administration. The board that seeks to pas judgment on every minor issue and detail loses its sense of perspective. It is so hurried in its consideration of small and innumerable problems, that it invariably fails to see the larger and more important issues of which these minor problems are a part.


"The board that passes on each separate expenditure for books, that considers each individual tuition case, that weighs the desirability of each separate request for the installation of a telephone, that 'debates the desirability of each purchase of coal, that discusses how the soil of each school garden should be prepared for seeding, that authorizes each purchase of postage stamps, that evaluates each proposed purchase of kindergarten supplies, that decides the merits of each request for leave of absence, that determines whether or not a given school piano shall be tuned, that passes on each and every request for the use of school buildings by non-school groups, that considers the installation of glass in each of the doors or broken windows, and sundry minor items of necessity,—sees only a mass of details. "The board that spends time on these innumerable and comparatively trifling details thereby crowds out consideration of the really important problems. Moreover, consideration of the big problems perforce makes for the adequate control of the countless minor ones, for the major problems have in them as their elements all the lesser problems."


Evidence is presented to show that some boards of education do function as here advocated. Specific illustrations of wrong board procedures are given and the bad results following such procedures are made clear. Lastly, it is pointed out that as nearly as possible all board sessions should be conducted informally and that reading of the minutes should be dispensed with in board meetings.


COLLEGE NEWS

EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION


Dr. George D. Strayer and Dr. N. L. Engelhardt spent March 28, 29 and 30 in Beaumont, Tex., presenting the report of the survey to the Board of Education and to groups of citizens. A large mass meeting was held on the evening of March 30.


The dissertations of Dr. W. S. Ford on Some Administrative Problems of the High School Cafeteria and Dr. Frank L. Shaw on State School Reports have recently been issued by the Bureau of Publications, Teachers College.


The New York State Legislature passed the Friedsam Bill, which provides for the extension of state support from $57,000,000 to $90,000,000 annually. The increase in state aid is spread over a period of four years. The bill as passed varies from the plan developed for the Friedsam Commission by Professor Paul R. Mort in two respects: It carries state aid, not provided in the original plan, to two- and three-teacher elementary schools, and reduces the increment proposed for the first year from $18,500,000 to $16,500,000. The three additional annual increments of $5,500,000 for the purpose of extending the minimum program, were passed as originally planned. The effect of this legislation will be to bring the disbursement of approximately $84,000,000 annually under the control of the equalization principle. This principle was introduced in the law two years ago according to a plan which was drafted by Professor Mort for the Joint Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment.


Dr. Strayer went to Lynn, Mass., on March 24, to attend a special meeting of the School Committee called to discuss the program to be followed as a result of the burning of the Cobbett School. Before Dr. Strayer's arrival, the Lynn School Committee were planning to rebuild the burned school at a cost of $500,000. Dr. Strayer convinced the Committee that their plan was not feasible and obtained their support for a fundamentally different plan which will be the first step in the new building program to be proposed by the survey. This first step includes the building of a new million-dollar senior high school, the conversion of the Classical High School into a junior high school, and the repairing of the newer part of the Cobbett School to be used as a permanent elementary school.

ADVISERS OF WOMEN


Professor Sarah M. Sturtevant attended on April 1-3 the biennial meeting of the American Association of University Women in Washington, as a delegate from the New York Branch. One of the most interesting and important subjects discussed and acted upon at this meeting was the question of admission of teachers colleges to the Association. It was finally decided that four-year teachers colleges whose professional standards are such as to give them an A. rating by their own rating agencies will be eligible for membership upon application to the A. A. U. W., provided they not only meet the specific requirements of the Association in such matters as adequate courses in professional subject matter, fair recognition of women on their faculties in regard to position and salary, but also provide for proper care and welfare of women students, especially in connection with such considerations as health, housing, etc.


The Advisers Club met twice during March, once on St. Patrick's Day for a purely social evening of games and songs, ably managed by the social committee, and again on March 31 at the Faculty Women's Club. Miss Eliza Butler, head of Johnson Hall, gave the club a very illuminating account of some administrative problems in connection with a graduate women's dormitory, and later the members of the Club were escorted through the dormitory and shown the various interesting features all the way from the laundry in the basement to the cheerful infirmary on the top floor. This glimpse of a women's dormitory and the visits made by members of the club to John Jay Hall, the new men's dormitory for Columbia College students, have been very helpful in connection with the study of student housing problems undertaken by the major class.


Miss Dorothy Stimson, president of :he National Association of Deans of Women, and dean of Goucher College, spent an hour with the major class of Advisers on Tuesday, March 29, and spoke on the rapid growth, the work, and the significance of the national association. She emphasized especially the need for an increasingly professional attitude among deans of women and the value of professional training for meeting the responsibilities of the position.


Miss Ann Dudley Blitz, dean of women at the University of Minnesota, addressed the major group of Advisers on April 5 on the subject of Cooperative Housing. Other deans who have recently visited the campus are Miss Thyrsa Amos, of the University of Pittsburgh, and Miss Mary Yost, of Stanford University.


On April 4, Professor George D. Strayer and his class in Educational Administration invited the members of the Advisers Club to meet with them at the Men's Faculty Club for luncheon and an informal discussion of their common problems. Professor Strayer presided, and brief informal talks were made by Mr. W. E. Stark of the Administration group and by Professor Sturtevant and Mrs. Ruth Smith for the Advisers Club.


On April 15, Professor Sturtevant visited the Mt. Pleasant State Normal School in Michigan, speaking before the student body in the morning and in the afternoon addressing a conference of high school deans. While in Michigan, Professor Sturtevant also visited the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where she was entertained by former members of Advisers' classes at Teachers College now connected with the University. Among these are Miss Shirley Titus, dean of the School of Nursing, Miss Grace Richards, assistant dean of women, Miss Ruby Howe, head of residence at Betsy Barbour Hall, and Mrs. Helen Hastings, head of residence at Helen Newberry Hall.


Several members of the present Advisers' class have already accepted positions for next year. Miss Edith Spencer will be dean of women at the Dan-bury Normal School in Connecticut. Miss Elizabeth Hendry has been chosen as director of home economics in Hampton Institute and also director of extension work in rural communities throughout Virginia.

BUREAU OF CURRICULUM RESEARCH


Miss Florence Stratemeyer and Dr. Herbert N. Bruner spent the week immediately preceding the Dallas Convention at Beaumont working on the curriculum and course of study section of the survey conducted there by Dr. George D. Strayer with the Division of Field Studies.


An educational rally held at Houston, Tex., on the night of March 24, as part of the curriculum reconstruction program which has been under way there for the past two years, was participated in by Dean-elect William F. Russell, Dr. John R. Clark, Mr. Roy K. Hatch, Professor Samuel R. Powers, and Dr. Herbert B. Bruner. During the week of the rally a dinner was given by the Houston Board of Education in honor of Dr. Russell and his associates.


Miss Stratemeyer spent March 11 working with the course of study committees in Coatesville, Pa., in connection with the curriculum revision program which the Bureau of Curriculum Research has under way there.

ECONOMIC SCIENCE


Professor and Mrs. Benjamin R. Andrews are planning to spend two months in Europe, where Professor Andrews will collect material on a Thrift Survey. They sail from New York on May 28.


