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Tested International Recipes


by May B. Van Arsdale, Day Monroe & and others - 1918

It is easy enough to say that in a war emergency one must learn to change one's food habits—especially when we mean that some one else must change his food habits and adopt ours. But can an American put himself in the place of his Italian neighbor and realize just what it means to him to be suddenly deprived of his three most-prized foods—olive oil, Italian cheese, and macaroni? An absolute compliance with the spirit and letter of the requests of the Food Administration cannot begin to cause the discomfort to an American that the cessation of Italian imports has already brought to the New York Italian. And this problem of the Italian's is only one of the many, for a big city has as many food problems as it has nationalities.

It is easy enough to say that in a war emergency one must learn to change one's food habits—especially when we mean that some one else must change his food habits and adopt ours. But can an American put himself in the place of his Italian neighbor and realize just what it means to him to be suddenly deprived of his three most-prized foods—olive oil, Italian cheese, and macaroni? An absolute compliance with the spirit and letter of the requests of the Food Administration cannot begin to cause the discomfort to an American that the cessation of Italian imports has already brought to the New York Italian. And this problem of the Italian's is only one of the many, for a big city has as many food problems as it has nationalities.


It is difficult to interpret the same message to so many peoples. To save wheat, save meat, and save sugar may be very easy for one person and very hard for another with quite different food habits. The dissemination of instruction that will make compliance with the message of conservation possible, is not always easy, and must often be accomplished by a long, slow process of education.


A study of the dietaries of the foreign population in a big city will teach the American citizen that he has much to learn from his neighbor. The food problem of the big cities can be solved, if solution is at all possible, only when each nationality contributes its experience to the other, and when the American is as willing to accept advice as to give it. In the effort to help all of the people of New York solve their food problems last summer the New York City Food Aid Committee endeavored to learn through its representatives in the different districts all that it could of the food habits of the various nationalities. In making this inquiry a number of favorite recipes were collected. Many of these recipes, however, were in very crude form, having been passed on simply by word of mouth. Others were for well-known foreign dishes, with modifications. The recipes were next tried out in the experimental cookery classes of Teachers College and accurate measurements were then substituted for the first vague directions. However, we make no claim that the recipes as here given are absolutely typical of the different nationalities represented. It is quite possible that an Italian in New York might adopt some of the tricks of seasoning of his Hungarian neighbor, and that a recipe used by his family might lack the essential characteristics of the dish bearing the same name in Italy.


With the present discussion regarding the necessity for saving time on the home cookery processes, it may be that Americans may learn much from the study of the foreign 'one-dish meals', where all the elements necessary for a well-balanced meal are served in one dish, rather than being distributed through several, as is our custom. In this war emergency we have laid particular emphasis on the recipes using fish, in order to encourage meat saving; but we are also including expensive and even tabooed foods which may be of use later when the present food restrictions are removed. The American housewife can also learn something of the possibilities of 'meat extenders' where a small amount of meat will suffice for extending the meat flavor through a whole dish, and which can, therefore, be used to provide satisfaction to the taste, without a large expenditure of money and the use of the generous quantity of meat to which many are accustomed.


Thus the foreign housewife can help the American. Helping the foreigner, on the other hand, means understanding his point of view and then educating him according to American standards. Finally, the food problem of a big city will never be adequately solved until each one of us is willing to cooperate by putting himself in the other man's place. As an initial step in the solution of this important economic problem, and as a contribution towards a better social understanding of our foreign neighbors, the following recipes are here presented.

FAIRLY WELL ROUNDED 'ONE-DISH’ MEALS

Gevech


Fish, ¾ pound

Tomato, canned, ¾ cup

Cabbage, shredded, 1 ¼ cups

Onion, chopped, ¼ cup

Potatoes, diced, ¾ cup

Water, 3 tablespoons

Pepper, green, cut into strips, ½

Rice, ¼ cup

Salt, ¾ teaspoon

Paprika, ¼ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Parboil cabbage, onion, rice, potatoes, and green pepper together, in salted water, for 10 minutes. Drain. Clean fish; cut into small pieces, and mix with parboiled vegetables, canned tomato, water, and seasonings. Bake in a moderate oven (about 380° F.) for about 40 minutes. Baste occasionally while cooking. Serve with a garnish of sliced lemon.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.24. Cost per serving: $.04.

Paprikosh


Fish (haddock or other fish), ½ pound

Potatoes, diced, 2 cups

Onion, sliced, 2 tablespoons

Parsley, chopped, 2 teaspoons

Olive oil, 2 tablespoons

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Paprika, ½ teaspoon

Water, 1 ½ cups


Brown onion in olive oil; add diced potatoes and brown. Add fish, boned and cut into small bits. Mix well together; add parsley, seasonings, and water and cook for about 20 minutes. Serve with a garnish of sliced lemon.


Yield: 5 servings. Total cost: $.146. Cost per serving: $.029.

Clam Chowder


Clams, 9

Salt pork, cut into cubes, 1 tablespoon

Oleomargarin, ½ tablespoon

Carrots, cubed ½ cup

Onions, sliced, ½ cup

Celery, chopped, ½ cup

Tomatoes, ½ cup

Potatoes, cubed, 1 cup

Salt

Pepper

Water, 1 quart


Brown salt pork and onions together. Clean and pick over clams, reserving the liquor, and chopping the hard part fine. Cook potatoes, carrots, and celery in boiling salted water (1 quart) until almost done. Add clam liquor, salt pork, onions, chopped hard part of clams, and tomatoes. For last three minutes of cooking add soft part of clams; season with salt and pepper. Add oleomargarin just before serving.


