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Introduction to Yearbook on Emotions in Teaching and Teacher Education for Social Justice


by Amy Johnson Lachuk - 2019

In this chapter we provide an overview of our understandings of emotion, using Barrett’s work on the construction of emotion. We then link this framework to the discussion of three landmark texts in teacher education: Waller’s The Sociology of Teaching (1932), Jackson’s Life in Classrooms (1968), and Lortie’s Schoolteacher (1975). We examine these texts for what they bring to our understandings of emotions in teaching. While these landmark texts elide the emotions tied to teaching culturally and racially diverse learners, what excites us about them is how they work together to create composite sketches of classroom teachers at particular points in time. We identify an often unacknowledged emotional undercurrent to their work that fascinates us. We then discuss how this collection’s contributors take up this call to focus on emotion within their particular work in teacher education.

Why do we smile? Why do we laugh? Why do we feel alone? Why are we sad and confused? Why do we read poetry? Why do we cry when we see a painting? Why is there is a riot in the heart when we love? Why do we feel shame? What is that thing in the pit of your stomach called desire?

—Benjamin Alire Saenz, Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe (2012)

In How Emotions Are Made, neuroscientist Lisa Feldman Barrett (2017) argued that the answer to the questions posed above by the novelist and poet Benjamin Alire Saenz is: “Emotions are not reactions to the world; they are your constructions of the world” (p. 104). Feldman Barrett’s words significantly altered the way we understood the emotional aspects of our work as teacher educators: for they caused a shift in our mindsets from understanding emotions as uncontrollable to understanding emotions as socially and culturally constructed. What emotions mean in different geographic places and historical times varies according to who or what embodies them, what expectations accompany them, when their expression is deemed appropriate, how they are regulated, and by whom their expression is monitored. From its inception, teacher education research—whether conducted by beginners or seasoned veterans (e.g., Waller, 1932; Jackson, 1968; Lortie, 1975; Zeichner, 2018)—has indicated that emotions play a significant role in the way teachers experience their work with students, their interactions with families and community members, and their labor with colleagues. Yet few researchers have fully grappled with the significance of emotions' role in the work of becoming and being a teacher.

In what follows, we discuss three landmark texts about learning to teach: Willard Waller’s The Sociology of Teaching (1932), Jackson’s Life in Classrooms (1968), and Lortie’s Schoolteacher (1975). We examine how these texts shed light on the role of emotions in teaching. Although they elided the emotions tied to teaching culturally and racially diverse learners, what excites us about these landmark texts is how they work together to create composite sketches of classroom teachers at particular points in time. Thus, they have been critical to the field of teacher education. As we revisited these texts, while we found the absences of race, social class, gender, and ability problematic, we identified an often unacknowledged emotional undercurrent to the authors' work that fascinates us.

In 1932, Waller published the first book of its kind, the groundbreaking The Sociology of Teaching. In this seminal text, Waller described teaching, its constituent parts, and the characteristics of virtuous educators. Largely grounded in his own personal story as a secondary school teacher, as well as his father’s experience as a superintendent of schools, Waller’s text serves as an important historical touchstone today as teacher educators (e.g., Zeichner, 2018) aim to imagine the future of teacher education. Covering the everyday practices of teaching from the early grades through secondary school, the text focused on the emotions that undergird classroom life, including the dispositions teachers may have for optimal gratification from teaching, the sorts of rewards (financial and otherwise) teachers may expect over time, causes of conflicts between teachers and pupils and how best to prevent or defuse these, relationships with parents and within communities, and other facets of the emotional life of teachers. In particular, Waller was interested in what triggers a response in teachers—often those experiences that are outside their control, are unexpected, or may go awry.

Of course, we now see some of Waller’s assertions about teaching and teachers as outmoded and perplexing. For example, Waller described “ideal” males and females as teachers who strongly conformed to lasting Western stereotypes: Effective male disciplinarians were broad-shouldered, deep-voiced, and conservatively attired, while ideal female teachers were neither too diminutive nor too large, tastefully dressed, and serious in demeanor. That said, others of his claims remain straightforward and relevant today, such as the usefulness of humor in interrupting conflict: “The use of humor in a school is not necessarily that of a weapon; it may serve to relieve tension by giving antagonism harmless expression, or it may serve as a technique of conciliation” (p. 349). Still relevant as well is Waller’s critique of the division of so much “school knowledge” into bite-sized, memorizable, and testable packages of curriculum “facts,” a long-standing and well-deserved criticism of school curricula. Likewise, Waller’s description of how an effective teacher can control a crowd is as timely today as it was decades ago: Avoid unnecessary conflicts, use good humor rather than punishment, discipline individuals as opposed to the entire group, be calm at all times, and look for support from natural leaders in the group. As previously mentioned, however, Waller did not discuss the ways that race, ethnicity, social class, gender, language background, and sexual orientation emotionally affect teachers and their students.

