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Bibliography of the Project Method

by John P. Herring - 1920

The purpose of this bibliography is to spread such knowledge of the project method as now exists. To this end titles which present this knowledge have been sought, and others, often despite claims to relevancy, have been avoided. Time has unfortunately prevented collection in some fields where contributions have been made. A discriminating annotated bibliography of the project method in agriculture is needed but is not included. Titles in other special fields of education have not been exhaustively obtained. No work, however, of general interest to the philosophy, the psychology, or the practice of the method has been intentionally omitted.

The purpose of this bibliography is to spread such knowledge of the project method as now exists. To this end titles which present this knowledge have been sought, and others, often despite claims to relevancy, have been avoided. Time has unfortunately prevented collection in some fields where contributions have been made. A discriminating annotated bibliography of the project method in agriculture is needed but is not included. Titles in other special fields of education have not been exhaustively obtained. No work, however, of general interest to the philosophy, the psychology, or the practice of the method has been intentionally omitted.

Indebtedness is acknowledged to Professor William Heard Kilpatrick of Teachers College, for suggesting that the bibliography be made, for beginning the collection of titles, and for criticizing the annotations. The writer holds none but himself responsible.

ADAMS, M. G. “Home Project Work in Vocational Home Economics in Secondary Schools.” Journal of Home Economics, 10:358-62 (1918).

Suggests projects in food, textiles, and clothing, giving general directions, steps of preparation for the teacher, projects for different years of the course, and pupil outlines.

ALLEN, I. M. Notes in the Proceedings of the Illinois State Teachers Association, pp. 126-33 (1917).

Reviews C. H. Johnson's philosophy of education as to discipline, method, socialized recitation, and supervised study. The absolutist's and the experimentalist's positions are stated antithetically for each of the topics named.

BATCHELDER, M. I. “Materials and Activities in the Second Grade.” Teachers College Record, 20:205-10 (1919).

A typical day's program is described and an account given of activities in an experimental room largely dominated by the spirit and method of the project.

BOGARDUS, E. S. Essentials of Social Psychology. I59pp. Univ. of Southern California (1918).

Written to develop the “problem getting” method of education in the student of psychology. At the close of each chapter is a list of problems.

BONSER, F. G. “Industrial Arts.” In Teaching Elementary School Subjects (Rapeer, L. W., ed.). pp. 281-98. Scribner (1917).

The need, values, organization, and content of a curriculum in industrial arts, with provision for projects. Will repay analysis by any one purposing to make curricula.

BRANOM, M. E. Project Method in Education. 282pp. R. G. Badger (1919).

Should be generally available. A full and systematic presentation. Excellent criticism of definitions thus far proposed; relation of method to instincts and to adult activities; illustrative material. The first book in its field.

“Project-Problem Method in History.” Historical Outlook, 11:107-10 (1920).

Information projects, enjoyment projects, and problem projects. Effect-to-cause and cause-to-effect problems in history. Illustrations. The initiation of projects. Steps in the project process.

“Project-Problem Method in the Teaching of Geography.” Journal of Geography, 16:333-38 (1918).

A general discussion of the nature of solutions, the advantages, the difficulties, and the dangers of the method, with a number of illustrations.

“Value of the Problem-Project Method in Elementary Education.” Elementary School Journal, 18:618-22 (1918).

Treats of four steps and nine advantages. Says the teacher can no longer afford not to be master of the method. The illustrative material is excellent.

BURKS, J. D. “Environment of the School.” Teachers College Record, 3:273-91 (1902).

The environment is that of the Speyer School. This article admirably illustrates one kind of knowledge needed in education through projects.

BURNS, H. F. “Group Socialized Recitation.” Education, 39:176-81 (1918).

Develops somewhat elaborately a plan of discussion in small groups as preparation for recitation. The plan is reported as having been warmly approved by certain high school pupils, who say that it is broadening, it is interesting, it develops coherent expression and cooperation, and that it provokes thought.

CARMAN, K. V. “Basing Work in Industrial Arts on the Construction of a New Building.” Teachers College Record, 17:247-62 (1916).

“In basing the larger portion of a year's work in industrial arts upon the erection of a new high school building, he has given a practical demonstration in the enrichment of school work by deriving its motives from community activities. . . Cooperation of the teachers came as the most natural thing. . . . Mr. Carman's successful experiment should stimulate other teachers to similar effort.” F. G. Bonser.

CHARTERS, J. A. “Problem Method of Teaching Ideals.” English Journal, 8:461-73 (1919).

It is recommended that children be given problems the solution of which will develop appreciation for the ideals to be taught.

CHARTERS, W. W. Methods of Teaching Developed from a Functional Standpoint. 255pp. Rowe, Peterson (1909).

A suggestive reading on the multiplicity and relativity of aims, the relations of method and content, the intrinsic function of subject-matter, structure and subject-matter, motives, control of values, methods, order, concreteness, and drill.

“Projects in Home Economics Teaching.” Journal of Home Economics, 10:114-19 (1918).

Definition, relation to curriculum, advantages and limitations of projects.

CHICAGO NORMAL COLLEGE STUDENTS. “Suggestive Outline for Project-Problem Teaching.” Chicago Schools Journal, 2:17-20 (1919).

Questions to stimulate interest and bring out the suggestion by the group that a club be formed to study Chicago's achievements and needs. The plans made by the group are presented as well as plans made for the organization of a dramatic club among the pupils.

CLARK, A. B. “Experiment in Problem Teaching.” English Journal, 6:535-38 (1917).

Describes the writing and production of a play in one year by seventeen high school pupils. Preliminary writing of plots and plays; earning money to see Forbes-Robertson; interviewing the great actor; conversations with miners and mining experts; community suggestions; type-writing, producing, and printing. A long, complex, but well sustained problem-project.

CLARK, L. A. “Good Way to Teach History.” School Review, 17:255-66 (1909).