Yield: 4 ½ cups, 6 servings. Total cost: $.20. Cost per serving: $.033.

Yakhuah


Egg plant, cut into pieces, 1 cup

Mutton, ½ pound

Potatoes, 1 ½ cups

Tomatoes, canned, 23 cup

Onions, sliced, 2 cups

String beans, 2 cups

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Salt, 1 ½ teaspoons

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Brown onion and mutton, cut into small pieces, in fat; add tomato juice; cover and cook until meat begins to be tender. Parboil egg plant and string beans; drain; add to meat mixture with potatoes and seasonings. Cook until vegetables and meat are done (about 40 minutes). It may be necessary to add more water while this is cooking, but as little liquid as possible should be used.


Yield: 10 servings. Total cost: $.334. Cost per serving: $.033.

Totot Kapionta


Cabbage leaves, 12

Pork, ¼ pound

Beef chuck, ¼ pound

Bacon, 18 pound

Onion, 1 small

Egg, 1

Rice, 1 cup

Salt, 3 teaspoons or more

Pepper, ½ teaspoon

Paprika, ¼ teaspoons

Olive oil, 4 tablespoons


Brown rice in 2 tablespoons olive oil until a golden color. Add about 2 cups of water; cover and cook until rice is tender. Put meat and onion through meat chopper; add egg, salt, pepper, and paprika. Drain rice, saving liquid in which it was cooked. To rice add meat, and enough of rice liquid to make soft mixture. Parboil cabbage leaves until pliable; then drain and fill with meat and rice, rolling over ends of leaves and fastening with toothpicks, if necessary, to prevent rice and meat from coming out. Brown cabbage leaves in 2 tablespoons olive oil; add about 14 cup hot water; cover and simmer for about an hour. This may be served with tomato sauce, brown sauce, or without any sauce.


Yield: 12 servings. Total cost: $.36. Cost per serving: $.03.

Shabbos Shalend


Pearl barley, 1 cup

Beans, 1 cup

Marrow bones, 3(2 ½ x 3 ins.)

Onion, 1 tablespoon

Corn syrup (dark), 1 tablespoon

Salt and pepper


Soak beans over night; drain and put on to cook in fresh water for an hour. Cook barley for about 20 minutes in boiling salted water. Scrape some of marrow fat from bones, add sliced onion, and cook until golden brown. Remove onion and brown marrow bones and any meat with them. Drain beans; mix with barley, drained; add marrow bones and put into a bean pot. Add corn syrup and water to come to top of beans. Bake in a slow oven for 4 hours.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.17. Cost per serving: $.028.

Stuffed Cabbage


Cabbage, 1 small head

Rice, 1 cup

Mutton, 13 pound

Tomato sauce, 2 ½ cups

Stock, 1 cup

Olive oil, 2 tablespoons

Water, 2 cups

Salt

Pepper


Scoop out the center of a small head of cabbage. Parboil head of cabbage until tender. Heat olive oil; add rice, and when this has partially browned, add mutton cut into small pieces. When well browned, add stock, water, seasonings; cover and steam until rice is soft and meat is tender. Drain cabbage; fill cavity with cooked meat and rice; return to kettle, and pour tomato sauce around cabbage; cook in sauce for about 10 minutes. Serve with sauce.


Yield: 8 large servings. Total cost: $.39. Cost per serving: $.048.

Stuffed Peppers I


Green peppers, 4

Rice, uncooked, ¼ cup

Meat, chopped 23 cup

Onion, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Parsley, chopped, 1 teaspoon

Water, ¾ cup

Olive oil, 3 tablespoons

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Paprika, ½ teaspoon

Tomatoes, canned, ¾ cup


Wash peppers; cut off tops and remove seeds. Brown rice in 2 tablespoons olive oil; add meat, and brown. Add chopped parsley, ½ tablespoon chopped onion, seasonings, and water, and cook until rice and meat are almost tender. Stuff peppers with rice mixture; tie on tops and put in oven with 18 cup water. Brown remainder of chopped onion in olive oil; add canned tomato. Pour this around peppers and bake for about 25 minutes, until peppers are done and tomato has cooked down.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.341. Cost per serving: $.085.

Stuffed Peppers II


Peppers, 3

Bread crumbs, 13 cup

Meat, cooked, chopped, 3 ounces

Onion, chopped, 1 teaspoon

Tomato, canned, ½ cup

Cinnamon, 1-16 teaspoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon


Parboil peppers for five minutes. Cut off tops; remove seeds. Mix together the ingredients for stuffing; fill peppers and replace tops, tying them in place. Bake in a moderate oven (350°-380° F.) for about 30 minutes.


Yield: 3 servings. Total cost: $.20. Cost per serving: $.066.

Macaroni with Cheese


Macaroni, 12 sticks (1 cup)

Tomato, canned, 1 cup

Cheese, grated, ½ cup

Onion, chopped, 13 cup

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Salt and pepper


Brown the onion in olive oil; add tomatoes and cook until thickened. Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until tender; drain; pour cold water through it; add to tomato sauce; add salt and pepper to taste; and cook together for 10 minutes. Put into serving dish alternate layers of the macaroni and grated cheese, sprinkling cheese over the top.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.128. Cost per serving: $.032.