Philip W. Jackson’s Life in Classrooms (1968), grounded in a year-long study of a fourth-grade classroom, analyzed three key facets of classroom life that we see as directly grounded in emotion: crowds, praise, and power (p. 10). By crowds, he meant that students must learn to be part of a group and accommodate to moving or not moving nearly everywhere in that group; by praise, that they are continually being having their performances evaluated; and by power, that they must adapt to large differences in institutional authority between themselves and those leading a classroom or school. Along these lines, Jackson characterized school days as dominated by four features: delay, denial, disruption, and social distraction. Delay refers to the requirement that students wait at many points in the school day—for the next class to begin, for all pupils to be finished with their seatwork before proceeding to the next assignment, for everyone to line up before going out to recess, etc. Denial and disruption are also frequent experiences: The former refers to pupils' need to delay gratification of various sorts until the time for each one is signaled, and the latter to the ways that students' attention or focus is interrupted many times during the day. The final category Jackson named as characterizing school life is social distraction: Students need to focus on tasks as if they are alone, while they are, in fact, seated in large and distracting groups. Together, these four features make concentrating on a task and producing one’s best work daunting for many young people and impossible for some. They also create challenging contexts for teachers, who, Lortie stated, need to know and care about their students and also be good examples of where our imperfections and frailties lie (p. 153). In writing about Jackson’s impact on her thinking, Darling-Hammond (2007) articulated three images of teaching she derived from his work:

the skillful “chasing of butterflies,” teaching as the cultivation of learning from and through experience—an agricultural image, and teaching as the reflection on the consequences of one’s actions for students—an image of contemplation leading to moral action. These images derive from an understanding of learning as grounded in experience and an understanding of teaching as a complex, reciprocal process of connecting students’ many experiences with the goals of curriculum. These ways of understanding teaching and learning suggest that teachers must be keen observers of their students, sensitive to what students bring to and encounter in the classroom, and creators of curriculum that forges connections between students and the subject matter. (pp. 16–17)

Darling-Hammond contrasted these images with what she termed “technicist” assumptions about teaching that deny students’ and teachers’ humanity and emotion in the name of more efficient bureaucracies.

Jackson’s work highlighted the way that emotion undergirds the daily happenings in classrooms. Knowing one’s students well and caring for them supports a compassionate response to all children, and a willingness to demonstrate one’s frailties reflects the humility needed by teachers who want to reach across constructed boundaries of race, ethnicity, social class, language background, and sexual orientation. What baffles us is that although this book was published in 1968—a time when there was a great deal of conversation in the United States about race and social justice—Jackson’s writing did not give explicit attention to such matters and their impact on the emotions at work within classroom life.

Based on 94 interviews conducted with practicing elementary, junior high, and secondary teachers from towns surrounding Boston, Dan C. Lortie’s Schoolteacher (1975) provided another snapshot of how emotion undergirds the work of teachers. He asserted that U.S. schooling ideals have always included “two principles: the importance of equity in treatment and the assumption that all children can benefit from schooling” (p. 114). Lortie elaborated, explaining that the teachers he interviewed noted what he called “moral” aspects of teaching, such as a focus on children who require more teacher time and attention for learning and necessitate extra labor beyond that which is ordinarily expected from teachers. However, he elaborated, “today’s teachers probably show greater concern for moral and egalitarian aspects of their work . . .  than earlier teachers. But, in the moral aspects of teaching continuity rather than change seems to prevail” (p. 116). Here, Lortie implied that equity in schooling demands greater attention than his informants regularly devoted to it.

Throughout the text, Lortie highlighted three principles that he saw as dominating teaching: presentism (p. 211), the creation of short-range goals, units, or lessons that are seen as achievable and perhaps easily assessed; conservatism, resistance to change (p. 209); and individualism, hesitancy and unease regarding cooperation with other teachers (p. 210–211). He asserted that all three work to reinforce one another's significance and also to thwart professional change. Emotion, as we see it, provides the driving force for these three principles, particularly the last two, with their focus on resistance to change and hesitation to cooperate. Like Jackson, however, Lortie did not take up the roles that race, class, gender, ability, and sexual orientation play in the schoolteacher’s work and life.

