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Every Student Succeeds (Except for Black Males) Act

by Keisha McIntosh Allen, Julius Davis, Renee L. Garraway & Janeula M. Burt - 2018

In PreK–12 schools throughout the United States, Black male students are the most underserved and punished population. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) misleads Black male advocates and stakeholders into believing that it ensures they succeed. This article examines ESSA and its implications for educational equity for Black boys. Using critical race theory, the authors argue that, similar to past policies, ESSA intends to ensure educational equity for all students but ignores the ways in which race, gender and other forms of oppression are implicated in the teaching and learning process and constrain Black male youths’ opportunities to learn. This article calls for culturally grounded and social-justice-oriented perspectives in the development of policies for Black male students.

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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 120 Number 13, 2018, p. 1-20
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 22352, Date Accessed: 3/7/2021 4:49:58 AM

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About the Author
  • Keisha Allen
    University of Maryland, Baltimore County
    E-mail Author
    KEISHA MCINTOSH ALLEN is an assistant professor of education in the Secondary Education Program at University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Her research, teaching, and service focus on critical and asset pedagogies within in-school and out-of-school contexts. Specifically, her work focuses on preservice and in-service teachers’ development of and enactment of critical consciousness. Her recent work also examines the ways in which engaging in youth participatory action research influences urban high school youths’ college decision-making. Recent publications include: Sanders, M., Galindo, C., & Allen, K. M. (in press). Professional capital and the promise of full-service community schools: Exploring the role of teachers. Urban Education; and Allen, K. M. (in press). Transformative vision: Unpacking the racial literacy practices of a Black male teacher with his Black male students. Journal of Multicultural Education.
  • Julius Davis
    Bowie State University
    E-mail Author
    JULIUS DAVIS is an associate professor of mathematics education in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Professional Development in the College of Education at Bowie State University. Davis has two main strands of research focused on Black students and teachers in urban schools. His research of Black students critically examines their mathematical achievement and experiences. He also examines how policies shape Black students’ mathematical achievement and experiences. Davis’s research of Black mathematics teachers focuses on content and pedagogical knowledge, academic and professional experiences, and policies that shape their praxis. His research of students and teachers primarily focuses on Black males. Recent publications include: Goings, R. B., Davis, J., Britto, J., & Greene, D. (2017). The influence of mentoring on the academic trajectory of a 17-year-old Black male college sophomore from the United Kingdom: A single case study. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 25(3), 346–368; and Pitts Bannister, V. R., Davis, J., Mutegi, J., Thompson, L., & Lewis, D. (2017). “Returning to the Root” of the problem: Improving the social condition of African Americans through science and mathematics education. Catalyst: A Social Justice Forum, 7(1), 4–14.
  • Renee Garraway
    Bowie State University
    E-mail Author
    RENEE L. GARRAWAY is a doctoral candidate at Bowie State University and the recipient of the Culturally Responsive Educational Leaders in Special Education (CRELSE) grant, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). She has over 25 years of diverse work experience in clinical social work, special education, and school-based administration. Her research centers on the experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities. Recent publications include: Garraway, R. L., & Robinson, C. (2017). Increasing cultural responsiveness: Improving transition outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse students. In A. L. Ellis (Ed.), Transitioning children with disabilities: From early childhood through adulthood (pp. 145–167). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers; and Garraway, R. L. (2017). Transitioning to kindergarten: Improving outcomes for preschool children with behavioral challenges. In A. L. Ellis (Ed.), Transitioning children with disabilities: From early childhood through adulthood (pp. 113–128). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
  • Janeula Burt
    Bowie State University
    E-mail Author
    JANEULA M. BURT is an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Leadership in the College of Education at Bowie State University, where she teaches master’s- and doctoral-level courses. From 2014 to 2019, Dr. Burt is serving as co–principal investigator of the Culturally Responsive Educational Leaders in Special Education (CRELSE) grant, a $1.2 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. She was a 2015–2016 recipient of a Spencer Foundation Grant for her research, Place, Space, and Race: Discovering the Dimensions of Rural and Racial Identities of Adolescents in Segregated High Schools. Her research interests center on areas of access and equity for marginalized students, faculty, and administrators in education, which includes STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education for underrepresented groups, African American women in educational leadership, identity development, mentor relationships, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), and rural education. Recent publications include: Burt, J. M., & Fears Floyd, E. (in press). The RED owl collaborative: Leveraging sisterhood and social justice. In J. McClinton, D. S. Mitchell, G. B. Hughes, & M. A. Melton (Eds.), Mentoring at minority serving institutions (MSIs): Theory, design, practice, and impact. Charlotte, NC: Information Age; and Jones, K., Burton, R., Forbes, C., Nelson, S. L., & Burt, J. M. (2017). Transitioning to a new regime or more of the same? Examining the efficacy of the Tennessee diploma project to increase data reporting on special education graduation rates in charter schools. A. L. Ellis (Ed.). Sense Publishers.
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