A record of events in a high school with evidence of keen interest and successful outcomes. “No teacher is equal to the dynamic force of the class before her.”

COLVIN, S. S. Learning Process. 336pp. Macmillan (1915).

Chapters XX-XXII analyze logical thinking, judgment, and reasoning and discuss instruction in the form of the problem.

COOK, E. C. “Experiment in the Teaching of College English.” Teachers College Record, 19:131-46 (1918).

Designed to ascertain whether freedom in class work develops more genuine literary taste and judgment than regularly imposed lessons. The quality and quantity of result are tentatively regarded as favoring freedom.

COOKE, F. J. and others. Francis W. Parker School Year Book. (Chicago.)

Vol. 1: Social Motive in School Work. 139pp. (1912.)

Vol. 2: Morning Exercise as a Socializing Influence. 198pp. (1913.)

Vol. 3: Expression as a Means of Training Motive. 188pp. (1914.)

Vol. 4: Education Through Concrete Experience. 187pp. (1915.)

Vol. 5: The Course in Science. 168pp. (1918.)

There is as yet, perhaps, no fuller single source of clear and sound illustrations of education that has been accomplished through projects.

COOK, H. C. Play Way: An Essay in Educational Method. 367pp. Stokes (1917).

Unique, undoubtedly possessing style, full of epigrammatic wit and pedagogical wisdom. Discusses principles and methods of education; as play, self-government, “littleman lectures,” a play town, acting, and play making. Easily skimmed for its kernels, yet sustained in quality. “The basis of educational method is regard for the interests of children,” suggests a dominant attitude.

COURTIS, S. A. “Teaching Through the Use of Projects or Purposeful Acts. How Provide for the Development of Fundamental Skills?” Teachers College Record, 21: No. 2 (March, 1920).

Faces squarely certain considerations very often urged as limitations of the project method. Searching positive and negative criticism both of project method and of drill methods; of existing practice and theory. The broad outline of a constructive program synthesizing project and drill.

CRAIGO, R. T. “New Idea in Trade Training.” Artisan, 1:6-7 (1919).

At Dunwoody Institute interest in learning is said to be created by a little participation in actual industry at the outset. Students about to study framing, rafter-cutting, and flooring, first build a small building.

DAVIDSON, P. E. “Educational Reform and the Manly Virtues.” School and Society, 8:361-67 (1918).

Discusses Flexner's Modern School, raising questions regarding modern education, particularly regarding the relation of interest and effort to preparation for life. The author feels the need of a legitimate compromise between interest and effort.

DEARBORN, G. V. N. How to Learn Easily . 221pp. Little (1916).

One of the how-to-study books from which one may take helpful suggestions for his own method in its general aspects.

DETRAZ, M. J. “Materials and Activities in the Third Grade.” Teachers College Record, 20:210-18 (1919).

Tells of the social difficulties in a self-directed group, of which the teacher is an influential member, and of their solution by the group. The narrative is vivid, dignified, and convincing. The curriculum content is given.

DEWEY, E. New Schools for Old: the Regeneration of the Porter School. 337pp. Dutton (1919).

A solution of difficulties typical of rural education through means typically accessible in the country. The things done in the school were done with an eye to the education of the community. School and community interest were made one.

DEWEY, E. and DEWEY, J. Schools of To-morrow. 316pp. Dutton (1915).

A contemporary source of current thought on purposeful activity in education, as related to natural development, freedom, individuality, play, education through industry, and democratic education. Certain “schools of to-morrow,” now famous, are here described.

DEWEY, J. “Activity.” In MONROE: Cyclopedia of Education, 1:33 (1919).

Philosophy, psychology, logic, practice, and equipment as related to the concept of activity.

Child and Curriculum. 40pp. Univ. of Chicago (1902).

From the point of view of Dewey's philosophy of education, the basis and background of project learning are presented in relation to the learner and what is learned. Principles for the guidance of teaching; education as its own end; society as its own end; interest and motive.

Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 434pp. Macmillan (1916).

The general philosophic background and basis of the problem-project method.

DEWEY, J. How We Think. 224pp. Heath (1910).

A main source of the philosophy and psychology of education through problems, with much specific advice as to procedure in the school.

Interest and Effort in Education. 101pp. Houghton Mifflin (1913).

An integral portion of the Dewey philosophy and psychology of education that is the basis and background for the project method. Deals with ethical educational problems sure to arise in the earlier stages of experiment with the project method. Virtually a later edition of the author's Interest as Related to Will.

Interest as Related to Will. Second supplement to the Herbart Yearbook. 40pp. Univ. of Chicago (1895).

A philosophic consideration of the first rank, dealing with certain illogical and harmful dualisms frequently held as true and of certain logical and beneficial monistic aspects of the problem of interest as related to will. Propulsive, objective, and emotional phases of interest, work, and drudgery; pleasure, desire, ends, ideals, effort, strain, and discipline are treated.

“Method.” In MONROE: Cyclopedia of Education, IV:202-5 (1913).

An exposition of a part of the philosophy fundamental to the project method. Method as related to institutional agencies and to subject matter; educational method; logical method; general method; method-as an aspect of content; purpose and interest; relation of scientific method to educational method.

“Method in Science Teaching.” General Science Quarterly, 1:3-9; N. E. A. Proceedings, 54:729-34 (1916).

Stages of the educational development of science. The dynamic point of view contrasted with the merely informational. The extremes of memorizing for task-masters and of aimless freedom are to be avoided.

Moral Principles in Education. 60pp. Houghton Mifflin (1909).

Morality as an aspect of method and of content; moral purpose of the school; moral training given by the school community; social nature of the course of study; psychological aspect of moral education. The philosophic source, as opposed to the dualism of much that is common in practice.

“Nature of Method.” Chap. 13 in Democracy and Education, pp. 193-211. Macmillan (1916).

Treats of method as an aspect of content, as general and individual; of self-consciousness, open-mindedness, single-mindedness, and responsibility as traits of individual method. A piece of philosophy fundamental to the problem-project method.