What do these classic texts on teachers and teaching tell us about emotion? What are emotions in teaching? What are the origins of emotions in teaching? Can emotions be controlled or deployed for our benefit in education? These are the questions that compelled the writing of this yearbook. In short, in this yearbook, titled Emotions, Social Justice, and Teacher Education {2019), we explore what emotions do, where they reside, and how they function in teaching, particularly teaching for social justice. Further, we highlight how place, time, and historical location affect whose intentions are viewed as “noble” or “naughty” and are either affectionately embraced or avoided. We advocate an approach that asks those who teach to gaze at “others” and imagine we are one and to observe what occurs when we fail to do so, as well as when we succeed. We weave together arguments made by theorists from several fields to craft our point of view. We draw on Ahmed (2014, 2012) from cultural studies; Andrews (2014) from psychology; Barrett (2017) and Sapolsky (2017) from neuroscience; Boler (1999), Levinas (1972), and Nussbaum (1997) from philosophy; Clandinin & Clandinin (2000) from narrative theory; and Micciche (2007) from feminist theory and composition and rhetoric, among others. We do so to understand how emotions and the work of teaching are intimately intertwined and what provokes them at particular locations and times.

In our careers as teachers, we recall experiencing anxiety, fear, worry, disillusion, and stress, as well as joy, hope, and satisfaction. Only recently have we begun to consider how much emotions color our contemplation of teaching—how we think about the teachers who study with us, the teacher education programs we administer, and the courses and field experiences we devise, organize, and evaluate. All of our professional—and much of our personal—lives are entwined with the complex, overlapping intersections of race, ethnicity, social class, gender, sexual orientation, and language backgrounds, as well as the emotions that these dimensions of persons’ identities call forth while we are teaching and learning to teach.

Today, prospective teachers struggle to find exactly the right strategies to engage youth and provide them with a springboard to learning. Choosing the “wrong” practice or technology for a youth’s needs can leave teachers feeling anxious and labeled by families, administrators, and/or other school staff as “failing.” The stakes seem ever higher as we strive to support new teachers with many and various tools, to capture the most innovative pedagogical approaches, and to partner with schools, school districts, and experts in technology to capture the “best” experiences for our students. All of these efforts locate teachers at the nexus of often conflicting ideas about what is best and for whom.

We wrote this chapter with two related tasks in mind: To highlight complex contexts affecting contemporary teaching and to underscore how teachers at every institutional level, from work with young children to higher education, are influenced by emotions that suffuse their professional lives. This collection has eleven chapters, in addition to this introduction.

Chapter Two, by Carl Grant, is titled “Race, Emotions, and 'Woke' in Teaching.” In this chapter, Grant wonders what happens when race is placed at the center of studies of emotion within the field of teacher education. He raises the following questions about the study of emotion and teacher education:

Is this new research on emotions and teacher education a flight from the study and discussion of race and teacher education? Is the study of emotion and education complete without placing race and racism at the center and as fundamental to the study? . .  . Is this line of inquiry another form of White privilege? Or is studying emotions and education without centering race a continuation of American history that keeps Black identity invisible/negative and White identity visible/positive? (Grant, 2019, p. x).

In discussing the entanglement of race and emotions, Grant walks the reader through history. He starts with “the emotions of courage, boldness, pride, and brilliance of six-year old Ruby Bridges, escorted by four U.S. Marshals to integrate all-white William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans on November 14, 1960” (p. x). Grant recounts how Bridges walked through a mob of screaming White protestors who were shouting profanities and throwing objects at the young child. He quotes Ruby, who explained her emotions at the time as "calmness filled with curiosity.” Grant asserts that the heightened emotions experienced by Ruby, White students and parents, and the U.S. Marshals around the integration of a Southern school were “manufactured and held in place by systemic racism” (p. x).

In response to this iconic image of Ruby Bridges, Grant asks, “Will the research on teacher education and emotions examine such emotional moments in U.S. history and current times?” (p. x). To unpack this question, Grant turns to a discussion of “the emotion of resistance, activism, preservation, and pride” of First Nations children and families as they experience efforts to erase their cultural and linguistic identities in schools. Grant urges researchers interested in the intersection of teacher education and emotion to consider the symbolic violence, and the emotions such violence conjures, endured by youth of color and their families in schools.