Vegetable Stew


Beef, ½  pound

Mutton, ½ pound

Carrots, diced, ½ cup

Carrot, whole, 1

Potatoes, diced, 2 cups

Tomato, canned, ¾ cup

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Onion, sliced, 3 tablespoons

Cabbage, chopped, 1 cup

Flour, for thickening, ¼ cup

Bay leaf, ½

Cloves, 6

Peppercorns, 6

Parsley, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Salt, 2 teaspoons

Thyme, 1 sprig

Water, 7 cups


Cut meat into small pieces; brown with onion in fat; add water, 1 carrot in which the cloves have been imbedded, and other vegetables. Tie the bay leaf, peppercorns, and thyme together in a piece of cheesecloth and cook with stew ingredients until these are done (about two hours). Remove bag of seasonings; thicken stew with flour; add salt and pepper, if needed.


Yield: 10 cups, 14 servings. Total cost: $.33. Cost per serving: $.023.

Goulash


Beef, chuck, ¾ pound

Fat, 1 tablespoon

Salt, 1 ½ teaspoons

Onion, chopped, 1 ½ tablespoons

Sweet red pepper, 13

Potato, diced, 1 cup

Peppercorns, 3

Bay leaf, ½

Paprika, ½ teaspoon

Water, 1 ½ cups (more or less)

Tomatoes, 1 cup


Fry onion a golden brown in the fat; add meat, cut into small pieces, and brown well. Add red pepper, seasonings, and tomato. Cook until meat is tender, adding the water gradually as needed. Add potatoes, and cook until they are tender. Noodles may be added, if they are desired, about 20 minutes before the potatoes are done.


Yield: 8 servings. Total cost: $.25. Cost per serving: $.031.

Carrot Meat Pie


Carrots, small, 17 (3 bunches)

Beef, chuck, ¼ pound

Salt, ¼ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Crust:

Flour, 1 cup

Baking powder, 1 ½ teaspoons

Salt, ¼ teaspoon

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Water, 13 cup


Wash carrots, scrape, and cut into eighths; put on to cook with a small amount of water—not enough to entirely cover carrots. Cut beef into small pieces; brown in frying pan; add seasonings; add to carrots and cook until almost all of the water is gone and the meat and carrots are tender. Put into a greased baking dish, cover with a crust, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


Directions for making crust: Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the fat with a knife; add water to make a soft dough; turn out on floured board, roll into shape for baking dish.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.241. Cost per serving: $.04.

Meat and Potatoes


Mutton, cut into small pieces, ¾ pound

Drippings, 1 tablespoon

Tomatoes, canned, 1 ¼ cups, or 2 large tomatoes

Potatoes, diced, 3

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Paprika, 18 teaspoon

Onion, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Clove of garlic, 1 slice


Brown chopped onion and garlic in drippings. Add small pieces of mutton and cook until well browned, and partially done. Brown potatoes in fat with meat. Add tomatoes, and seasonings, and cook slowly until meat is tender and potatoes are done.


Yield: 5 good-sized servings. Total cost: $.231. Cost per serving: $.046.

Chu Papo


Beef, ¼ pound

Carrots, diced, ¼ cup

Peas, 13 cup

Cabbage, chopped, ¼ cup

Celery, chopped, ¼ cup

Flour, 4 tablespoons

Oleomargarin, 2 tablespoons

Water, 1 cup

Worcestershire sauce (or Soy), ½ teaspoon

Salt and pepper

Pastry:

Flour, 2 cups

Fat, 23 cup

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Water


Parboil vegetables together until tender. Brown meat in fat; remove; add flour and stir until well browned; add I cup water, and cook until thickened. Season this sauce with salt, pepper, and Worcestershire sauce. Add cooked meat and cooked vegetables.


Roll pastry ¼ inch thick; cut into squares; fill center of each square with meat and fold over the corners, making a square. Bake in a hot oven for 15 minutes. (Left-over meat of any kind may be substituted for the fresh beef used).


Yield: 9 squares, 3x3 ins. Total cost: $.304. Cost per square: $.034.

Fried Polenta


Corn meal, ½ cup

Water, boiling, 2 cups

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Paprika, 18 teaspoon

Cheese, grated, ½ cup

Tomato sauce, 1 cup

Fat (for sautéing), 3 tablespoons


Stir corn meal gradually into boiling salted water; cook over direct flame, stirring constantly for 12 minutes; cook over hot water for 1 hour. Stir grated cheese through the mush, add paprika, and turn into moulds. Cool, until the polenta is firm enough to slice. Cut into thin slices and sauté  until golden brown. Serve with tomato sauce.


Yield: 15 slices of polenta (2 ½  ins. in diameter), 7 servings. Total cost (including sauce): $.135. Cost per serving: $.019.

Polenta with Tomato Sauce


Corn meal, ½ cup

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Boiling water, 2 cups

Cheese, grated, ¼ cup

Tomato sauce, 1 cup


Stir corn meal gradually into boiling salted water; cook over direct flame, stirring constantly for about 12 minutes; cook over hot water for an hour. Lay by tablespoonfuls on platter. Over this pour tomato sauce. Sprinkle with grated cheese. Serve hot. (This may be served without the tomato sauce for a simpler dish).