DEWEY, J. “Problem.” In MONROE: Cyclopedia of Education, 5:47 (1913).

A brief statement of the philosophy of the problem as fundamental in educational method.

“Prospective Elementary Education.” In Teaching Elementary School Subjects (Rapeer, L. W., ed.). pp. 552-69. Scribner (1917).

Such topics as pragmatism and intelligence, former theories, the new theory of mind, thinking, method, subject matter, occupation, and values are presented from the point of view of education through purposeful activity.

“Reasoning in Early Childhood.” Teachers College Record, 15:9-15 (1914).

The improvement of reasoning power is perhaps impossible through teaching, but the conditions which permit its development may be provided. Three constant conditions of thinking: end, means, discovery. A writing of importance as showing through what means reasoning capacity may grow and through what means it will not.

School and Society. 164pp. Univ. of Chicago (1915).

Treats of the relation of active occupation to the development of spirit in the school, and of certain projects as recapitulations of race experiences. A fundamental discussion of the psychology of occupation for common ends.

DOPP, K. E. Place of Industries in Elementary Education. 270pp. Univ. of Chicago (1913).

Suggestive in many parts, but especially in Chap. V, which treats of the problem of the teacher who is not furnished with the equipment needed for industrial projects.

EARHART, L. B. “Experiment in Teaching Children to Study.” Education, 30:236-44 (1909).

Can fourth grade pupils be taught to study a reading lesson independently? The question is answered affirmatively, and a detailed account of the method of investigation is presented. Very useful on the problem side of the project method. '

Systematic Study in the Elementary Schools. 97 pp. Teachers College, Columbia University (1908).

Treats of the usual lack of effective study by children and of its possibility, of the recognition of problems, collecting data, scientific doubt, verification, memorizing, and of recognizing individuality. Illustrative material is included. An excellent analysis of the educational situation as to children's study, and of valid method.

EARHART, L. B. Teaching Children to Study. 181pp. Houghton Mifflin (1909).

Treats of the inductive and deductive methods of study, of the text-book in study, of children's abilities for study, and of present attainments. Very useful on the problem side of the problem-project method.

Types of Teaching. 277pp. Houghton Mifflin (1915).

See especially Chap. XIV on “Training children to study.” Treats of finding the aim, judging of hypotheses, collecting and evaluating data, organizing data, suspending judgment, testing conclusions, and thoughtful memorizing. Valuable for the problem aspect of the problem-project method.

FELL, E. E. “Socializing the School and the Community.” Moderator-Topics, 38:453-55, 469-71 (1918).

Describes the organization, subsequent management, and benefits of clubs for parents and teachers.

FINLAY-JOHNSON, H. Dramatic Method of Teaching. 199pp. Jos. Nisbet (London, 1917).

History, geography, arithmetic, composition, nature study, and manual arts taught through plays written or adapted to purpose by the pupils.

FOULKES, T. R. and DIAMOND, T. "Argument for Larger Projects Suggestive of Community Activity." Manual Training Magazine, 21:5-8 (1919).

Study of projects, made and used by 1532 pupils in Wisconsin, showed that many articles made are not used. Such projects as the summer cottage, the garage, the highboy are suggested.

FRITZ, J. A. “How a Project was Worked out in a 1B Room.” Kindergarten and First Grade, 4:20 (1919).

A good illustration of the rise and leads of a simple project.

GASTON, C. R. “Social Procedure in the English Class-room.” English Journal, 8:2-7 (1919).

Reports work done by a socially active group, the advantages for teacher and pupil, and a number of questions to be used as criteria for this type of work.

GATES, A. I. “Psychological vs. the Chronological Order in the Teaching of History.” (To appear in Historical Outlook.)

An important contribution to the psychology of the project method in history, from the point of view of Thorndike's psychology of bonds between situations and responses. Aims. Desirable habits in intellect, emotion, and attitudes. Relevant situations and responses, optimum order of development, recapitulation, chronological order, reverse chronological order, logical order, and the order of utility.

HARRINGTON, H. F. “Teaching Journalism in a Natural Setting.” Educational Administration and Supervision, 5:197-206 (1919).

Describes the organization of college into a working force in journalism. The goal is reached in publication in the college newspaper. Training in observation and truth-telling in journalism is emphasized.

HATCH, R. W. “Adaptation of the Project as a Basis for Teaching History.” (To appear in Historical Outlook.)

One of the most illuminating of the contributions to technique and practice. Detailed account of two or three projects. The reader is struck with the feasibility of a method admittedly difficult to employ. Natural rise of new projects. Correlation of geography, history and civics. Arguments for and against the project method in history. Results.

“Adaptation of the Project as a Basis for Teaching History.” (To appear in Teachers College Record.)

The method of setting the project, the materials used, pupil charts and summaries, as well as typical answers to test questions will appear in some detail.

HAUSMAN, L. A. “Making Relief Maps.” Journal of Geography, 16:97-100 (1917).

A method by which pupils who are developing projects in geography or history may build contour or relief maps.

HENRY, T. S. “Problem Method in Teaching.” School and Home Education, 36:162-68 (1917).

Education as problem solving; characteristics of real problems; developing the problematic situation; scope and limitations; dangers. A comprehensive discussion from the point of view of the Dewey philosophy.

HERRING, J. P. “Measurements of Some Abilities in Scientific Thinking.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 9:535-58 (1918) and 10:417-32 (1919).

Intimate relation of project method and scientific method; definition of certain phases of scientific method; a test composed of 33 problems designed as measures of defined aspects of scientific ability; aim, history, and limitations of the test. The text of the test is presented, and a scale is developed.

HEYLE, E. M. “School Lunch as a Project in Teaching Cookery in the Elementary Schools.” Journal of Home Economics, 9:205-10 (1917).

Describes and evaluates a method in which the preparation of the school lunch is at once educative and efficient.