Grant continues, however, by prompting researchers to consider how Black and Brown students’ emotions are often considered to be “problematic” within classrooms and schools. Grant encourages researchers to consider the emotions that African American and Latinx students experience as a result of being rejected and excluded by classmates and teachers due to their racial identities. Prompting teacher educators and researchers to engage more fully with both historical work, such as James Baldwin’s Letter to my Nephew (1962), and contemporary activism (e.g., Black Lives Matter), Grant makes a powerful argument for unpacking emotions within a teacher education curriculum committed to equity and justice.

In Chapter Three, “Emotions: More Than a ‘Feeling,’” Mary Louise Gomez and this author explore what emotions embody, how they are generated, and how they operate in teachers’ lives. In particular, the authors ask:

How do teachers characterize the emotions they frequently feel?

Why do teachers think these particular emotions populate their thoughts?

How do we understand dimensions of our identities and those of our students, including race, ethnicity, social class, gender, language background/s, and sexual orientation?

Why and how do these aspects of identity evoke certain performances of our emotions?

How have teacher education programs and designers of on-campus courses, community service learning experiences; and other opportunities responded to such questions concerning emotions?

Drawing on the work of scholars from a range of disciplines (philosophy, cultural studies, composition and rhetoric, and neuroscience), Gomez and Lachuk assert that emotions are socially and culturally constructed. The authors write:

Boler (1999) understood emotions as “collaboratively constructed” (p. 5) as they are fashioned by and circulated among persons. Over time, as teachers are supported in processes of inquiry, hopefully teacher educators and teachers may avoid what Boler called “binary traps of innocence or guilt” (p. 187) and can move toward greater tolerance of ambiguity in what is right and wrong (p. x).

As the quotation above indicates, for Gomez and Lachuk, the relationship between emotions and morality lies close to the surface—as teachers come to grips with the moral ambiguity of “good” teaching, they experience emotional tensions. Like Grant, Gomez and Lachuk also prompt teacher educators to unpack emotions within their classrooms. They draw on the work of composition scholar Laura Micciche to call for inquiry into how emotions “bind” persons together and “are produced through ‘collisions of contact’ (Micciche, 2007, p. 50) with one another” (p. xx). Considering how individuals are connected through emotion, Gomez and Lachuk argue, is part of developing what Nussbaum (2001) called our narrative imaginations. In teacher education, the authors aver, understanding emotions as “the stickiness” (Ahmed, 2014) that exists between people can be useful in helping preservice teacher candidates cultivate empathy and compassion for students and their families.

Gomez and Lachuk urge teacher educators to explore emotions through “a pedagogy of discomfort” (Zembylas, 2010) that “aims both at examining one’s sociocultural contexts and applying empathy in response to dilemmas located in their practices” (p. xx). Such a pedagogy would involve engaging White preservice teacher candidates in using their imaginations to think about how to effectively teach students from cultural and language backgrounds different from their own. Such a pedagogy would also involve helping White preservice teachers understand that “what is good for ‘others’ [is] part of [their] own self-interest” (p. xx).

In Chapter Four, “Engaging Emotions In Teacher Education Research,” Gomez and Lachuk assert that learning to teach is a delicate process, involving "learning how to balance rational thinking (e.g., using qualitative and quantitative data to make targeted instructional decisions) with . . . affective bodies of knowledge (e.g., building relationships with students; understanding how to connect with children’s families; and explaining content in ways that resonate with children’s cultural backgrounds)" (p. xx).

In this chapter, the authors highlight the following key goals for teacher education in the 21st century:

imagining and crafting, with prospective and new teachers, narratives of emotional strength and resilience that take into account social justice and equity;

disrupting existing perspectives of aspiring and prospective teachers from privileged racial, social class, language-background, and gender-identity groups;

providing aspiring and prospective teachers with opportunities to become well acquainted with and to serve communities and individuals who may benefit from their knowledge, skills, and curiosity about the world;

forging reciprocal relationships with families and communities for the purpose of renewing and sustaining communities; and

building strong partnerships with schools and classroom teachers/mentors for prospective and new teachers.