Yield: 8 servings. Total cost (including sauce): $.095. Cost per serving: $.012.

Gnocchi di Farina


Milk, 1 pint

Farina, ½ cup

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Egg, 1

Oleomargarin, 3 teaspoons

Cheese, grated, 7 tablespoons

Paprika, 18 teaspoon


Heat milk in top of double boiler; add salt and farina, stirring constantly. Cook for about 20 minutes. Remove from fire, stir in beaten egg, and spread in a shallow pan to cool. Cut into 2-inch squares. Grease a baking dish, put in a layer of the squares of farina; on top of each square sprinkle grated cheese and paprika, and put a small piece of oleomargarin. Bake in a very hot oven (470-°480° F.) for about 15 minutes, until the squares are golden brown.


Yield: 24 2-inch squares. Total cost: $.214. Cost per square: $.008.

Macaroni


Pork chops, 3

Onion, very small, 1

Macaroni, 24 sticks 2 (cups)

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Sauté pork chops until done, browning on both sides. Remove chops; fry onion, sliced in thin slices, until golden brown. Remove onion; add macaroni which has been cooked in boiling salted water until tender, and drained. Stir until macaroni is browned; add seasoning. Remove to center of platter; garnish with chops.


Yield: 3 servings. Total cost: $.313. Cost per serving: $.101.

Risotto


Rice, ½ cup

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Water, boiling, 6 cups

Sausage, 38 pound

Cheese, grated, ½ cup

Tomato sauce, 1 cup

Cook rice in boiling salted water until it is almost done; drain off water. Grease a baking dish and put into it a layer of rice; add sausage, fried and cut into small pieces; sprinkle with grated cheese and tomato sauce. Over this put remainder of rice, tomato sauce, and cheese. Bake about 20 minutes in a moderate oven (360° F.).


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.30. Cost per serving: $.05.

Beans and Macaroni


Red beans, ½ cup

Macaroni, ½ cup

Garlic, 1 slice of 1 clove

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon

Tomato sauce, 1 cup


Soak beans for several hours; drain, and cook in fresh water for about 3 hours, or until they are tender. During the last hour of cooking add the garlic which has been browned in the olive oil. Cook the macaroni separately in boiling salted water about 20 minutes. When done, drain and add macaroni to beans. Add seasonings and cook together for about 10 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce.


Yield: 4 large servings. Total cost: $.11. Cost per serving: $.027.

'TWO-PROTEIN DISHES'


In these recipes a cheaper protein, as cheese or beans, is combined with the more expensive protein as of meat, so that there is a saving of expense without a protein reduction.

Mousakas


Egg plant, 1 small

Beef, ¼ pound

Cheese, grated, ½ cup

Oleomargarin, 1 tablespoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Peel egg plant, cut into thin slices, and cook in boiling salted water until egg plant is tender and has lost its bitter taste (about 25 minutes). Brown, finely chopped beef in oleomargarin; add salt and pepper. Place egg plant in greased baking dish, covering first layer with grated cheese, and second layer with chopped meat. Repeat until all egg plant is used. Have top layer grated cheese. Put into moderate oven for about 40 minutes. This may be served with an egg sauce, though it is palatable without this added expense.


Yield: 5 servings. Total cost: $.225. Cost per serving: $.045.

Peas and Cheese


Peas, 1 cup

Parsley, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Grated cheese, ½ cup

Oleomargarin, 5 tablespoons

Bread, squares, about 2 ½ ins. thick, 5 squares

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Cook peas with chopped parsley; drain and add 1 ½ tablespoons oleomargarin, cheese, salt, and pepper. Scoop out centers of bread squares, brush over with melted oleomargarin, and brown slightly in a moderate oven. Fill centers of bread squares with peas; replace in oven and heat until bread squares are golden brown and cheese is melted.


Yield: 5 servings. Total cost: $.232. Cost per serving: $.046.

Meat and Beans


Mutton, ½ pound

Kidney beans, 1 cup

Onion, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Fat, 1 tablespoon

Salt, 2 teaspoons

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon


Cut mutton into medium-sized pieces; brown in drippings with chopped onion. Soak beans for several hours; drain and cook for about 2 hours in fresh water. Add mutton and seasonings and cook together until beans and meat are done. This may be served with tomato sauce, if one wishes.


Yield: 5 servings. Total cost: $.198. Cost per serving: $.04.

Brugiole


Round steak, ½ pound

Salt pork, ½ ounce

Cheese, grated ¼ cup

Salt, ¼ teaspoon

Paprika, 18 teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Flour, ¼ cup

Drippings, 2 tablespoons


Pound flour into steak; let stand for 20 minutes. Chop salt pork and mix with grated cheese, salt, pepper, and paprika. Spread steak with this mixture. Roll, cut into half-inch slices, using skewers to keep each slice from unrolling. Brown steak with drippings; then cook slowly in covered frying pan until meat is tender, about 25 minutes.


Yield: 10 slices, 1 ½ inches in diameter and 1 inch thick. Total cost: $.24. Cost per slice: $.024.