HINCHMAN, W. S. “Reading Clubs Instead of Literature Classes.” School and Society, 4:417 (1916).

Each boy reports upon a book he has read from time to time, the report being followed by class discussion. The fact that the teacher is never quite prepared is one of the educative features of the plan. Boys are found to read about two and one-half times as much under this scheme as before its use.

Hosic, J. F. “Outline of the Problem-Project Method.” English Journal, 7:597-602 (1918).

Treats of the definition, name, nature, value, procedure, pit-falls, and difficulties of the problem-project method. Project is defined as a single complete unit of purposeful experience. A very compact and usefully suggestive series of theses.

HOWE, C. M. “What Eighty Teachers Think as to the Aim and Subject Matter of General Science.” General Science Quarterly, 2445-58 (1918).

An analysis of responses to a questionnaire.

JACKSON, L. L. “Project—Sinning and Sinned Against.” Industrial Arts Magazine, 7:138-39 (1918).

An application of certain criteria of project education to a typical industrial arts project.

JOHNSON, A. “Written Composition in the Fourth Grade.” Central Normal Bulletin, 15:7-8 (1919).

Through group criticism and incidental teaching of minimum essentials in composition, high standards in paragraphing are attained.

JONES, W. H. S. How We Learn. 64pp. Putnam (1916).

The psychology and practice of scientific method as employed by boys. Induction, deduction, examples of scientific discoveries, the method of discovery, analogy, fallacies, learning, and authority. The illustrative material is well developed.

KEATINGE, M. W. Studies in the Teaching of History. 232pp. Macmillan (London, 1913).

A most suggestive work on the use of problems in teaching history. A masterly discussion of the difficulties inherent in historical problems. Many illustrations of the quality of criticism of which students are capable.

KERR, W. H. “Problem Method and Its Library Correlation. A Librarian's Reaction." Library Journal, 42:686-87 (1917).

The writer approves the problem method of study and plans generously to adapt library methods to the needs of children who use the method.

KILPATRICK, W. H. “Education of Adolescents for Democracy: A General View and Evaluation of Present Methods.” Religious Education, 14:123-35 (1919).

A contribution of the very first importance as proposing that we agree upon criteria and proceed to evaluate the organizations in which our adolescents are educated. Phases of educational psychology are related; criteria are proposed; a long list of institutions such as the Boy Scouts, high schools, technical schools, Y. M. C. A., and school fraternities are evaluated and ranked.

“Problem-Project Attack in Organization, Subject-matter, and Teaching.” N. E. A. Proceedings, 56:528-31 (1918); School, 29:396-97 (1918).

Since the unit of worthy living is the project, the project should be the unit of school procedure; it utilizes the laws of learning; it leads to moral living. Four types of project are distinguished.

“Project Method. The Use of the Purposeful Act in the Educative Process.” Teachers College Bulletin, 10th Series, No. 3 (1918).

A philosophic and psychologic base of the problem-project movement. A contribution presenting the psychology of the project, a concept which serves to unify three factors of education: activity, the laws of learning, and conduct. Effective purpose is the essence of project method. The purposeful act is the typical unit of worthy life and should be that of school procedure. Four types of project are distinguished.

“Project Teaching.” General Science Quarterly, 1:67-72 (1917).

A compilation from notes by several persons who heard the author speak.

“Theories Underlying the Experiment.” Teachers College Record, 20:99-106 (1919).

What children are to learn: of common affairs, of social ideals and skills, of self-reliance, and of school arts; learning to do by doing; the child's method; child doing under teacher guidance. A presentation before patrons of the Horace Mann School of the theories of a significant experiment.

and others. “Horace Mann Studies in Primary Education.” Teachers College Record, 20:97-125 (1919).

Introducing a series of articles of first importance as describing the planning and executing of project experimentation of the thoroughgoing kind in the Horace Mann School. Theories, specimen activities, materials, and stimuli.

KITSON, H. D. How to Use Your Mind, 217pp. Lippincott (1916).

One of the how-to-study books from which one may take helpful suggestions for his own method in its general aspect.

KRACKOWITZER, A. M. Projects in Primary Grades. 221 pp. Lippincott (1919).

A presentation from the point of view of the Dewey philosophy; play, construction, social ethics, nature, and the formal subjects are all treated as “purposeful activity.” Discussion of problem and project, and of criteria. Rich with illustrations of projects for the primary grades. A type of book bound to appear more and more frequently.

LASHER, G. S. “English and the Project Method.” Journal of the Michigan School Masters' Club, 53:61-67 (1918).

Describes the writing of a book about Chicago by a Freshman high school class, and other projects.

LEONARD, S. A. “Social Recitation.” Chicago Schools Journal, 1:No. 10, 2-9 (1919).

The project method is not soft pedagogy. The teacher must strongly influence the purposing of the pupils. A sound discussion of certain points of modern method which are frequently called into question.

LOTT, D. W. “Twenty Minute Project.” General Science Quarterly, 1:122-26 (1917).

Contains the quoted conversation of the class room, illustrating one project which left the pupil with drives toward other projects.

LULL, H. G. “Observation and Score Card. Project-Problem Instruction.” (May be obtained from J. C. DeVoss, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas.)

Six excellent cards presenting an elaborate analysis of project-problem abilities: (1) and (2) Pupil activities and teacher activities in the recitation period; (3) and (4) Pupil activities and teacher activities in the supervised study period; (5) Drill projects; (6) Appreciation activities.

“Problem of Method of Instruction and Its Probable Correlation in Library Service and Administration.” Library Journal, 42:683-85 (1917); N. E. A. Proceedings, 55: 562-66 (1917).

Problem instruction requires the pupil to seek information from a variety of sources, among which the library is important. The modification of the library service in equipment and methods is suggested, and the creation of a new type of service, that of the teacher-librarian, is proposed. The author makes it appear that our libraries might become vitally concerned with project teaching.

