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The Educational System of France- Education in Fine Arts and Music


by Commission française pour l'Enquête Carnegie sur les Examens et Concours en France - 1934

It is interesting to find that public education in fine arts began at the higher level. It originated, in fact, in the school established in 1648 by the Académie Royale de Peinture, whose aim was to train painters and sculptors.

FINE ARTS


HISTORY.—It is interesting to find that public education in fine arts began at the higher level. It originated, in fact, in the school established in 1648 by the Académie Royale de Peinture, whose aim was to train painters and sculptors. This education was, however, not yet provided by the State, but was public with the support of the State, which was further extended in 1666 by the establishment of the Académie de France in Rome, intended to take care of the graduates of the school. Finally, the establishment of the Ecole de l’Académie d’Architecture in 1671 completed the provision for higher education in fine arts in Paris. The movement soon spread to the provinces and at the beginning of the eighteenth century schools and academies were founded in the large cities—Toulouse, Marseilles, Nancy, Rouen, Bordeaux, Rheims, Dijon, etc. No provision was yet made, however, for elementary education even in the graphic arts outside of the education organized by groups of craftsmen and corporations.


The Revolution suppressed the academies but without touching the schools; then, recognizing clearly the importance of education in art, a place was assigned to drawing, at least in theory, in the plan for the systematic organization of public education in France. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, the academies were revived and again assumed the direction of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which did not become a state institution until 1863, with the name of Ecole Nationale et Spéciale des Beaux-Arts.


Taking up again the plan of the Revolution, the Consulate and the Empire introduced drawing in secondary education. From 1843 on it was taught in all classes and in 1868 it was included in the requirements for the general competitive examination for lycées and collèges. Finally, since 1880, drawing has been included in the curriculum of the elementary schools.


The same vacillation is to be observed in the development of education in the applied industrial arts. At first it consisted merely of an education by imitation given in masters' and trade organizations in the rudimentary and practical manner of a long apprenticeship, strictly regulated by the corporation. The State intervened early but in a restricted way; the establishment by Henry II of the tapestry workshop “Enfants Bleus is the first example of such intervention. In the seventeenth century Colbert, while establishing a comprehensive workshop for artistic furniture under the name "Manufacture Royale des Meubles de la Couronne," opened at the same time a school of applied art which gave as a foundation a general training in design. Unfortunately, from the beginning of the eighteenth century Colbert's work encountered difficulties and the work of the trade organizations was hardly sufficient to train art workers. At the end of the century the suppression of corporations by the Revolution almost entirely destroyed education in industrial art.


It would have been impossible to remedy this misfortune had not private initiative already made preparations for the revival of this branch of education. In 1765 Bochelier had in fact established a free school of drawing and mathematics, now the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs; this school was designed by its founder to train apprentices for art industries. There is, however, no doubt that the suppression of trade and other associations had dealt a mortal blow at recruiting for this field. In order to start a movement for revival, there was needed the cry of alarm raised, as a result of the International Exposition in London in 1851, by Count de Laborda, who pointed out in his remarkable report on the application of the sciences to industry that France was in danger of losing her supremacy in the field of art trades, because French decorative art was lacking in both method and education.


The energetic action of Eugène Guillaume in the public system of education and the propaganda conducted by the Union Centrale des Beaux-Arts Appliqués à l’Industrie, to-day the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs, led to a reconstruction whose effects were not actually felt until thirty years later.


The isolated efforts of individuals and of some far-sighted municipalities, like those of Limoges, Aubusson, Roubaix, which established schools of applied arts for the industries of their districts, were followed about 1880 by a combined effort in which the State and cities cooperated on lines agreed upon by them. From 1884 more than 275 municipal schools were aided by the State and supervised by inspectors of art education. At the same time the State reorganized its own institutions or created new ones, including Ecoles Nationales des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and Nice, Ecole Nationale des Arts Industriels at Roubaix, and Ecole Nationale des Arts Appliqués at Bourges.


Art education based since then on solid foundations, intelligently understood by the municipalities, encouraged by State aid, placed under regular supervision by a body of inspectors, has developed rapidly. Soon the products of the schools were considered worthy to be given a place in the exhibitions side by side with the work of artists and the productions of the industrial arts; thus the schools of art constituted independent sections at the Expositions of 1889, 1900, and 1925. Finally, regional committees of applied arts contributed in 1917 to the promotion of art education by establishing a link between the school which trains artists and artisans and industry which employs their talent.


ORGANIZATION.—Education in fine arts represents a complete edifice made up of municipal schools of design at the foundation with intermediate stages of national and regional schools of fine and decorative arts; at the top are Higher National Schools of Fine and Decorative Arts.