Polpetta


Chuck beef, ½ pound

Shoulder pork, ¼ pound

Dry bread, 38 pound

Egg, 1

Grated cheese, ¼ pound

Onion, 2 slices

Parsley, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Salt, 1 ½ teaspoons

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Olive oil, 3 tablespoons


Break bread into small pieces as for dressing; add ¾ cup hot water; allow bread to soften and then squeeze out the water. (If bread is very dry it may be necessary to use more than this amount of water). Put beef, pork, and onion through the meat chopper. Mix with bread, beaten egg, seasonings, and grated cheese. Form into balls. Sauté balls in olive oil. Serve with tomato sauce.


Yield: 15 balls (2 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick). Cost (without sauce): $.38. Cost per ball: $.025.

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES


Among these are the 'meat-extenders' previously mentioned, and unusual combinations of vegetables.

Tomato Sauce


Oleomargarin, 4 tablespoons

Carrot, 1 slice

Onion, 1 slice

Bay leaf, ½

Parsley and thyme, 1 sprig

Tomatoes, canned, 1 cup

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon

Stock, or hot water, 1 ¼ cups

Flour, 4 tablespoons


Cook tomatoes with carrot, parsley, bay leaf, and thyme; strain. Brown the onion in fat; remove onion, add flour, stir until browned, add strained tomatoes and stock. Bring to boiling point and add salt and pepper.


Yield: 2 cups sauce. Cost: $.10.

Cracker-Dust Balls for Soup


Cracker dust, 1 cup

Egg, 1

Water, 13 cup

Salt, ½ teaspoon


Mix beaten egg with other ingredients; form into balls. Drop into hot soup and allow soup to simmer for lo minutes before serving.


Yield: 24 balls (less than 1 inch diameter). Total cost: $.08. Cost per ball: $.003.

Danish Yellow Pea Soup


Yellow split peas, 1 cup

Celery, chopped, 1 cup

Onions, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Water, 4 cups

Smoked sausages 2

Salt, 3 teaspoons

Pepper, ½ teaspoon


Wash peas and put to soak with three cups of cold water; soak over night. Put on to cook in water in which they were soaked; add chopped celery, onion, and 1 cup of water. Cook until peas are done. Put through coarse sieve or potato ricer. Cook sausages in hot water for about 10 minutes, drain, slice, and add to soup. Add seasonings and cook together for 10 minutes.


Yield: 5 cups, 7 servings. Total cost: $.22. Cost per serving: $.031.

Leek Soup


Leeks finely sliced, 3 cups (12 medium-sized leeks)

Potatoes, diced, 3 cups

Bacon fat, 2 tablespoons

Water, 4 pints

Salt, 2 teaspoons

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon

Celery salt, 18 teaspoon

Bologna, ½ pound


Wash leeks. Cut off all but about 2 inches of tops. Slice leeks and portion of top remaining in thin slices. Fry in bacon fat until a golden brown; add diced potatoes and brown slightly. Add water and seasonings. Skin bologna, cut into small pieces, and add to soup. Cook for about 40 minutes.


Yield: 3 quarts soup. Servings: 16 (34 cup each). Total cost: $.32. Cost per serving: $.02.

Lentil Soup


Lentils, ½ pound (1 ¼ cups)

Tomatoes (canned), 1 cup

Bacon, 3 ounces

Parsley, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Onion, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Salt, 2 ½ teaspoons

Pepper, 2 teaspoons

Water, 9 cups

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Flour, 2 tablespoons


Wash lentils, add water, and cook for an hour. Cut bacon into small bits and fry; add onions and fry until golden brown; remove onion and bacon from fat and add to lentils; add parsley, tomatoes, and seasonings to lentils and cook together until the lentils are thoroughly cooked. Put mixture through a potato ricer or very coarse sieve. Add flour to bacon fat; brown; add one cup of lentil mixture and cook until well blended; add to lentil mixture. Bring to boiling point and serve.


Yield: 11 servings. Total cost: $.27. Cost per serving: $.024.

Cabbage Soup


Cabbage, shredded, 1 ½ cups

Onion, sliced, 13 cup

Carrots, diced, 13 cup

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Vinegar, 1 tablespoon

Peppercorns, 6

Tomatoes, 34 cup

Water, 7 cups

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Bay leaf, 1

Thyme, 1 sprig

Parsley, 1 sprig


(The vinegar need not be used if one does not like the slightly acid taste in the soup.)


Parboil the cabbage; drain; put on to cook in 7 cups of water with seasonings, carrots, onions, and tomatoes. Cook until all vegetables are tender. Add vinegar if desired. Serve.


NOTE: If one wishes, the peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme, and parsley may be tied in a cheese cloth bag, added to soup while cooking, and removed when the soup is done.


Yield: 8 servings. Total cost: $.081. Cost per serving: $.01.

Vegetable Soup


Potatoes, 1 cup

Carrots, ½ cup

Lentils, ½ cup

Green beans, ½ cup

Cabbage, shredded, 1 cup

Tomatoes, 1 cup

Celery, ¼ cup

Water, 2 quarts

Seed macaroni, ¼ cup

Bay leaf, 1

Peppercorns, 7

Parsley, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Onion, ¼ cup

Cloves, 4

Thyme, 1 sprig

Salt and pepper


Cook lentils in 1 quart water until about half done (45 minutes); add other vegetables, macaroni and 1 quart of water. Tie the bay leaf, peppercorns, cloves, and thyme together in a bit of cheese cloth. Put this into soup and let it remain until soup is done. Cook soup until all vegetables are tender. Season with salt and pepper, remove bag of seasonings, and serve.