LULL, H. G. “Project-Problem Instruction.” School and Home Education, 38:79-82 (1918).

Definition of the term project. A thorough treatment, covering much of the ground of the author's “What are Projects and Problems?” (q. v.), and in addition presenting a very comprehensive and detailed score card analysis of the activities involved. This analysis does much to suggest the technique of the method.

“Relation of Project-Problem Instruction to the Curriculum.” School and Home Education, 38:114-15 (1919).

The boundaries between subjects. Drill subjects and use subjects (applied technique) in elementary and junior high schools. Acquisition of the technique of subjects of the curriculum.

“Schoolroom Technic in Problem Instruction in Grammar Grades.” School and Society, 5:496-99 (1917).

Socialization, motivation, problem instruction, supervised study, changed relationship of recitation to study, and suggestions as to what to avoid are discussed from the point of view of education through purposeful activity.

“Socializing School Procedure.” American Journal of Sociology, 24:681-91 (1919).

The free play ways of children utilized in teaching. Two assignments are presented, one that hampers the free purposeful attack of pupils and one that furthers that attack. Stenographic report of class conversation. Application of the project way to discipline and planning.

“University How-to-Study Class.” School and Society, 4:961 (1916).

How the author in cooperation with instructors in the engineering department of a university taught engineering students how to study. Suggests a type of work probably much needed in many schools.

“What are Projects and Problems?” Teaching, Vol. 1, No. 57 (1919); Chicago Schools Journal, 2:19-25 (1919).

Treats of the definition, stimuli, processes, relations to the study period, the recitation, the teacher, facilities, and examples of projects. Contains an adequate and detailed manual of practice. Twenty pages are devoted to the reproduction of children's notes, plans, revisions, outlines, and expositions of projects in geography, English, arithmetic, and science. An attempt to define certain details of procedure implicit in Dewey's philosophy of education.

LULL, H. G. and others. “Project Method of Instruction.” Teaching, 5, No. 1, 3-31 (1920).

The January number of Teaching is devoted to the project method. Function, types, descriptive illustrations, verbatim reports, means of measuring progress in project education in widely different fields. A large range of suggestion and concrete help useful to those experimenting with the method.

LUNT, J. R. “Illuminating Gas Project.” General Science Quarterly, 1:213-5 (1917).

A detailed account of a project.

McCALL, W. A. and others. “Experimental Measurements.” Teachers College Record, 20:218-28 (1919).

The measurement of experimental groups using the project method and of control groups not using it justified the conclusion that the project method secured the conventional “intelligences” of the primary grades almost as well as the older methods. The project method, being new, it is suggested, may or may not later outstrip the more formal methods in the intellectual requirements of minimum essentials, and may or may not outstrip them in certain, as yet unmeasurable, qualities.

“Measuring the Horace Mann Elementary School.” Teachers College Record, 19:472-84 (1918).

Reports measurements in an experimental school where the project method is used in several rooms.

McINTYRE, MRS. H. I. “Giving Purpose to Students of High School English.” English Journal, 6:539-41 (1917).

Describes the beginning of an attempt to increase the interest of Freshman and Junior English students by surveying their needs and organizing the course to meet the needs expressed.

McLAUGHLIN, K. “How to Study.” Elementary School Journal, 15:22-24 (1915).

Three common difficulties are presented and remedies proposed.

McMURRY, C. A. Teaching by Projects. A Basis for Purposeful Study. 257pp. Macmillan (1920).

Treats of the growing tendency to adopt large projects and of the simplifying and enriching of study through large projects. Presents in detail a number of such projects. Relations of projects to classroom method.

McMURRY, F. M. Elementary School Standards. 218pp. World Book Co. (1914).

Interesting, searching, qualitative criticism of a school system in the light of four standards, which are standards for problem teaching: provision for motive on the part of pupils, consideration of values by pupils, attention to organization by pupils, and initiative by pupils. This book will long be vitally pertinent.

How to Study and Teaching How to Study. 324pp. Houghton Mifflin (1909).

Nature of study; provision for specific purposes; supplementing thought; organizing ideas; judging soundness and worth; memorizing; using ideas; tentative attitudes; individuality. An important early contribution to the project method, with special emphasis on the problem.

and others. “Symposium on Study in the Elementary School.” Education, 30:242-44 (1909) and 30:311-15 (1910).

Opinions of a score of educators in response to pertinent questions.

MEISTER, M. “Guiding and Aiding the Pupil in His Project.” General Science Quarterly, 3:209-15 (1919).

Suggestions are made as to certain elements of the technique of project method, such as use of references, card indexes, conferences, questions, lists of experiments, etc.

“Method of the Scientists.” School Science and Mathematics, 18:743 (1918).

The method of scientists is essentially like that of the project. An analysis of the processes of scientific investigation and discussion of the methods used by many scientists.

“Science Work in the Speyer School.” General Science Quarterly, 2:429-45 (1918).

Thoughtful, detailed outline of the project method with concrete suggestion on certain methods in class work in the high school.

MERRIMAN, E. D. “Technique of Supervised Study.” School Review, 18:35-38 (1918).

Very helpful, detailed, concrete outline for this phase of problem study.

MILLER, H. L. “University of Wisconsin Plan for the Preparation of High School Teachers.” N. S. S. E. 18th Yearbook, 1:7-165.

A vigorous, suggestive presentation of the plan of preparation through participation, in which the project method is central, and from which one may learn much of the actual working of the method in one school and almost sense how it feels to learn to teach well. The earnest daily reports of the college seniors who are preparing to teach are illuminating.

MILLER, I. E. Psychology of Thinking. 298pp. Macmillan (1910).

Useful as an analysis of the physiological and psychological bases of thinking. Includes many specific suggestions as to procedure in guiding children in their thinking.

MILLIS, J. F. and others. “Report of Committee of Mathematics Section of the Central Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers on Real Applied Problems in Algebra and Geometry.” School Science and Mathematics, 9:788-98 (1909).