Dr. Edith Elmer Wood, instructor in household economics in the Summer Sessions of 1925, 1926, 1927, is completing the manuscript of a book on Community Services Related to the Home. Dr. Wood recently returned from a field investigation trip, studying this problem in some seven countries of Europe. The investigation was made for the Smith College Institute on the Coordination of Woman's Interests. Dr. Wood will give courses in the 1927 Summer Session on The Household and the Community, and on Housing and Home Planning.


Professor Chase Going Woodhouse, of the department of economics and sociology in Smith College, who will give courses on Economic Problems of the Modern Family, and on Research in Social and Economic Problems of the Home in the 1927 Summer Session, is at present on leave of absence directing the research activities of the United States Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., which particularly concern the economic problems of the home. There is a growing demand for research workers in home economics under the provision of the Purnell Act, which has provided for research at all State Agricultural Experiment Stations on economic and social matters concerned with farm homes and with rural living. It is anticipated that Mr. Woodhouse's courses this summer may help meet these calls for trained workers in this field.

EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION


On Tuesday evening, March 29, Professor Daniel H. Kulp addressed a meeting at Woodbridge, N. J., on the subject "What's Wrong with Youth?"


A cable has been received from Professor David Snedden announcing his safe arrival in South Africa.


The Educational Sociology Club had for the first number of the March program an address by Joseph Wood Krutch, the dramatic critic of The Nation, on "A Movement in Censorship." On March 12 seventy-four members of the club spent the afternoon and evening on a trip to the headquarters of such groups as the Communists, I.W.W.'s, and Socialists, hearing speakers at each of these places. As a fourth “See Teachers College" trip, the music department was visited. The club participated in some of the musical numbers and heard students of the department tell of their work and purposes. One of the most delightful meetings held this year was that of March 28, when the club welcomed Miss Lillian D. Wald, of the Henry Street Settlement, as guest and speaker. Miss Wald spoke informally to a group of one hundred and seventy-six students on the "History and Activities of the Henry Street Settlement." A social hour followed this meeting.

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION


Four members of the staff in Elementary Education attended the Dallas meeting of the Department of Superintendence and allied organizations. They were Professors Lois C. Moss-man, Milo B. Hillegas, James R. McGaughy, and Miss Laura Zirbes.


Professor McGaughy spent Friday, February 25, as the guest of the supervisory staff of the public schools in St. Louis, and of Miss Virginia Stone, director of the Community School of that city.


Professor McGaughy will spend the three weeks from June 13 to July I giving a series of lectures on different phases of elementary education at the Southern Methodist University in Dallas. He will also give lectures at the state teachers colleges at Denton and Commerce, Tex.


On Saturday afternoon, February 19, Professor McGaughy and Mr. William R. Lasher debated the theory of the single salary schedule at a meeting of the Teachers' Union of New York City.


Professor McGaughy spoke before the New York Society for Experimental Study of Education on April 8. His address presented the arguments in favor of the super-maximum salaries proposed for New York City teachers in the recent report of the Citizens Committee on Teachers' Salaries.


The week preceding the Dallas meeting Professor Mossman visited Denver, Colo., and assisted in the curriculum construction program there. She spent most of her time working with the Practical Arts Committee.


On April 8 Professor Mossman attended the Seventh Annual Ohio State Educational Conference, addressing the Industrial Arts and Vocational Education and the Parliamentary Education sections.


On Friday evening, March 4, Professor Hillegas was guest of honor at the Women Principals' Club of St. Louis and spoke on "The Layman's Influence on Education."


Professor Hillegas spent the week of March 7 in conference with the administrative and supervisory staff of the Toledo public schools.


Miss Emma B. Grant gave a series of three talks to the Principals' Association at Mt. Holly, N. J.: on March 29, "What is Good Teaching?" "Newer Types of Social Control," April 4; and "The Continued Growth of the Supervisor," April 7.


Miss Grant sailed for England April 23 to make a study of the teaching of the English language in the elementary schools of England. In addition to visiting the elementary schools, Miss Grant will visit the teacher training departments of the London Day Training College, the University of Bristol, and the University of Cardiff, Wales. She will return to teach in the Summer Session.


Miss Laura Zirbes addressed one of the sections of the Ohio Educational Conference at Columbus on April 9, speaking on "Child Needs—An Impetus to Research." She also addressed the Elementary Education section of Pennsylvania School Men's Week on March 30.


On March 7 Professor Edwin H. Reeder addressed the members of the Hudson, N. Y., Teachers Association on directing children's study in the elementary school.


During the last three weeks of March, Professor Reeder visited some of the public schools and teacher-training institutions in the middle-western states studying problems of supervision and the development of classroom procedures for the elementary school.

ENGLISH


The English section of the Norma! School Conference met at Teachers College on January 28 and 29 with Professor Allan Abbott as chairman. Representatives from nine normal schools were present. The main subject under discussion was the literature curriculum for a two-year normal school.


Professor Abbott is spending part o his leave visiting normal schools in connection with a study he is making of professionalized English. During March and April he visited the normal schools in Greenville, N. C., Harrisonburg, Va. and Salem, Mass. He also attended the meeting of the Harvard Teachers Association.


The English department has recently completed a study of the composition work of the Washington Irving High School. This study was directed by Professor Abbott, with the cooperation of the English department of the High School. It will be published by the Bureau of Publication, Teachers College.

FINE ARTS


On Thursday April 7 Professor George J. Cox addressed a meeting of teachers at Public School 59, New York City. The matter under discussion was the comparative value of art appreciation and general drawing courses in the schools. Professor Cox spoke at the Eastern Arts Convention held at Philadelphia. His subject was "The Correlation of the Industrial and the Fine Arts."


Mr. Charles J. Martin's advanced painting class recently held at the College an exhibition of their compositions.

HISTORY


Professor J. Montgomery Gambrill has been for several months an adviser to a committee of high school teachers organized by the State Department of Education of Maryland. This committee is composed of a county superintendent of schools and several principals and teachers from small towns in a rural county. They are trying to work out a course in civic problems for the last year of the high school, with special reference to the practical conditions in towns and small cities. Some experimental work is being done in the treatment of unusual topics and combinations.


Professor Gambrill arranged the program on World History in Education for the Saturday morning meeting of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland, held in conjunction with Schoolmen's Week, April 1 and 2. Professor Gambrill spoke on "The New World History." Other speakers were Dr. A. C. Flick, State Historian of New York, on "The Content of World-History Courses in School and College; Dr. Isaiah Bowman, Director of the American Geographical Society of New York, on "Our Interdependent World." The chairman of the section was Professor Albert E. McKinley, University of Pennsylvania. The discussion was led by Miss Margaret Willis, Maryland State Normal School, and Mr. A. O. Roorbach, William Penn High School, Harrisburg.

HORACE MANN SCHOOL


"Our Children and College" was the subject of a program presented by the Parents Association of the Horace Mann School on Tuesday evening, March 8. Both the Horace Mann School for Boys and the High School for Girls participated.