For Gomez and Lachuk, such forms of reflection are consistent with the values of social justice–oriented teacher educators. The authors argue that narrative and metaphor can be useful tools for interrogating White preservice teachers’ identities so that they are primed to teach youth from diverse backgrounds more effectively. In particular, they highlight the way narratives act as carriers for transmitting emotions (Micciche, 2007) and can thus be examined for their emotional scaffolding. They explore this aspect of narrative using the “fear-based narratives” that Christopher Emdin (2016) and his colleagues told themselves about teaching African American, urban youth. Gomez and Lachuk assert that such framings of urban, African American youth as people to be feared happen to “stick” within preservice teachers’ minds because teachers “are not encouraged enough to excavate the emotional labor of their teaching” (p. xx). They state that for Emdin, “removing teachers from the emotion that undergirds their work has created a culture around teaching in which understandings of urban students are reduced to problematic stereotypes” (p. xx). For such reasons, the authors urge teacher educators to interrogate the emotional storylines that circulate within the narratives teacher candidates tell and to rewrite such storylines so that they can interrogated for bias.

In Chapter Five, “Sometimes Leaving Means Staying: Race and White Teachers’ Emotional Investments,” Zeus Leonardo and Blanca Gamez-Djokic discuss emotional praxis as it relates to teaching and teacher education. In particular, they examine how the dominance of White women within the teaching workforce brings an intensively racialized and gendered dimension to their work. Leonardo and Gamez-Djokic complicate the entanglement of Whiteness and emotion as a form of “racial melancholia” (Cheng, 2000; Eng & Han, 2000), using Butler’s (1995) concept of “pre-melancholic.” From there, they examine the role that White women play in race relations and the process of racialization of African American youth.

In Chapter Six, "Strategies and Resources for Creating LGBTQ-Inclusive Classrooms," Mara Sapon-Shevin untangles the emotional aspects of sexual identity. An experienced social-justice educator, Sapon-Shevin provides a solid theoretical framework for discussing sexual orientation in both teacher education classrooms and K–12 schools. Furthermore, she introduces the reader to resources that can support teaching about sexual orientation. For Sapon-Shevin, creating safe spaces within schools and campuses involves the forging of emotionally safe classrooms for learners of all ages.

In Chapter Seven, “The Impact and Role of Emotions in Schools for Teachers and Students with Complex Gender Identities,” sj Miller discusses the emotional load of gender-nonconforming students within K–12 classrooms and schools. In particular, Miller uses the narrative of one composite student, Julio/Géminis, to offer a framework for understanding gender complexity and argues that navigating one’s gender identity within a school space is emotionally laden and complex.

Ayesha Khurshid and Emily Leyava’s contribution in Chapter Eight, “Arranged Empowerment versus Empowering Arrangements: Narratives of Muslim Women Teachers from Pakistani Rural Communities,” explores the emotional complexities that many Muslim women face as they pursue education. For the Muslim women whom Khurshid interviewed, pursuing education and, subsequently, careers involved navigating a series of emotional tensions in their relationships with family and community members. In unpacking the emotional aspects of pursuing education,for these Muslim women, Khurshid and Leyava complicate ideas of educational empowerment.

Chapter Nine, David Hernández-Saca’s “Youth at the Intersections of Dis/ability, Other Markers of Identity and Emotionality: Toward a Critical Pedagogy of Student Knowledge, Emotion, Feeling, Affect, and Being,” brings together theories of emotion and affect with conversations about disability that seek to expand the idea of "disability" beyond medicalized notions of “ability.” Drawing on his personal narrative and the intersections of his identities—being labeled learning disabled as a young learner and negotiating that with his own sexual identity—Hernández-Saca offers a lens for understanding the dimensionality of ability and dis/ability.

In Chapter Ten, “When the Tears Just Pop Out of Your Eyes: Reconfiguring Social-Classed Literacies through a Posthuman Teacher Education Pedagogy,” Stephanie Jones, Breanne Huston, and Karen Spector explore the emotions tied to explorations of social-class identities within teacher education. Specifically, the authors consider the ways in which emotion entered into discussions with youth about human struggle and suffering. Using the concept of fray that they developed based on their readings of Holbrook and Cannon (2019), Ellsworth (2005), and Massumi (2015), Jones and her colleagues discuss the relationship between emotion and affect and the significant role that emotion plays in learning, particularly about tough concepts. The authors discuss how fraying plays a role in teacher education contexts, where emergent teachers engage with tough concepts, such as human suffering as it relates to poverty. The authors end their chapter by encouraging readers to read “diffractively” by “leaning over the edge of predictability, being open (or opened) to being changed, and refusing the remain the same” (p. x).