Analysis of problem method. Method and results of the investigation of the committee. Illustrative problems. Bibliography of sources of problems.

MINOR, R. “Project Teaching in Grade Six.” Elementary School Journal, 20:137-45 (1919).

The rise of problems; lists of problems and of pupil activities; titles of compositions; relationships among subjects of the curriculum; results; how the work of the grade as a whole was handled. Concretely helpful.

“Supervision of Project Teaching.” Educational Administration and Supervision, 5:357-63 (1919).

Several definitions are presented; the value of the method is considered; a very detailed analysis of the values is presented. Selected bibliography.

MOORE, A. E. “Use of Children's Initiative in Beginning Reading.” Teachers College Record, 17:330-43 (1916).

The purpose of the experiment was to “see what could be accomplished in beginning reading through self-directed individual effort,” and to select those reactions which were most effective. A most promising first-grade project, with a list of pictures, apparatus and books used.

MOORE, E. C. What is Education? 357pp. Ginn (1915).

A very live presentation in everyday terms from the point of view of the Dewey philosophy and the Thorndike psychology. Presents strikingly the relativity of process, concept, etc., and the project idea of education. Especially chapters on the place of method in education and on learning by problem getting.

MOORE, J. C. “Projects.” General Science Quarterly, 1:14-16.

Proposes for teachers of science a card catalogue system of projects in outline accompanied by references to literature. One illustration is given.

“Project Science, Progressive.” School Science and Mathematics, 16:686-90 (1916).

“The results of science teaching do not measure up to reasonable expectancy.” Project method is analyzed and discussed.

MORRIS, M. “Third Grade Project.” Central Normal Bulletin, 15:1 (1919).

Valuable as suggesting that teachers who move to new fields may put their new pupils into communication with their former ones. Leaves of timber trees, peanuts on the stalk, cotton, etc., were exchanged and utilized as drives for letter-writing, spelling, and geography.

NEWBY, M. I. “The Socialized Recitation.” The Siena Educational News, 1570-72 (1919).

A school magazine published by pupils, debating clubs for oral language, imaginary ownership of real estate, and oil prospecting are used to socialize the curriculum. Suggestive of projects possible in most communities.

OWEN, W. B. “Problem Method.” Chicago Schools Journal, 1:3-4 (1918).

Treats of the problem method as a synthesis of the philosophy of experience, the logic of purpose, the psychology of the act, the method of science, and the processes of industry. Discloses clearly the vitality of relationship between the method and certain contemporaneous phases of thought and life. The psychology of purpose is dominant.

PARKER, E. P. “Partition of Africa, a Seventh Grade Geography Unit.” Elementary School Journal, 20:188-202 (1919).

Nine periods of sixty minutes each sufficed to develop this project. Each child chose his own part. Vivid narrative of how problems lead to solutions and solutions to problems.

“Sixth Grade Science Projects.” Elementary School Journal, 20:297-307 (1919).

Describes the making of telegraph instruments and magnetic toys, and the wiring of a toy theatre for electric lights.

PARKER, S. C. Methods of Teaching in High Schools. 529pp. Ginn (1915).

Contains much that is pertinent to the technique of supervised problem study and to the difficulties of transition from other methods to the project method. Well organized.

PAYNE, E. G. “Experiment in Motivation.” Elementary School Journal, 17:727-33 (1917).

An experiment undertaken with boys. The plan was of two parts: visits to factories, and study and discussion growing out of the visits. Contains a general detailed outline for the study of any industry.

PEARSON, K. Grammar of Science. 548pp. Macmillan (London, 1900).

A work of the first rank dealing with the facts, conditions, concepts, and conclusions of science, and with the relations of the sciences. Pertinent because of the intimate relation of scientific method with problem-project method.

QUICK, H. Brown Mouse. 310pp. Bobbs Merrill (1915).

Fascinating fiction of a farmer lad with a country education, who was inveigled to teach the country school and who quasi-instinctively based his procedure upon an informal survey of community needs. A book that makes its own educational appeal on a basis of common sense and plain humor. The ways of the novice here strikingly suggest project method.

RAPEER, L. W., ed. Teaching Elementary School Subjects. 569pp. Scribner (1917).

A symposium of more than a score of leaders of thought and practice in education. Each author treats of a subject of the curriculum. In numerous places content is related with projects.

REAVIS, W. C. “The Social Motive in the Teaching of Arithmetic.” Elementary School Journal, 18:264-67 (1917).

Describes a plan of teaching stocks and bonds to an eighth grade class. A mock bank was organized, in which each member of the class became a stockholder.

ROBERTS, A. C. “An Experiment in Socialization." School Review, 26:25-34 (1918).

Details an experiment in the adaptation of high school education to certain purposeful community demands.

SANDWICK, R. L. How to Study and What to Study. 170pp. Heath (1915).

A how-to-study book that repays reading. Discussion; pithy summary; positive recommendation; analysis of process, aspects, types, and factors of study. Good for junior and senior high school students and for adults who feel the need of help on the technique of their study habits.

SCOTT, C. A. Social Education. 298pp. Ginn (1908).

Describes certain atypical schools, such as the George Junior Republic and the Dewey School. Discusses self-organized group work.

“Social Significance of Self-Organized Group Work.”

In KING, I.: Social Aspects of Education, pp. 377-93. Macmillan (1912).

Presents a method of initiating the project plan in a school room to which it is new, and describes a number of projects. Socialization is seen intimately related with project. A most interesting, vivid, and frank narrative concerning certain difficulties and solutions in socialization.

SEMPLE, E. C. Influences of Geographic Environment. 683pp. Henry Holt (1911).

An invaluable source of problems and their solutions, for the teacher who realizes the necessity of being, upon her own level, a student, if she is to guide students.

SHUTE, M. C. “The Practice of Democracy in the Kindergarten.” Kindergarten and First Grade, 3:89-94 (1918).