For two years data have been collected on this subject by committees appointed for the purpose. Answers to questionnaires, results of interviews with leading educators and with representatives of the student body, alumni, and faculty of the different colleges studied, together with all possibly procurable printed material, formed the basis of the study. This material was organized and presented by Mrs. W. W. Rockwell, representing the parents, and Mr. G. H. Bruce, from the staff of the Boys' School. Mr. C. C. Tillinghast, principal of the Horace Mann School for Boys, and Miss Helen M. Atkinson, assistant principal of the High School for Girls, outlined the different plans for entrance required in various institutions, and emphasized the growing need for turning to the lesser known and not so crowded colleges. Mrs. Rockwell told of many interesting developments in the alert college of the present, mentioning in particular the orientation courses for freshmen, the tutorial system, the honors courses, the new junior college movement, and the trend toward tying up vocational with cultural training. With the aid of a large map and charts of information prepared by the committee, Mrs. Rockwell and Mr. Bruce gave the audience a brief summary of pertinent details regarding the forty-one colleges chosen for the study.


The program was followed by an informal reception and an exhibit of the collected material. The Parents-Teachers Association of the Lincoln School, Teachers College, were guests of the Horace Mann Asociation.


Mr. Henry C. Pearson, principal of the Horace Mann School, recently made a survey of the Grosse Pointe School at Detroit, Mich.


"Horace Mann Verse," selections of the most representative verse written in the school since the establishment of the Manuscript, has just been published under the auspices of the present board of the Horace Mann Record. Copies are procurable from Horace Mann School; the price is 50 cents.


Much independent, original thinking has been done recently in Mathematics classes of the Senior High School. The A division of the Fourth Year, where the value and pleasure of independent thought is emphasized, is this year studying, in connection with their work in proportion, the book of geometry which deals with proportion and similarity—with the result that one member of the class has discovered a new method of proof for that troublesome theorem dealing with similar triangles. Her method renders unnecessary the confusing placement of one triangle upon another. In the Five B division, students have developed a way to find the center of a given circle, and have evolved a simple and convincing proof for the troublesome theorem, 'If two parallel lines intersect a circle or are tangent to it, they intercept equal arcs." This latter was based on the assumption that parallel lines meet at a zero angle. The full proofs and figures for these methods will be put on exhibit in the library shortly.


The Horace Manuscript, the literary publication of the Horace Mann School for Girls, was awarded second prize in its class, schools of five hundred or less, in the Columbia Scholastic Press Association's competition to select the best school publication. This is the second time the magazine has received this award.

HOUSEHOLD ARTS EDUCATION


About forty-five students interested in teaching Household Arts accompanied by Miss Erica Christianson, Miss Sadie Stark, and Professor Wilhelmina Spohr, members of staff, visited the Junior High Schools of Elizabeth, N. J., on March 22. Much was learned and enjoyed, not only about household arts as a school subject but about the organization and work of the junior high school. Mrs. Mary McDermott, supervisor of household arts in Elizabeth, was responsible for the success of the visit.


On April 2 Miss Grace Reeves addressed the teachers of vocational subjects of New Jersey at their state meeting at Trenton. She used for her topic "Building the Course of Study Arounc the Girls' Interests and Activities."


Miss Mary A. Lindslay, managing director of the Grace Dodge Hotel Washington, D. C., was guest of honor and speaker at the Helen Kinne Home Economics Club, on Thursday, March 17. Miss Lindslay discussed in a most interesting way some of the problems


During April Professor Cora M. Winchell visited schools and colleges in Savannah, Atlanta, Athens, Milledgeville, and Macon, Georgia. She spoke before the Georgia State Home Economics Association on April 15 on "General Trends in Education as Applied to Home Economics," and on April 16 on "A Bigger and Better American Home Economics Association." She met with the Georgia Teachers College Club at a dinner on April 15.


On April 18 to 21 Professor Winchell attended a conference at the Merrill-Palmer School in Detroit. The conference considered the present status and probable future development of home economics. Representatives from universities and colleges, and city and state supervisors were privileged to hear specialists in fields related to home economics report on recent findings and their bearing upon home economics education.


Professor Winchell will teach two courses in Home Economics Education at Oregon Agricultural College at the summer session of 1927, one on "Preparation of Teachers of Home Economics" and the other on "Home Economics in Relation to Education."


Miss Sadie Stark has been appointed to the staff of Household Arts Education for the Summer Session. She will assist with the demonstration lessons in the Horace Mann School.

HOUSE MANAGEMENT


Miss Eva Wilson has been cooperating with New York University in giving lectures once a week to a group of students in House Management, presenting topics in time schedules, equipment, of her work. care of the house, and furnishings.


In the May number of McCall's Magazine, Miss L. R. Balderston has an article on "Buying for the Household."


A series of conferences on Home-making, a study of the home based on scientific management in industry, has been carried on at Teachers College from March 2 to April 20, on eight all-day Wednesday conferences. These have been directed by Dr. Lillian Gilbreth, with the cooperation of the faculty of Practical Arts, Teachers College, a group of industrial engineers, and experts from related professions; and assisted by Professor Emma H. Gunther. "The aim of these conferences is not only to get some facts that are of value, but to carry on the work in such a way that it may have some value also as a method of fact finding, and in suggesting fruitful problems for further research." The topics which were discussed included the following:


I. Defining the Problem—What

Plant—The home


II. Personnel and Function—Who

Adjustment of individual capacities to functions


III. Mechanical Equipment—Where

Home as compared with factory production


IV. Time Schedules—When

Scheduling work and workers


V. Finding the Best Method Through Motion Study—How

Applying the results of motion study


VI. Discovering Skill—How

Transferring skill


VII. Fatigue Study—How

Handling physical fatigue

Factors of psychological fatigue


VIII. Factors of Maintenance

Stability—Standing order

Flexibility—Changing order


A summary of the Conference will probably be published some time after the middle of May.

INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Miss Martha Groggle, of the Lincoln School, gave a paper on the correlation of industrial arts and other subjects at the Philadelphia meeting of the Eastern Arts Association in April. She used a number of rather extended illustrations from the work of the Lincoln School of the past year.


A conference at Teachers College following the meeting of the Eastern Arts Association considered the general problem of training teachers for industrial arts in the junior high schools. A number of state directors of teacher training and faculty members from normal schools and colleges were present from the eastern and southern states.


Professor F. G. Bonser, in collaboration with Professor A. C. Burnham of the Michigan State College, has recently issued a trial edition of a book on Life Planning and the Technique of Achievement, which may be had through the Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, or from Edwards Brothers of Ann Arbor, Mich. Professor Burnham has classes in Life Planning at the Michigan State College, where he is testing the use of this book as a syllabus and text. He also gave a short course of lectures on Life Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during April. The topic is one that is receiving increasing attention in colleges and secondary schools. In preparing this book, letters were written to one thousand persons whose names are in the current issue of "Who's Who in America," asking for their experiences along certain lines. Nearly seventy per cent replied. Permission was received for including in the book one hundred of these letters. They contain much variety of experience and numerous attitudes toward questions of life and education; but about eighty per cent of them agree that their successes have been achieved by rather definite and consistent planning of a life program.

KINDERGARTEN—FIRST GRADE EDUCATION


On Thursday, March 19, Miss Mary Reed was hostess to the students in Kindergarten—First Grade Education at the Women's Faculty Club. The evening was a delightfully informal one. Miss Rachel Field, author of Taxis and Toadstools and other books for children, read some of her poems. Mrs. Jesse Williams sang some of Rose Fyleman's fairy poems which have been set to music by Miss Thorn. Members of the alumnae who have been interested in Solange, our French orphan, will be glad to know that we had a very interesting, well-written letter from Solange which was read at this meeting.