Finally, in the concluding chapter of this volume, "What's Next?", Gomez discusses the autobiographical antecedents of her commitment to social justice and diversity. Through an exploration of being raised in a bicultural family in Vermont, Gomez articulates the critical importance for educators of examining how they see others and how what they see is emotionally intonated. Via this eloquent and artful discussion, Gomez leads us back to the beginning—that is, the enduring commitment articulated by each author to issues of justice, critical interrogation, and a more promising future for all. What ties all of these chapters together is the way their impulse and their call to be written are firmly rooted in each author’s biography and experience.

As you, the reader, embark on reading these essays, we ask that you return to Jones, Huston, and Spector’s call to the reader. While the chapters in this collection have been purposefully curated to give a multidimensional understanding of the role of emotion within teacher education practice and programs, we encourage the reader to read these contributions in a way that is open-ended and pointed toward the possibility of change. Emotion is what makes us human. And a large part of educating for social justice is helping teacher candidates connect with the humanity of their future students. At times, such a connection with others’ humanity requires emergent teachers to question deeply ingrained beliefs embedded within their families and communities about persons who are culturally, racially, and otherwise different from themselves. Questioning who they are and where they come from can lead to emotional anguish and tension, as emergent teachers begin to question even the ethics and morality of the people who are closest to them in their lives—their parents, family members, and friends. As teacher educators, emotion is the thread of our work, for we are given the special task of helping the emergent teachers in our classrooms reconfigure themselves and their relationships in order to identify the humanity that binds us all.

Acknowledgements

We thank all of the wonderful reviewers who contributed to this volume with their kind and critically thoughtful suggestions to authors. We are grateful to them all. Their names and affiliations appear below.

Thandeka Chapman, University of California-San Diego

David J. Connor, Hunter College

Nolan Cabrera, University of Arizona

Beth Graue, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Heidi Hallman, University of Kansas

Joyce E. King, Georgia State University

Karen Koellner, Hunter College

Melinda Leko, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Cynthia Lewis, University of California-Santa Cruz

Brittany Pitts, Florida State University

Ganiva Reyes, Miami University

Rachael Rothrock, Miami University

Brian D. Schulz, Miami University

Karen Spector, University of Alabama

Sylvia Thorson-Smith, Grinnell College (retired)

Min Yu, Wayne State University

Michalinos Zembylas, Open University of Cyprus


References


Ahmed, S. (2014). The cultural politics of emotion. New York, NY: Routledge.


Ahmed, S. (2012). On being included: Racism and diversity in institutional life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Andrews, M. (2014). Narrative imagination and everyday life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Baldwin, J. (December 1, 1962). A letter to my nephew. https://progressive.org/magazine/letter-nephew.


Barrett, L. F. (2017. How emotions are made. New York: First Mariner Books.


Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Emdin, C. (2016). For white folks in teach in the hood and the rest of y’all too: Reality pedagogy and urban education. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.


Levinas, E. (1972). Humanism of the other. Urbana, IL: State University of Illinois Press.


Micciche, L. R. (2007). Doing emotion: Rhetoric, writing, teaching. Portsmouth, NH :  Boynton Cook.


Nussbaum, M. C. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Boston, MA: Harvard College.


Saenz, B. A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Sapolsky, X. (2017). The biology of human at our best and worst. New York: Penguin.




Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 121 Number 13, 2019, p. 1-14
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 22984, Date Accessed: 10/27/2021 7:10:07 PM

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About the Author
  • Amy Lachuk
    Independent Scholar
    E-mail Author
    AMY JOHNSON LACHUK is an award-winning scholar, writer, and educational consultant who was most recently an Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Hunter College, City University of New York. Amy holds degrees in Curriculum and Instruction (MS, PhD) and English (BS) from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. She spent three years teaching young children in urban school districts. She has received the Narrative Research SIG Early Career Research Award (2011, American Educational Research Association), the Promising Research Award (2008, National Council of Teachers of English), the J. Michael Parker Award (2007, National Reading Conference), the College of Education Early Career Research Award (2009, University of South Carolina), and the Nila Banton Smith Research Dissemination grant (2009, International Reading Association). She has published articles in journals including Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, English Education, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, Journal of Teacher Education, Middle School Journal, The Reading Teacher, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, Teaching and Teacher Education, and the Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.
 
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