Usefully suggestive discussion of the problems of democratic education, e. g., that of the individual and society.

SIMPSON, J. H. Adventure in Education. 207pp. Sidgwick (London, 1917).

An interestingly written and carefully analytic description of an experiment in the educative effect of self-government in one of the lower forms of Rugby School, England.

SMITH, E. L. “Project of Everyday Machines.” General Science Quarterly, 3:31-33 (1919).

An introduction to physics through everyday machines like doorknobs, crowbars, and egg-beaters. Complex machines are finally analyzed into the simple machines of which they are composed.

SNEDDEN, D. “Project as a Teaching Unit.” School and Society, 4:419-23 (1916).

Discussion of various units: the question and answer, the lesson, the topic, and the project. Characteristics, definition, history, and classification of projects.

“Project Method of Teaching Home Making.” Educational Administration and Supervision, 5:94-96 (1919).

Notes of an address which are suggestive as to method and contain a list of relevant projects.

SPEYER SCHOOL CURRICULUM. By the staff and supervisors of the experimental and demonstration school of Teachers College, Columbia University. 180pp. Teachers College, Columbia University (1913).

The interrelation of the content of the subjects of the curriculum, with projects and sources of data. Projects and sources accompany each grade curriculum. Projects are found most frequently with the subject of industrial arts. Rich in concrete suggestion from the kindergarten through the eighth grade. Excellent lists of books needed by children and teachers.

STEVENSON, J. A. “Problems and Projects.” School and Home Education, 38:209-15 (1919).

Method; definitions; projects and problems differentiated and classified; summary.

“Project and the Curriculum.” School and Home Education, 38:146-51 (1919).

Some principles of curriculum making. An analysis of a first grade project: making a flower garden. “Projects need not cut across subjects of the curriculum.” Project as the basis of curriculum organization.

“Project in Science Teaching.” School Science and Mathematics, 19:50-63 (1919). School and Home Education, 38:110-14 (1919). General Science Quarterly, 3:195-209 (1918).

Concept, implications, and description of the project; standards; related concepts in common use, including that of scientific method. A sound, comprehensive, suggestive study, in which Dewey's philosophy of purpose is central.

STONE, C. H. “Making a Match,—a Project.” General Science Quarterly, 3:89-90 (1919).

The process of making a match and its meaning in education.

STRAYER, G. D. and NORSWORTHY, N. How to Teach. 297pp. Macmillan (1917).

The chapters entitled “How Thinking may be Stimulated” and “How to Study” are especially relevant and worth careful reading by those who teach. Our scientific knowledge of learning and of the improvement of functions is here related to the processes of education.

TALLMAN, L. “New Types of Class Teaching.” Religious Education, 12:271-80 (1917).

Discussion of project method. Illustrative material. Emphasis on real life situations, and upon natural method and socialized activity. Bearing of project method upon religious education.

TAYLOR, W. S. “Project Methods in Teacher-training Courses.” School and Society, 8:487-90 (1918). N. E. A. Proceedings, pp. 276-78 (1918).

Instruction in agriculture in the secondary school was lifeless until projects were used. The beneficial results and the criteria of the method in agriculture are discussed.

THOMPSON, C. J. “Study of the Socialized versus the Academic Method of Teaching Written Composition.” School Review, 27:110-133 (1919).

An experimental and a control group are compared through measurements, with the conclusion that the method which utilizes the social elements of the composition and group stimuli gives decidedly better results. Recommendations as to procedure are included.

THORNDIKE, E. L. Education, A First Book. Chap. IX and X, pp. 168-202. Macmillan (1912).

Really, if not professedly, concerned with aspects of project method. Assuming the scientific attitude and the relevancy of purposes in educative processes, these chapters give concrete and illuminating direction.

“Education for Initiative and Originality.” Teachers College Record, 17:405-16 (1916); Teachers College Bulletin, 11th Series, No. 4 (1919).

Two virtues basic in project method, in ethics in use, and in civic practice. “From the standpoint of education in a democratic state and for the sake of efficient democratic citizenship.” The definitions proposed do much to clarify ethical educational thought. Certainly one of the best analyses of these traits.

Educational Psychology. 3 vol., 327; 452; 408 pp. Teachers College, Columbia University (1913-14).

Pertinent to project study because every method of education must concern reflexes, instincts, capacities, laws of learning, and the factors and conditions of improvement. A scientific correlate of the John Dewey philosophy of education as a base of the problem-project method.

Principles of Teaching. 293pp. A. G. Seiler (1906).

Invaluable for teachers making the transition to methods involving reasoning by children. Very helpful on the technique of handling the element of interest, on habit formation, and on much else.

TRANER, F. W. “Socializing the Study of History.” School Review, 25:714-21 (1917).

Presents criteria for the selection of content. Favors the “topical or problem method.” The aim of education is stated to be adjustment to social environment.

TWISS, G. R. “Outlook for the Application of Scientific Method to the Problem of Science Teaching." N. E. A. Proceedings, 52:723-28 (1914).

Contains a series of theses bearing upon the project method.

TWISS, G. R. A Textbook in the Principles of Science Teaching. 458pp. Macmillan (1917).

A thoroughgoing text on scientific method as fundamental in the progress of the race and of the child's education; replete with excellent suggestions of method in teaching and of the materials of equipment. Many principles of scientific method and subjects of the curriculum are treated. Problem-project method is in the last analysis scientific method.

UPTON, S. M. and CHASSELL, C. F. “Scale for Measuring the Importance of Habits of Good Citizenship.” Teachers College Record, 20:36-65 (1919).

A scale in which certain virtues important in project method find prominent place.

VAN BUSKIRK, E. F. and SMITH, E. L. Science of Everyday Life. 416pp. Houghton Mifflin (1919).