Professor Patty S. Hill spoke at the N. E. A. meeting on "Nursery School and Kindergarten Education as a Career." She also made a speaking tour of the Southwest, visiting New Orleans, El Paso, Houston, Nashville, Den-ton and Texarkana.


Professor Hill and Miss Reed lectured at Coatesville, Pa., on "The Reconstruction of the Curriculum in Primary Education."


The National Nursery School Association, of which Miss Hill is chairman, met at the Hotel Majestic, New York City, on Friday and Saturday, April 22 and 23.


Miss Charlotte G. Garrison, Miss Agnes Burke, Miss Alice G. Thorn and Miss Alice Dalgliesh are giving an extension course in kindergarten methods to the colored kindergarten teachers of Washington, D. C.

LINCOLN SCHOOL


The parents of the Lincoln School children undertook a campaign to raise funds for the construction of a swimming pool and for the building of an additional building in which the research work of the Lincoln School could be located. The total cost of the two buildings was estimated at $400,000. On condition that the total sum would be subscribed, a pledge was made of funds approximately $100,000 to provide the necessary building site. The total sum has been subscribed, no subscription being asked or received from persons other than parents who had had children in the school, and from trustees of the College, part of whom have had, or now have, children in the school. There is a total of 352 different subscriptions. This is a very unusual achievement by parents who have had their children in an experimental school. Plans are being drawn for both the swimming pool and the research building and it is hoped that construction work may be started soon. The chairman and vice-chairman of the committee which carried through this work are, respectively, Mr. Ogden Reid and Mr. Henry S. Bowers.


Mrs. Florence M. Baker, of the modern language department, gave an address on "Teaching Foreign Languages to Gifted Children" at the March meeting of the New York Society for Experimental Education.


Mr. C. O. Mathews has been engaged to teach educational psychology and educational statistics in Teachers College, Syracuse University, during the summer session of 1927.


Mr. James S. Tippett, together with teachers in the Elementary School, is engaged in the preparation of a volume descriptive of the units of work in the curriculum of the six elementary grades. This work is well advanced, and it is hoped that the volume may be published during the coming summer. The Boat Book, a third grade curriculum contribution by Nelle Curtis and others, is being published by Rand, McNally and Company. The History of Bells by Mrs. Satis N. Coleman, which has developed as a part of her work in creative music, is also being published by Rand, McNally and Company.


Dr. Otis W. Caldwell spoke before the combined Parents-Teachers Association of Ohio, at Columbus, on April 11, and before the State Science Teachers Association of Ohio in the afternoon of the same day. Dr. Caldwell also gave six addresses before the short-course for Superintendents and Principals and the State High School Principals' Association of Minnesota at their meetings held at Minneapolis, April 12 to 15.

MATHEMATICS


The Mathematics Club of Teachers College is having a successful year with an excellent attendance at each of its meetings. Among the prominent speakers who have recently addressed the club are Dr. W. B. Fite, professor of mathematics of Columbia University, and Miss Marie Gugle, assistant superintendent of schools of Columbus, Ohio, and also president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The president of the club is Mr. Gordon R. Mirick, to whose enthusiasm and efforts the club owes much of its success.


Professor William D. Reeve spoke on April 8 at the Educational Conference of Ohio State University on "The Training of Junior High School Teachers of Mathematics"; he also spoke on April 30 before the mathematics teachers of Boston on "New-Type Tests in Mathematics."


For the academic year 1927-28 the department of Mathematics has made a considerable addition to its offering of Saturday courses in order to meet the needs of those who are teaching during the week. As a special feature courses will be given on Saturday afternoons as well as on Saturday mornings. The Advanced Course in Arithmetic for Normal School Instructors, given during the week by Professor Clifford B. Upton, has been increased in length from one semester to a full year.


The Association of Teachers of Mathematics of the Middle States and Maryland will hold its annual meeting at Teachers College on Saturday, May 7, at which an interesting program is to be presented.

MUSIC EDUCATION


National Music Week was celebrated at Teachers College as usual with a series of events under the direction of the class in Community Music. Participating agencies from other departments of the College and the demonstration schools included three bands, six orchestras, three glee clubs, and several smaller vocal and instrumental groups. There was singing in the halls and in the courts, and a series of concerts and addresses on musical subjects. During the week all of the classes in music at Teachers College and the Horace Mann School were open to visitors and were largely attended.


When the Educational Sociology Club visited the Music Education department for information regarding the activities in music, arrangements were made for a special convocation at which five of the students in the department spoke on various phases of the work. These were Miss Lillian Baldwin, on courses in music appreciation and aesthetics; Mr. Otto Bohannan, on courses in methods of music education; Miss Fawn Cameron, on opportunities for practice teaching and observation; Mr. Irving Cheyette, on instrumental instruction; and Miss Helen Hosmer, on courses for students not majoring in music education.


At one of the regular weekly Wednesday noon convocations in the Music Education department Miss Mari Hofer, formerly on the Teachers College staff, spoke on changes in music education which she had observed in the last two decades.


Among those members of the Teachers College staff who have been promoted in rank, effective June, 1927, is Miss Alice E. Bivins, who will hereafter have the title of assistant professor of music education.


Professor P. W. Dykema was on the program of the Southwestern Music Supervisors' conference at Tulsa, and spoke on changing conceptions in music education. At the meeting of the Eastern Music Supervisors' conference at Worcester, he discussed why the music teacher should be interested in tests and measurements; at the meeting of the Southern Music Supervisors' conference in Richmond, Virginia, he spoke on a new evaluation of music education; and at the state convention of the Ohio Music Teachers he discussed music and sociology.


At the Eastern Music Supervisors' Conference Mr. N. L. Church presided at a meeting and spoke on new tendencies in instrumental instruction in the schools. Other members of the Teachers College group who participated were Professor Chas. C. Tillinghast, Mr. Leonard El-smith, and Mr. La Verne Buckton.

NATURAL SCIENCE


At the Dallas meeting Professor Samuel R. Powers reported before the open meeting of the Educational Research Association on his comparative study of accomplishment in chemistry in English and American secondary schools. The data on accomplishment and on intelligence of the English secondary school students were gathered as a result of cooperation with science teachers of the Science Masters Association of England.


On March 7, 8 and 9, Professor Powers worked with the teachers in the schools of Houston, Tex., on a course of study in science for grades one to twelve in the Houston schools.

NORMAL SCHOOL EDUCATION


The Mayor's Committee on Teachers' Salaries, of which Professor William C. Bagley is a member, has recently submitted its report to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment.


On the invitation of Dean K. J. Hoke, of the College of William and Mary, Professor Bagley conferred with the principals and superintendents of Tidewater, Va., on April 22 and 23. He also visited the State Normal Schools at Hampton and Farmville on this trip.


Professor Bagley made an address on "Teacher Training" before the members of the International Kindergarten Union, meeting in New Haven on April 25.


Professor Bagley and Professor Thomas Alexander were among the speakers at the meeting of the Normal School and Teachers College Section of the New York Society for the Experimental Study of Education, held April 29 and 30 at the Hotel Pennsylvania. Professor Bagley's address, given at the banquet on the 29th, was on "The Training of Instructors for Teacher-Preparing Institutions in Europe." Professor Alexander spoke at the afternoon session of the 29th on "The Problems of Curriculum Construction."