Yield: 8 ¼ cups, 12 servings. Total cost: $.22. Cost per serving: $.018.

Fish Soup


Fish (weakfish, haddock, or any inexpensive fish), ¾ pound

Onion, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Parsley, chopped, 2 ½ tablespoons

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Seed macaroni, 13 cup

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Boiling water, 1 quart

Lemon juice, 2 tablespoons

Salt, 1 teaspoon


Clean fish and cut into small pieces, removing the bones; cover bones with boiling water, cook for about 20 minutes, remove bones, and use remaining fish stock in making soup. Brown chopped onion in olive oil and add to fish; add stock from bones, chopped parsley, salt, pepper, and seed macaroni. Cook for about 30 minutes. Add lemon juice just before serving.


Yield: 6 cups soup, 8 servings. Total cost: $.183. Cost per serving: $.023.

Chopped Herring


Smoked herring, ½ pound

Onion, chopped, 3 tablespoons

Parsley, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Olive oil, ¼ cup

Vinegar, 1 ½ tablespoons

Paprika, ¼ teaspoon


Soak herring over night; scald; remove bones; separate fish into small bits; add onion, parsley, and a French dressing made of the vinegar, oil, and paprika. Let the fish stand in the dressing for an hour before serving.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.30. Cost per serving: $.075.

Fried Herring


Smoked herring, ¼ pound


Fat, 2 tablespoons

Flour, 2 tablespoons


Clean herring; soak over night; drain and dry. Cut into pieces of a size suitable for serving. Roll in flour and sauté  in fat until a golden brown.


Yield: 2 servings. Total cost: $.157. Cost per serving: $.079.

Fish Fricassee


Fish (haddock or other fish), ¾ pound

Onions, sliced, ½ cup

Paprika, ¾ teaspoon

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Bay leaf, ½

Green pepper, chopped, ¼ cup

Water, 13 cup

Tomatoes, canned, 23 cup

Fat, 2 tablespoons


Fry onions until golden brown in the olive oil; add fish, cleaned, boned, and cut into small pieces; fry until brown. Add chopped green pepper, paprika, bay leaf, tomatoes, salt, and water. Cover tightly. Cook for about 30 minutes. A garnish of sliced lemon may be used with this.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.31. Cost per serving: $.08.

Stuffalo


Chuck, 4 pounds

Salt pork, ¼ pounds

Onion, minced, 1

Soup stock, 1 pint

Cider, or cider vinegar, ½ cup

Apples, 3

Paprika, ½ teaspoon

Salt, ¾ teaspoon

Pepper, ½ teaspoon

Sugar, 1 teaspoon

Flour (for thickening), 2 tablespoons


Trim chuck; lard with salt pork; brown with thin slices of salt pork. Add sliced onion and brown. Add vinegar or cider, and soup stock. Allow to simmer for about 2 ½ hours, until the meat is tender. Add three apples, pared and cored, and the sugar. Cook until the apples are done. Remove meat and apples and thicken the liquid remaining in the pot.


Yield: 12 servings. Total cost: $1.18. Cost per serving: $.098.

Mamalega


Yellow corn meal, 1 cup

Salt, 1 ½ teaspoons

Boiling water, 4 cups

Cheese, grated, ¾ cup


Add salt to boiling water and stir the corn meal in gradually. Cook over direct flame, stirring constantly, for about 15 minutes. Cook for an hour over hot water. Stir grated cheese through the mush and serve hot.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.09. Cost per serving: $.015.

Macaroni and Potatoes


Macaroni, broken into pieces, 1 cup

Potatoes, diced, 3 cups

Tomato juice, 2 cups

Onion, chopped, ¼ cup

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Paprika, ¼ teaspoon

Olive oil, ¼ cup


Brown sliced onion in the olive oil, add potatoes, and brown. Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until almost done. Drain; add to potatoes; add tomato juice and seasonings and cook until potatoes are done.


Yield: 8 servings, ¾ cup each. Total cost: $.20. Cost per serving: $.025.

Risotto alia Milanese


Rice, 13 cup

Onion, chopped, 2 ¼ tablespoons

Soup stock, 2 ¼ cups

Cheese, grated, ¼ cup

Oleomargarin, 1 ½ tablespoons

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon


Brown onion in fat; add rice and cook until brown; add soup stock and seasonings and cook until rice is done (about 45 minutes). Sprinkle with grated cheese. Serve.


Yield: 2 ½ cups, 4 servings. Total cost: $.158. Cost per serving: $.039.

Italian Rice


Rice, dry, 1

Olive oil, 2 tablespoons

Onion, chopped, ½ cup

Tomatoes, canned, 3 ½ cups

Green pepper, chopped, ½ cup

Salt, 1 teaspoon

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon


Fry chopped onion in olive oil until golden brown. Add dry rice and brown slightly. Add canned tomato, chopped pepper, and seasonings. Cover and simmer slowly, stirring as little as possible, for about 45 minutes, until the rice is tender.


Yield: 8 generous servings. Total cost: $.314. Cost per serving: $.04.