A book of projects for the junior high school: air, fire, breathing, health, water, soil, foods, control of nature, homes, clothing, lighting, heating, machines, transportation, and the origin and betterment of life. A goodly wealth of the matter and spirit of projects in general science, with many and excellent illustrations. Of undoubted value for the courses in general science in junior high schools.

VON HOFE, G. D. “Development of a Project.” Teachers College Record, 17:240-46 (1916).

“The sixth grade in the Horace Mann School are studying science regardless of every artificial division. The class chooses a project . . . the teacher then presents the information to follow . . . the trend of the thought of

the pupils." One project is presented.

“Giving the Project Method a Trial.” School Science and Mathematics, 16:763-67 (1916).

Certain aims are erected and cautions suggested.

WAKE, W. S. “Project in General Science.” School Science and Mathematics, 19:643-50 (1919).

A stimulating, well-organized article dealing with aspects of the project method as follows: need of the method; laboratory; definitions by nine authors with the author's criticisms; approaching, beginning, developing, culminating, and closing projects; attitude; twelve types of projects; induction and deduction; the text-book.

WATSON, C. W. “School Home-Garden Project.” Nebraska Teacher, 20:293-97 (1918).

Presents the organization and results of a project involving the cooperation of boys and girls of a state.

WHIPPLE, G. M. How to Study Effectively. 44pp. Public School Pub. Co. (1916).

Clear, sound, detailed directions for guidance of children's study in the elementary school, high school, and college. Contains much that will help many an adult.

WIECKING, A. “Some Suggestions for Primary Industrial Projects.” School Progress, 1:3-6 (1919).

WILLIAMS, R. H. “Introductory Fire Lesson.” General Science Quarterly, 1:216-21 (1917).

Detailed account of a project and of class conversation connected with it.

WILSON, G. M. “Motivation of Seventh and Eighth Grade History Work.” Elementary School Teacher, 13:11-16 (1912).

A very interesting suggestion. An 8B class in United States history used Madison's Journal of the Constitutional Convention and organized itself into such a convention, the teacher being elected to play the roll of Washington. Other members of the group played other rolls. The dramatic treatment aroused undoubted interest.

WILSON, H. B. and WILSON, G. M. The Motivation of School Work. 265pp. Houghton Mifflin (1916).

Treats of the basis of motive, and of motivation in school subjects and in extra-curricular activities. Much concrete illustration. Very helpful.

“Problem Attack in Teaching.” Elementary School Journal, 17:749-55 (1917).

The problem attack in the presence of conscious difficulty is requisite to good school work, and results in real learning and economy. Two types of problems are presented and one illustration from history is given in some detail.

WOODHULL, J. F. “Aims and Methods of Science Teaching.” General Science Quarterly, 2:249-50 (1917).

An analysis of the project method as that used by the masters of investigation of all time. Its advantages as against topical methods. A convincing presentation.

“General Science.” School Science and Mathematics, 13499-500 (1913).

Correspondence is invited with reference to suggestions as to a survey of children's interests, the ignorances of adults, etc.

WOODHULL, J. F. “General Science,—Summary of Opinion under Revision.” School Science and Mathematics, 14:600-602 (1914); Educational Review, 48:298-300 (1914).

Some unusually significant conclusions regarding children's interests, with implications regarding method. A drastic but sound arraignment of “preparatory science.”

“Natural Method.” School and Society, 3:64-65 (1916).

We can teach concepts only through experiences. Intimate relation of projects in physics with life. The presentation is suggestive and forceful.

“Project Method in the Teaching of Science.” School and Society, 8:41-44 (1918).

What the method is and is not. The method is that of the masters of all time. It must be thoroughly acquired by teachers and used habitually by them; then we may expect results from their pupils. Sound and suggestive.

“Projects in Science.” Teachers College Record, 17:31-39 (1916).

Certain problems were solved and projects done by five university professors. Three other projects are described in some detail. All were from real life and were really problems. Valuable as suggesting the compelling character of real problem-projects. The philosophy of purpose is assumed.

“Project of a Frozen Water-pipe.” General Science Quarterly, 3:107 (1919).

Edited from a boy's note-book. A piece of education in a natural setting.

“Science Teaching by Projects.” School Science and Mathematics, 15:225-32 (1915).

Project method is presented as research, scientific method, the method of the masters, and the method of everyday effective living. There is a considerable range of pertinent quotation. The absurdities of certain commonly used methods are rehearsed. A widely suggestive and important reading.

Studies of the Masters — “Lyell.” General Science Quarterly, 3:141-46 (1919). “Scientific Orthodoxy.” General Science Quarterly, 3:216-18 (1919). “Darwin.” General Science Quarterly, 4:275-82 (1919).

Evidence is here adduced to prove that the method of work of certain masters of investigation is that since called project method.

WOODHULL, J. F. Teaching of Science. 249pp. Macmillan (1918).

Chap. XIII. Science Teaching by Projects. A sound view and a wealth of pertinent quotation. Chap. XIV. Projects in Science. Chap. XV. Natural Method.

WORKMAN, L. L. “Project in Ventilation.” General Science Quarterly, 3:33-34 (1919).

An interesting project described.

WRIGHT, W. R. “Some Effects of Incentives on Work and Fatigue.” Psychological Review, 13:23-24 (1906).

One of the few experimental studies bearing on the arousing of initiative. The conclusions are of prime interest in their bearing upon the problem-project method.

WRITE, R. “Socialized Recitation.” Atlantic Educational Journal, 13:175-81 (1917).

A socialized recitation in geography.

ZIEGLER, C. W. “Laboratory Method in English Teaching.” English Journal, 8:3 (1919).

Describes, as in a friendly interview, aspects of a new method in high school English: lengthened school day; supervised study; equipment; relations in the curriculum; content; spirit of industry; responses in educative activities beyond school requirement; aim and method in poetry; difficulties; textbooks.

Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 21 Number 2, 1920, p. 150-174
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 3850, Date Accessed: 1/27/2022 12:23:00 PM

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