During the month of June Professor Bagley will deliver commencement addresses at the following institutions^ State Normal School, Westfield, Mass., June 16; State Normal School, Salem, Mass., June 17; Jamaica Training School, Jamaica, N. Y., June 27.


Professor Samuel E. Evenden presided at the meeting of the Committee on Standards and Surveys of the American Association of Teachers Colleges in Dallas. The standards presented and adopted by the Committee at its meeting during the N. E. A. convention last year were revised and accepted in Dallas.


Returning from Dallas Professor Evenden visited the State Teachers College at Durant, Okla., on the invitation of President H. G. Bennett. He addressed the faculty on the afternoon of March 3. The following day he presented to the presidents and representatives of the six teachers colleges in Oklahoma, and to the dean of the School of Education of the University of Oklahoma, a program for the study and revision of teachers college curricula for the state.


Among the new students registered in Normal School Education this semester is Mr. Francis B. Haas, recently State Superintendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania.


Under the direction of the Committee on Standards and Surveys of the American Association of Teachers Colleges, of which Professor Evenden is a member, Mr. G. W. Rosenlof, associate in Normal School Education (now on leave of absence from the University of Nebraska) is making an intensive study of libraries and library facilities in teachers colleges.

PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION


A letter was received from Professor William H. Kilpatrick on April 1. It was dated February 23 and mailed from Shanghai. At that time there seemed to be no cause for alarm as to the safety of Professor and Mrs. Kilpatrick in continuing their tour. During his stay of two weeks in Canton Professor Kilpatrick "was . . . under the auspices of the Chinese Educational Society, . . . the guest of six combined groups: the nationalist government, the provincial government, the municipal government, the local teachers' association, the local state university and the Lingnan University." He had an opportunity to study the Cantonese Nationalistic Government at first hand and his advice was sought especially by the Commissioner of Education, who was at the time drawing up a general statement of the educational program of the republic.


An error was made in the November RECORD with regard to the date of Dr. Kilpatrick's stay En China. He will be there until the summer of 1927 and not, as was stated, 1928.


Professor Robert B. Raup spoke before the Men's English Club of Columbia University on Friday evening, April 8. On April 13 he spoke on the Complacency theory before the New York University Philosophical Society.


This department takes pleasure in calling attention to a new book, Modern Educational Theories (Macmillan 1927) by Dr. Boyd H. Bode, of Ohio State University. Professor Bode has criticized fundamental points in some of the more recent outstanding theories in educational psychology and philosophy. This book should be read.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION


Dr. Jesse F. Williams has been asked to give the dedication address at the formal opening of the Woman's Building, Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore. Dr. Williams left New York April 26, and stopped at several universities for visitation and conference. He will return to the College about the middle of May.


Professor Gertrude K. Colby and Professor Williams attended the National Convention of the American Physical Education Association at Des Moines, April 12-16. Dr. Williams addressed the General Session on Thursday morning, and the Men's Athletic Section in the afternoon of April 14.


The regular monthly meetings of the Pemicans, the physical education club of the men students in the department, have been very successful this year. Several meetings in the fall were held at the Chinese College Inn, but recent meetings have been held at the Faculty Club. At the February meeting Daniel Chase and Elmer Berry were guests. A joint meeting, with women students and staff, was held on April n. Plans are being made for the May meeting to be held at Gra-Mar, Dr. Williams' summer home, north of Peekskill.

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION


As Modern Writers See Jesus is the title of a new book by Dr. Adelaide T. Case. It consists of a descriptive bibliography about Jesus, including poetry, plays and imaginative prose works, as well as courses of study, interpretations of Jesus in the light of modern problems, and lives of Jesus. The Pilgrim Press, Boston, Mass., is the publisher.


From June 7 to 17 Dr. Case will teach at the June Conference on City Church Work held at Union Theological Seminary. Her subject is "The Development of Christian Character through the Church School."


Miss Katharine L. Richards represented the Religious Education staff at the Convention of the Religious Education Association held at Chicago, April 26 to 29.


The news of the death of Mr. Jerome C. Jackson on March 14 came as a shock to his friends at Teachers College. Mr. Jackson attended classes here during the winter of 1924-1925 while teaching at Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pa. This winter he was dean of men at Gettysburg and was working on his dissertation, "Recent Changes in the Relation of Church Schools to Religion."

RURAL EDUCATION


Dr. Edmund deS. Brunner, rural specialist of the Institute of Social and Religious Research, who has been giving the course in Rural Sociology this year, will sail in July for Korea, where he is to make a study of Korean villages. This study and others in China, India, Japan, and elsewhere in the Orient will consume the entire year. Dr. Brunner's place will be filled meanwhile by Dr. Albert G. Rau, professor of sociology and dean of instruction at Monrovia College, Bethlehem, Pa.


Professor Fannie W. Dunn lectured before the Ohio State Education Conference in Columbus, April 8, on the "Art of Teaching a Multigraded School." Professor Dunn spoke also at Hopewell, Va., on April 1, before a district meeting of state teachers.


Professor Mabel Carney filled engagements on March 30 before the Annual Conference of Southern Mountain Workers at Knoxville, Tenn., and before the Conference on Liberia at Hampton Institute in February.


The program of the Rural Club for the Spring Session has included a lecture on Mexico by Mr. B. Y. Landis, of the Federal Council of Churches, on February 15; a Recreation Program under the leadership of Miss Edna Geister, on March 18; and the Annual Club Dinner, on April 22. Officers of the term are as follows: President, Miss Hattie S. Parrott; vice-president, Mrs. May E. Heybroek; secretary, Miss Edna J. Hazen; treasurer, R. L. Bunting; two additional members of the Executive Committee, Miss Leila C. Ewen and Mr. Allan B. Hulsizer.


Miss Helen Hay Heyl, of Virginia, who has been at Teachers College for the past two years majoring in Rural Education, has accepted a position as state supervisor of rural education in the New York Department of Education at Albany.


Mr. Allan Hulsizer, who is now completing his work for the Doctor's degree, has just accepted a position as director of rural education in Haiti. Mr. and Mrs. Hulsizer will sail for their new post shortly after Commencement.

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


At the annual meeting of the National Vocational Guidance Association, held in Dallas, Tex., February 24-26, Miss Virginia Peeler, who is a candidate for the Master's degree in vocational guidance, was elected secretary of the association. Miss Peeler was formerly director of vocational guidance at Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga.


Miss Norma Bird has accepted a position in the personnel department ,of Henry L. Doherty Company, New York City.


Dr. Kitson has been elected chairman of the Committee on Simplifying Practice in Personnel appointed at the instance of several national organizations interested in the development of vocational guidance and personnel. The committee is taking as its first objective the compilation and codification of information on a few occupations in which college graduates go with greatest frequency.


On March 28, Dr. Kitson addressed the Conference on Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons, called by the Federal Board for Vocational Education, and held at Memphis, Tenn.


On April 21, Dr. Kitson addressed the Home Economics Section of the Eastern Arts Association at Philadelphia on "Vocational Guidance Through Home Economics."


During the fortnight of June 7-21, Professor Harry D. Kitson will lecture at Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kans., and Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo. Beginning June 24, Dr. Kitson will give a two weeks' intensive training course at the Y. M. C. A. summer school at Lake Geneva, Wise.