Lentils


Lentils, ½ pound (1 ¼ cups)

Tomatoes, canned, 1 cup

Bacon, 3 ounces

Parsley, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Salt, 3 teaspoons

Pepper, 2 teaspoons

Water, 6 ½ cups


Wash lentils, add water, parsley, tomatoes, and seasonings; cut bacon into small pieces, brown slightly add to lentils, and cook for 1 ½ hours.


Yield: 8 servings. Total cost: $.24. Cost per serving: $.03.

Lentils and Celery


Lentils, ½ cup

Green celery, cut into small pieces, ¼ cup

Onion, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Salt, ¾ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon


Cook lentils in about 2 ½ cups of water for an hour. Add celery, cut into small pieces; add chopped onion, browned in the olive oil; season with salt and pepper. Cook together for ½ hour. All water should be absorbed by this time and lentils and celery should be done. Cook longer, if necessary.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.09. Cost per serving: $.015.

Mashed Beans


Dried beans, 1 cup

Onion, chopped, 2 tablespoons

Parsley, chopped, 1 tablespoon

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, ½ teaspoon


Pick over beans and wash them; 'then soak over night. Drain; cover with cold water and cook until tender. Drain; mash beans; add seasonings and chopped parsley. Brown onion, finely chopped, in olive oil. Add to mashed beans. Heat and serve. The mashed beans may be cooled, the onion added raw, and the dish served, with French dressing, as a salad.


Yield: 7 servings. Total cost: $.082. Cost per serving: $.011.

Cabbage with Vegetables


Cabbage, shredded, 3 cups

Potatoes, diced, 1 13 cups

Onion, chopped ¼ cup

Tomatoes, canned 1 cup

Salt, 1 ¼ teaspoons

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Cayenne,

Olive oil, 3 tablespoons

Water, 1 cup


Cook cabbage, water, and canned tomatoes together for about 30 minutes. Brown onion and potatoes in olive oil; add to partially cooked cabbage; add seasoning, and cook until potatoes and cabbage are done. This may be served hot, or may be chilled and served with French dressing as a salad.


Yield: 6 large servings. Total cost: $.15. Cost per serving: $.025.

Cabbage and Tomatoes


Cabbage, shredded, 5 cups

Tomatoes, canned, ½ cup

Onion, chopped, 3 tablespoons

Water, 3 cups

Salt, 1 ½ teaspoons

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon


Shred cabbage; parboil for 15 minutes; drain and cook with tomato, seasonings, and onion for about 35 minutes. A small amount of water may have to be added during the cooking but the cabbage should be almost dry when tender.


Yield: 4 large servings. Total cost: $.065. Cost per serving: $.016.

Pepper Salad


Green peppers, 3

Olive oil, 2 tablespoons

Vinegar, ½ tablespoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Paprika, ½ teaspoon

Parsley, chopped, 1 teaspoon

Onion, chopped, 1 tablespoon


Bake peppers until soft and brown. Remove the thin outer skin and the seeds, and cut into inch squares. Sprinkle with the chopped onion and parsley. Make a French dressing of the oil, vinegar, and seasonings and pour over the peppers. Chill. Sweet red peppers may be served in this same way.


Yield: 2 salads, if served with lettuce or some salad green. Total cost: $.21. Cost per serving (without lettuce): $.105.

Green Peppers Gratin


Green peppers, 3

Bread crumbs, ¼ cup

Cheese, grated, ¼ cup

Onion, chopped, 1 ½ tablespoons

Olive oil, 1 ½ tablespoons


Roast peppers whole on a hot pan. Remove seeds and skins; cut into strips. Into a greased baking dish put alternate layers of pepper and bread crumbs, sprinkling each layer with cheese. Add olive oil and chopped onion. Brown in oven.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.22. Cost per serving: $.055.

Green Peppers


Green peppers, 3

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Paprika, 18 teaspoon


Wash peppers, cut in halves, and remove seeds. Brown in olive oil in frying pan, covering frying pan so that peppers will steam through. Add seasonings. Cook until peppers are tender. Serve as a vegetable with meat.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.104. Cost per serving: $.017.

Italian Squash


Squash, cut into cubes, 3 ½ cups

Mutton, ¼ pound

Olive oil, 1 ½ tablespoons

Tomato sauce, 2 cups

Onion, chopped, 2 tablespoons


Cut mutton into small pieces; brown with chopped onion in olive oil. Add squash, which has been cut into 1-inch cubes; brown. Add tomato sauce; cover and cook slowly for about 35 minutes until the mutton and squash are both done. Add more salt and pepper, if necessary.


Yield: 1 pint, 4 servings. Total cost: $.232. Cost per serving: $.06.

Squash with Tomato Sauce and Cheese


Squash, ½ summer squash, or ¼ small winter squash

Tomato sauce, 1 ½ cups

Cheese, grated, ¼ cup

Olive oil, 1 tablespoon

Hardened vegetable fat, 1 tablespoon


Peel squash. If a summer squash is used, cut into thin slices. If a winter variety is used, remove center pulp and seeds, and cut solid portion into thin strips. Dip squash in flour; sauté in the olive oil and fat mixed. In a baking dish place alternate layers of squash and tomato sauce. Sprinkle the top layer with grated cheese. Bake for about 30 minutes in a moderate oven.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.146. Cost per serving: $.024.