A new course will be offered during the Summer Session entitled Problems and Technique of Placement. This course is planned for persons interested in placement—directors of appointment bureaus, deans, advisers of women and girls, alumni officers, registrars, and executives in colleges and professional schools, in public school systems, in philanthropic organizations, such as the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., and in commercial bureaus. Topics to be discussed are: Organization of the placement office; interviewing; forms and records; rating and other means of reference; calculation of costs; financing; and establishment of policies. The discussion of the duties of the placement officer will be based on a functional analysis and will show the actual steps which the placement officer must take. The problem method will be largely employed. Opportunity will be offered for visitation and inspection of well-appointed placement offices in New York City. As an outcome of the course the student should have a complete equipment for the organization of a placement office and an acquaintance with the best current practices. Students will be encouraged to undertake original researches in this field.


Participating in the course with Professor Kitson will be Professor R. G. Reynolds and Mr. R. K. Speer, of the Bureau of Educational Service, Teachers College.


ALUMNI ACTIVITIES

TEACHERS COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OFFICERS


President: Mr. FRANK PICKELL, Superintendent of Schools, Montclair, N. J.

First Vice-President: Dr. FANNIE W. DUNN, Assistant Professor of Education, Teachers College.

Second Vice-President: Dr. BESSIE LEE GAMBRILL, Associate Professor of Elementary Education, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

Recording Secretary: Miss MARY LEWIS, Teacher in Horace Mann School, Teachers College, New York City.

Corresponding Secretary: Miss KATHERINE I. SHERWIN, Executive Secretary of Student Organizations, Teachers College.

Treasurer: Dr. R. G. REYNOLDS, Director, Bureau of Educational Service, Teachers College.

Members-at-Large: Mr. FRANK MOREY, Supervising Principal of Schools, Camp Hill, Pa.

Miss EFFIE TAYLOR, Professor of Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

Miss MARION SHERIDAN, 711 Orange Street, New Haven, Conn.

Alumni Trustees: Mr. JESSE HOMER NEWLON, Superintendent of Schools, Denver, Colo.

Miss MERCY J. HAYES, 301 American State Bank Building, Detroit, Mich.

Alumni Office: Russell Hall, Teachers College, 525 West i2Oth Street, New York City.


Address all communications to Robert K. Speer, Field Secretary, Teachers College, New York City.

SECRETARY-TREASURERS OF TEACHERS COLLEGE CLUBS


AFRICA—SOUTH AFRICA CLUB

Dr. E. G. Malherbe

University of CapeTown

Cape Town, South Africa


ALABAMA—STATE CLUB

Miss Agnes Harris

Auburn, Ala.


ARKANSAS—STATE CLUB

Mr. H. G. Hotz

University of Arkansas

Fayetteville, Ark.


CALIFORNIA—SOUTHERN CLUB

Miss Lela W. Aultman

6811 Leland Way

Hollywood, Calif.


CHINA—EAST CHINA CLUB

Mrs. Nita M. Stallings

Soochow, Ku, China


CONNECTICUT—NEW HAVEN CLUB

Miss Frances Terrill

100 Whalley Avenue

New Haven, Conn.


CONNECTICUT—STATE CLUB

Mrs. A. W. Jennings

1172 Chapel Street

New Haven, Conn.


GEORGIA—ATLANTA CLUB

Miss Isabel Dew

Head, Mathematics Department

Fulton High School

Atlanta, Ga.


GEORGIA—STATE CLUB

Miss Leila Bunce

Director, Home Economics

Fulton High School

Atlanta, Ga.


INDIANA—SOUTH BEND CLUB

Miss Mamie E. Kerner

115 North William Street

South Bend, Ind.


INDIANA—STATE CLUB

Mr. Howard R. Evans

Principal of Schools

Fontanet, Ind.


LOUISIANA—STATE CLUB

Prof. Homer L. Garrett

Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, La.


MAINE—STATE CLUB

Mr. Frank D. Rowe

Supt. of Schools

Warren, Me.


MARYLAND—STATE CLUB

Miss Lucetta M. Sisk

Principal, High School

Randallstown, Md.


MICHIGAN—ANN ARBOR CLUB

Secretary

Miss Ethyl M. Neelands

Couzens Hall

Ann Arbor, Mich.

Treasurer

Miss Edith Bader

548 Thompson Street

Ann Arbor, Mich.


MICHIGAN—BATTLE CREEK CLUB

Mrs. D. R. Dudley

Asst. Superintendent of Schools

Battle Creek, Mich.


MICHIGAN—DETROIT CLUB

Recording Secretary

Miss Zaide L. Voorheis

Northern High School

Detroit, Mich.

Treasurer

Kenneth Scaall

Detroit, Mich.


MICHIGAN—GRAND RAPIDS CLUB

Mrs. Mabel Hutchings Bellows

Kensington School

Kensington and Curve Sts.

Grand Rapids, Mich.


MICHIGAN—NORTHERN MICHIGAN CLUB

Mr. Sidney Herring

401 Front Street

Marquette, Mich.


MINNESOTA—STATE CLUB

Miss Elizabeth Sadley

Northrop Collegiate School

Minneapolis, Minn.


MISSOURI—KANSAS CITY CLUB

Miss Madeleine Farley

805 East 30th St.

Kansas City, Mo.


MISSOURI—ST. Louis CLUB

Mr. H. P. Stellwagen

Board of Education

St. Louis, Mo.


MISSOURI—STATE CLUB

Miss Margaret Gartenbach

St. Louis, Mo.


NEW YORK—BUFFALO CLUB

Miss Agnes McCarthy

Technical High School

Buffalo, N. Y.


NORTH CAROLINA—STATE CLUB

Mr. L. R. Johnson

111 Steele Street

High Point, N. C.


OHIO—AKRON CLUB

Miss Clara Barker

614 West Market Street

Akron, O.


OHIO—ATHENS CLUB

Mrs. E. B. Smith

University of Ohio

Athens, O.


OHIO—CINCINNATI CLUB

Mr. E. D. Roberts

Asst. Superintendent of Schools

Denton Building

Cincinnati, O.


OHIO—CLEVELAND CLUB

Secretary

Miss Liva Biszantz

11311 Clifton Blvd.

Cleveland, O.

Treasurer

Miss Mary C. Frederick

Mill School

Cleveland, O.


OHIO—KENT CLUB

Miss Isabelle Hazen

Franklin Apartments

Kent, O.


OHIO—TOLEDO CLUB

Miss Grace Gordon

Riverside School

Toledo, O.


OKLAHOMA—STATE CLUB

Miss Lucy Helen Meacham

Director of Grades

Oklahoma City, Okla.


PENNSYLVANIA—HARRISBURG CLUB

Miss Helen Krall

221 S. 13th Street

Harrisburg, Pa.


PENNSYLVANIA—PHILADELPHIA CLUB

Miss Alice M. Baker

State Normal School

West Chester, Pa.


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

Mr. Sabino Taburnor

Bureau of Education

Division of Bataugas, P. I.


TEXAS—STATE CLUB

Miss Evalina Harrington

Primary Supervisor, Public Schools

School Administration Building

El Paso, Texas


VERMONT—STATE CLUB

Miss Mary B. Sullivan

Normal School

Castleton, Vt.


VIRGINIA—STATE CLUB

Mr. C. B. Givens

4010 West Street

Richmond, Va.


WEST VIRGINIA—STATE CLUB

Miss Wilma C. Spears

Marshall College

Huntington, W. Va.


WISCONSIN—STATE CLUB

Mr. H. W. Peterson

1049 39th Street

Milwaukee, Wis.

PRESIDENTS OF CLASSES


CLASS OF 1916

Miss Mildred Memory

1 Kermit Road

Maplewood, N. J.

 

CLASS OF 1917

Mrs. Hazen Hoyt

3558 65th Street

Woodside, L. I.


CLASS OF 1918

Mrs. Louise Holbrook Baldwin

1669 Columbia Road

Washington, D. C.


CLASS OF 1919

Mrs. Joseph M. Couse

408 Asbury Park Avenue

Asbury Park, N. J.


CLASS OF 1920

Miss Ruth Taft

294 Macon Street

Brooklyn, N. Y.


CLASS OF 1921

Miss Margaret Briggs

1505 Jefferson Avenue

Scranton, Pa.


CLASS OF 1922

Miss Eva Wagner

Lincoln School

425 West 123rd Street

New York City


CLASS OF 1923

Miss Grace Ely

6 Kendall Green

Washington, D. C.


CLASS OF 1924

Miss Sallie Serson

34th and Chestnut Streets

Philadelphia, Pa.


CLASS OF 1925

Miss Helen Warren

The Garrison Forest School

Green Spring Valley

Garrison, Md.


CLASS OF 1926

Miss Yvonne Fassler

Winthrop College

Rock Hill, N. C.


RESULTS OF THE ALUMNI ELECTIONS


President

Mr. FRANK PICKELL, Superintendent of Schools, Montclair, N. J.


Second Vice-President

Dr. BESSIE LEE GAMBRILL, Associate Professor of Elementary Education, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.


Corresponding Secretary

Miss KATHERINE I. SHERWIN, Executive Secretary of Student Organizations, Teachers College.


Treasurer

Dr. R. G. REYNOLDS, Director, Bureau of Educational Service, Teachers College.


Alumni Trustee

To be announced after the next meeting of the Board of Trustees of Teachers College, and published in the June number of THE RECORD.

TEACHERS COLLEGE CLUB OF OKLAHOMA


The annual Oklahoma Teachers College dinner was held at the Skirvin Hotel, Oklahoma City, on February n, at the time of the State Teachers Association meeting. Sixty-six guests were present. The president of the club, Mr. Marlin Ray Chauncy, associate professor of education, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, presided.


After the dinner, Superintendent J. R. Holmes, of Sapulpa, and Superintendent Eugene S. Briggs, of Okmulgee, were called upon for short speeches. Following them, the guest of honor, Professor E. K. Fretwell, of Teachers College, gave an intimate and inspiring talk on the larger interests of Teachers College and the men and women who have helped to make it what it is.


The officers elected for the coming year were: President, Dr. H. G. Bennett, president of State Teachers College, Durant; secretary, Miss Lucy Helen Meacham, director of grades, Oklahoma City, Okla.

ALUMNI NOTES


Frances M. Hedden (A.M. 1920) presided as chairman of the Children's Work Professional Advisory Section, during the sessions of the International Council of Religious Education held in Chicago from February 9 to 16. She is continuing her work as director of children's work for the New Jersey Council of Religious Education.


Helen L. Mignon (B.S. 1912) is director of the homemaking department, State Teachers College, San Jose, Calif.


N. A. Wade (A.M. 1924) is director of student teaching, State Normal School, Frostburg, Md. He has just published through Edwards Brothers, Ann Arbor, Mich., "Problems of the Student-Teacher." This is a handbook to accompany directed teaching. Its chief purpose is to give the student-teacher an opportunity to study problems of management, health, record keeping and testing in their natural setting and as they arise in actual practice.


F. G. Jones (A.M. 1920), for the past six years associate professor of education, College of Industrial Arts, State College for Women, Denton, Tex., is now professor of secondary education Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Tex. This is an endowed institution with an enrollment of 1,500 students.


Lillian Allen (A.M. 1926) is instructor in English, State Normal School Florence, Ala.


Gladys M. Barker (student 1926-27) is teaching history in the Spring Valle; High School, Spring Valley, N. Y.


Anna H. Barnum (student 1909-10) is manager of the Roger Sherman restaurant, New Haven, Conn.


Edwina St. F. Blake (B.S. 1927) is in the statistical division of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co., New York City.


A. O. Briscoe (student 1925-26) is assistant in psychology, Jamaica Training School, Jamaica, N. Y.


Edith Adelyn Brown (student 1926-27) has resigned her position with the Bureau of Educational Service, Teachers College, to become assistant to the Welfare Director in the capacity of social director at Whittier Hall. She will enter upon her new duties on June 1.


Nellie Champaign (B.S. 1914) is instructor in English in the public schools of Hempstead, L. I.


Suzanne Chandler (B.S. 1927) is teaching the fourth grade in the public schools of Manhasset, L. I.


Donald P. Cottrell (B.A. 1923) is teaching history of education in Hunter College, New York City.


Bess L. Crofoot (A.M. 1927) is teaching methods in English for primary and intermediate grades in the State Normal College, Bowling Green, O.


Ellen M. Davies (A.M. 1926) is assistant in the employment department, R. H. Macy & Co., New York City. Her work is the interviewing and placing of female employees.


Margaret Day Duer (A.M. 1927) is reaching nature study in the Princeton school, Youngstown, O.


Marguerite Endress (B.S. 1919) is cafeteria director of the Y. W. C. A., Worcester, Mass.


Florence Errant (A.M. 1925) is instructor in physical education, New Rochelle, N. Y.


Louella J. Faller (B.S. 1927) is reaching the fourth grade in a public school in Scarsdale, N. Y.


Florence Fallgatter (A.M. 1926) is federal agent for home economics education, Federal Board for Vocational Education, Washington, D. C.


Emily Fanning (B.S. 1926) is assistant n English, New York Training School :for Teachers, New York City.


Mary Elizabeth Fenner (B.S. 1926) is supervisor of art, Pierson High School, Sag Harbor, L. I.


G. E. Galligan (A.M. 1927) is teaching physical education in the junior high school, Meriden, Conn.


Emma Garrison (A.M. 1926) is director of the Needle and Loom Guild, Detroit League of the Handicapped, New Berry House, Detroit, Mich.


Margaret B. Gerard (student 1926-27) is a club director, Girls Service League of America, New York City. She is house director and hostess, with the double responsibility of directing both the housekeeper's department and the club activities.


Emily Goodlett (A.M. 1926) is instructor in primary education, East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.


Alma D. Hall (B.S. 1927) is teaching public school art, Edinboro State Normal School, Erie, Pa.


Laurentza S. Hanson (A.M. 1923) is teaching art in the Abraham Lincoln High School, Des Moines, Ia.


Nannie Belle Helm (A.M. 1927) is teaching seventh grade English in the Junior High School, Summit, N. J.


Howard T. Herber (A.M. 1926) is teaching history and coaching debating at Pennington Seminary, Pennington, N. J.


Florence Marian Hoagland (A.M. 1926) is teaching education and psychology in Meredith College, Raleigh, N. C.


Cecelia Polk Houston (A.M. 1927) is food manager, Margaret Elizabeth cafeteria, Philadelphia, Pa.


Isabel N. Kellers (Mrs.) (student 1922-23 )_ is instructor in English in the John Burroughs School, St. Louis, Mo.