Egg Plant


Egg plant, ½

Cheese, grated, 23 cup

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Tomato sauce, ¾ cup


Peel egg plant, cut into thin slices lengthwise, cover each slice with salt, and put all under pressure for an hour. Wash off salt, and dry slices of egg plant; sauté until golden brown in drippings; place in baking dish, add tomato sauce, and sprinkle with grated cheese. Bake in a moderate oven (370° F.) for 20 minutes.


Yield: 5 servings. Total cost: $.21. Cost per serving: $.042.

Spinach


Spinach, ¼ peck

Flour, 2 tablespoons

Fat, 2 tablespoons

Onion, chopped, 1 teaspoon

Bread, 2 slices, soaked in hot water and squeeze out

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, ¼ teaspoon


Wash spinach; pick over carefully; cook until tender in as little water as can be used. Drain; then chop. Brown onion in fat in sauce pan; add flour, brown; add soup stock and seasonings, and cook until thickened. Add spinach and soaked bread and cook together for about 10 minutes, stirring constantly. Serve with vinegar, if desired. A garnish of hard cooked egg may be used.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.088. Cost per serving: $.015.

Potato Balls


Potatoes, small, 5

Egg yolk, 1

Cheese, grated, 5 teaspoons

Parsley, chopped, 3 teaspoons

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Olive oil, 1 ½ tablespoons

Crumbs, ½ cup

Egg, ½ for dipping


Cook potatoes in boiling, salted water; drain and mash; add beaten egg yolk, cheese, parsley, salt, and pepper and mix thoroughly. Let stand on board until cold (about 15 minutes). Roll into small balls; dip in crumbs, egg and crumb. Sauté in olive oil in frying pan until golden brown.


Yield: 6 servings (2 balls apiece). Total cost: $.125. Cost per ball: $.01.

Jola Gratier


Rice, ½ cup

Raisins, ½ cup

Water, 1 cup

Cinnamon, ¼ stick

Milk, 1 pint

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Corn sirup, ¼ cup

Lemon rind, ¼ teaspoon


Wash rice, pick over raisins, and put both on to cook with the water and stick cinnamon. Cook slowly, stirring as little as possible until water has been absorbed. Add milk, salt, and sirup; cook over hot water for about 45 minutes. Add grated lemon rind. Serve hot.


Yield: 4 servings (large). Total cost: $.134. Cost per serving: $.033.

Apple Strudel


Flour, 1 cup

Fat, 4 tablespoons

Salt, ¼ teaspoon

Water, to make pastry

Apple, finely chopped, 1 cup

Maple sugar, 2 tablespoons

Cinnamon, 1 teaspoon


Make pastry with the flour, fat, water, and salt. Pull pastry; roll out paper thin; spread with chopped apples, which have been mixed with cinnamon and maple sugar. Roll into a long roll. Bake in a very hot oven (460° to 500° F.) for about 10 minutes. This may be served with lemon sauce.


Yield: 4 servings. Total cost: $.088. Cost per serving: $.022.

Noodle Pudding


Noodles:

Egg, 1

Salt, ½ teaspoon

Flour, 78 cup

Egg, 1

Corn sirup (dark), ¼ cup

Raisins, ½ cup

Oleomargarin, 1 tablespoon

Cinnamon, 1 ½ teaspoons

Clove, ½ teaspoon


Noodles: Beat I egg slightly; add salt and flour, making a very stiff dough; knead, roll as thin as possible; cover with towel and set aside for twenty minutes. Roll like jelly roll, cut into thin strips, and cook for 15 minutes in boiling salted water. Drain; cool by dipping into cold water.


Pudding: Drain noodles from cold water. Beat egg slightly; add sirup, spices, noodles, and raisins: mix well together and turn into a greased baking dish. Dot over with oleomargarin. Set baking dish into hot water and bake in a moderate oven (380° F.) for 40 minutes.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.18. Cost per serving, $.03.

Sweet Potatoes and Prunes


Sweet potatoes, 1 pound

Prunes, ¼ pound

Vinegar, 1 tablespoon

Water, ¼ cup

Corn sirup, ½ cup

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Cinnamon, 1/16 teaspoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon


Wash potatoes, pare, and cut into pieces the shape and size of French fried potatoes. Soak prunes for several hours; drain, and remove stones. In a baking dish place alternate layers of sweet potatoes and prunes. Mix together the water, corn sirup, vinegar, and seasonings. Pour this over the sweet potatoes and prunes. Bake in a moderately slow oven for about 1 ¾ hours. Baste from time to time.


Yield: 8 servings. Total cost: $12. Cost per serving: $.015.

November Fifth Pudding


Sweet potatoes, 1 pound

Milk, ½ cup

Oleomargarin, 1 tablespoon

Corn sirup (dark), 13 cup

Pepper, 18 teaspoon

Cinnamon, 1/16 teaspoon

Salt, ½ teaspoon


Boil sweet potatoes in skins; peel, mash; add fat, milk, sirup, nutmeg, salt, and cocoanut. Beat well, turn into greased baking dish, and bake in a moderately hot oven for about 15 minutes.


Yield: 6 servings. Total cost: $.188. Cost per serving: $.031.



Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 19 Number 1, 1918, p. 68-86
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 3609, Date Accessed: 10/27/2021 7:47:12 PM

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