Edith Knight (student 1918) is teaching sophomore and junior English in the high school, Summit, N. J.


Mabel Lodge (student 1926-27) is supervisor of English in the high school, New Rochelle, N. Y.


Adelia B. Lund (Mrs. F. H.) (A.M. 1923) is teaching senior high school mathematics, Fort Lee Senior High School, Fort Lee, N. Y.


Miriam MacFadyen (B.S. 1926) is supervisor of first grade, North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C.


Florence McCarte (B.S. 1927) is teaching home economics in the public schools, Providence, R. I.


Blanche McDonald (A.M. 1927) is teaching sophomore English in the Belleville High School, Belleville, N. J.


Eveline McGillicuddy (B.S. 1925) is a teacher in the commercial department, Commercial High School, Providence, R. I.


Lena E. McGucken (B.S. 1926) is instructor in home economics, Gloversville, N. Y. She is teaching foods and clothing in the junior high school and homemaking and related work in the continuation school.


Verne McGuffey (student 1926-27) is teaching psychology in the Jamaica Training School, Jamaica, N. Y.


Ileen McKenzie (student 1926-27) is teaching second grade in the Scarborough School, Scarborough, N. Y.


W. A. Marks (student 1926-27) is teaching science in the Phoenix Union High School, Phoenix, Ariz.


Edna E. Milliman (A.M. 1927) is teaching Latin in the Mount Vernon High School, Mount Vernon, N. Y.


Mitchell Dreese (A.M. 1927) is teaching history in the Lyndhurst High School, Lyndhurst, N. J.


Emelia H. Moe (Mrs.) (student 1908-09) is teaching English and mathematics in the junior high school, Elizabeth, N. J.


Dorothy Josette Moran (A.B. 1925) is teaching French and Spanish in the high school, Schenectady, N. Y.


Nancy Myers (A.M. 1923) is instructor in French, State College for Teachers, Albany, N. Y.


Mary Elizabeth Pape (A.M. 1925) is assistant in the biology department, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C.


Carmel Picciano (B.S. 1925) is assistant dietitian, Knickerbocker Hospital, New York, N. Y.


Una Rice (student 1926-27) is instructor in sewing, Junior High School, Jersey City, N. J.


Mildred Sargent (M.S. 1924) is a student dietitian in the Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Ill.


Anna Schaefer (Mrs.) (student 1926-27) is teaching seventh and eighth grade cookery in the public schools, Jersey City, N. J.


Myrtle M. Schlie (student 1926-27) is doing extension work as house furnishing specialist, New York State College of Home Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.


Jonathan F. Scott (student 1926-27) is lecturer in history, New York University, New York City.


Sadie Stark (student 1926-27) is instructor in home economics, Teachers College, Columbia University.


Edith Pratt Taylor (Mrs.) (student 1924-25) is director of halls of residence, Russell Sage College, Troy, N. Y.


Harold E. Timmerman (A.B. 1926) is assistant teacher of English, High School of Commerce, New York City.


Louise Smith Valente (student 1925-26) is teaching Latin in the Tenafly High School, Tenafly, N. J.


Muriel P. Varick (B.S. 1926) is a dress designer for a wholesale house in New York City.

Leona Margaret Wagener (A.M. 1926) is teaching principles of teaching in the New York Training School for Teachers, New York City.


Florence Yocum (Mrs.) (M.S. 1923) is director of the lunchroom, Rosemary Hall, Greenwich, Conn.


Grace Holton (A.M. 1923) is teacher of art in Girls' Vocational School, Atlantic City, N. J. This summer she will teach her third season in Connecticut State Summer School at Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

SUMMER SESSION APPOINTMENTS


The following Summer Session appointments have recently been reported by the Bureau of Educational Service, Teachers College:


Anchester, Etta—Demonstration kindergartner, Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.


Anderson, Ellen R.—Supervisor and training teacher, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich.


Barger, Edith M.—Teacher of geography, State Teachers College, Harrisonburg, Va.


Beck, Minna McS.—Instructor in art, Duke University, Durham, N. C.


Bishop, Eugene A.—Instructor in social and civic education, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.


Blanchard, Ruth H.—Assistant in textiles and clothing, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.


Borgeson, F. C.—Instructor in school administration and history of education, School of Education, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.


Bryon, Kathryn G.—Music Counsellor, Camp Watonah, Cape Cod, Mass.


Burns, Gertrude—Instructor in kindergarten-primary education, Teachers College, Kansas City, Mo.


Cadwallader, Dorothy K.—Teacher of primary methods, State Normal School, Hyannis, Mass.


Callan, Alice—Instructor in art, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo.


Chappell, Bess—Instructor in home economics, Oregon State Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore.


Chappelear, Claude S.—Professor of education, Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pa.


Cleveland, Catherine—Instructor in textiles and clothing, Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass.


Cluff, Riva—Instructor in physical education, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.


Diehl, Ivan Casper—Instructor in geography, State Normal School, Frost-burg, Md.


Forest, Use—Professor of child development, State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich.


Giddings, Frances—Instructor in kindergarten-primary methods, Northern Arizona State Teachers College, Flagstaff, Ariz.


Graves, E. Irene—Nature study counselor, Mrs. HaskelPs Camp, Bath, Me.


Graves, Lillian M.—Hostess, Quaker Hill Inn, Pawling, N. Y.


Gwathmey, Mary Burnley—Instructor in art, State Teachers College, Harrison-burg, Va.


Hansen, L. S.—Instructor in costume design and methods of teaching, College of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.


Heinrich, D.—Teacher of nutrition, Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.


Herrington, Evelyn Meeker—Dietitian, Ragged Mountain Camp, Andover, N. H.


Hopson, Dorothy—Teacher of geography, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va.


Judy, Helen—Assistant in household administration, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.


Locke, Lillian—Instructor in clothing, Victoria, B. C.


Mangun, Vernon L.—Instructor in elementary and secondary education, Lebanon Valley College, Harrisburg, Pa.


Marsh, Lucile—Teacher of dancing, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.


Mathews, C. O.—Instructor in educational psychology and statistics, Teachers College, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.


Meyer, Gertrude—Dietitian, Quaker Hill Inn, Pawling, N. Y.


Mosher, Raymond—Instructor in psychology, State Summer School, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.


Mullin, Ann L.—Primary demonstration teacher, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt.


Orleans, J. S.—Instructor in educational measurements and child training, department of rural education, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.


Patterson, John R.—Instructor in school administration, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.


Ramsdell, Maude E.—Teacher of primary reading methods, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich.


Rextrew, Amy—Teacher of vocational methods, Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.


Riggs, Stanley C.—Teacher of American history, Maryland State Normal, Frostburg, Md.


Schmidt, A. W.—Instructor in education, William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va.


Shuster, Carl N.—Instructor in mathematics and methods, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.


Strickland, Ruth G.—Critic and demonstration teacher, State Normal School, Bellingham, Wash.


Tarpley, Elizabeth—Assistant in textiles and clothing, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.


Taubeneck, Ignatius Donnelly— Teacher of education and social science, Teachers College, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Ill.










1By Gildo Masso, Ph.D. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 257.

2By Hugh Stuart, Ph.D. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 256.

3By Hans C. Olsen, Ph.D. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 213.



Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 28 Number 9, 1927, p. 951-952
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 5883, Date Accessed: 5/28/2022 6:58:02 PM

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