SCHOOLS OF ART IN THE PROVINCES.—Whatever may be its variety, art education given in the schools of art in the provinces—municipal schools of design, national and regional schools of fine and decorative arts—is approximately of the same type and standard. It is based mainly on very advanced study of design regarded as the grammar of all arts. There is also found, with some gaps here and there according to the needs of the student body, the requirements of the region, and the financial ability of the municipalities, four fundamental disciplines—painting, modeling and sculpture, architecture, and decorative composition. So far as the last is concerned, the schools do not attempt to provide direct and immediate preparation—that is, in class —for workers in a particular field, but to give the students a general training which may make them creators of models, able to specialize later in some definite art industry. It is no less true, however, that the instruction in decorative composition is in each center more or less influenced by the desire to meet the needs of the dominant industries of the region and that the workshops of practical application, established side by side with the theoretical courses, generally correspond to the same requirement. Thus at Limoges the courses in decorative composition and modeling are more particularly directed to the study of forms and decorations in porcelain; at Bourges the practical workshops are devoted to ironwork and ceramics; at Rennes there is a workshop for sculpture in wood; at Lyons the students in the higher course in decoration are trained more especially in the application of decorative art to silk; at Aubusson the school has a workshop in tapestry; and so on. Nevertheless the instruction in all cases emphasizes quite definitely general training.


CURRICULUM.—In the all-round schools, that is, in schools which have a complete organization, the instruction is divided into sections, and the curriculums include graded courses in theory and practice. The following are the chief sections: design, modeling and sculpture, decorative art, architecture, linear drawing, etc. In each section the programs, generally divided into three stages, include specialized courses and oral courses common to all. The following is an example of the programs of the four fundamental sections:


Design

First stage.—Principles; imitative designs from objects in space and ornamentation; sketches; designs from memory; the study of decorative elements from nature.


Second stage.—Imitative designs, ornamentation, figure,— from the antique and from nature; sketches and composition; prints of objects and parts of the figure.


Third stage.—Drawing of movement; designs and prints from life and nature; figure from the antique.


During the three stages the students take courses in modeling, anatomy, history of art, and decorative composition.


Modeling and Sculpture

First stage.—Elements of bas relief; ornamentation and masks; flowers from nature; modeling after designs executed in the course on decorative composition.


Second stage.—Modeling in high relief and in the round from the antique and nature; decorative modeling after compositions designed for a particular purpose; sculptured application; execution in wood, stone, marble from models of compositions designed and modeled in the courses.


Decorative Art

In this section all exercises are intended to be carried out in some material.


First stage.—Composition of elements after studies from nature, fauna or flora and all elements carried out in color.


Second stage.—Composition of forms and decorations in bas relief with an object in three dimensions; examination of technique; numerous sketches.


Third stage.—Compositions for decoration of mass; interior and exterior decoration; furniture, etc.


Workshops.—Varying with the art industries of the region there are workshops for carrying out projects in the local material.


Architecture

First stage.—Architectural design; antique elements; analytical elements in applications. Required courses: ornamental design; decorative art; mathematics, plane and solid geometry.


Second stage.—Compositions; small projects; regional needs; use of regional materials; sketches from archaeology. Required courses: perspective; history of art; mathematics and construction; ornamental design.


Third stage.—Lessons in theory of architecture; projects and sketches of mass; urbanization, parks and gardens; plans and sketches; detail for execution of construction and design. Required courses: decorative art; ornamental modeling and design; figure design; history of art.


Common Oral Courses

History of art.—General history of art; characteristics of each period in architecture, painting, sculpture, decorative and industrial art, costumes; lantern slides.


Anatomy.—Proportions of the human body; bone structure, muscular system, applied design based on studies of nature; demonstrations from a life model; comparative anatomy. This course is compulsory for students in the second and third stages of design.


Perspective.—Complete course in linear perspective; drafting; sketches from nature. The course is compulsory for architects, decorators, designers in the second and third stages.


Mathematics, geometry, construction.—Revision of arithmetic and algebra; plane and solid geometry; principles of descriptive geometry; elements of statics and resistance; construction processes.


EXAMINATIONS.—The schools of art in the provinces are, as a rule, open to all. Except for three rare exceptions they do not set up a competitive entrance examination. Nevertheless a qualifying examination is required for entrance in the minimum of those acquisitions which are indispensable for following the courses (outline drawing, elementary geometrical constructions). The pupils who do not have a mastery of these elements are required to spend a period in the preparatory courses.


The work of the pupils is controlled in the third term by competitive tests on the basis of which prizes and medals are awarded; but no official diploma is granted on the completion of the courses. Some schools, however, give those pupils who finish the complete course a certificate indicating the subjects which they have taken and grades obtained; this certificate has no other value than that of a statement.


Some students who complete the courses in art schools in the provinces continue their studies and take the competitive examinations for entrance to the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts or the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs, either to advance themselves in the career which they have selected (painting or sculpture) or to prepare for an official diploma (as architects or as professors of drawing in higher elementary or secondary schools). The majority, however, find an outlet in the art industries of their region to which, after a short technical preparation, they contribute those qualities of taste and observation which they have acquired during their period of study and which make of them good artisans.


HIGHER EDUCATION IN FINE ARTS IN PARIS.—Higher educacation in fine arts for training artists or architects is given in Paris in two institutions—l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux Arts, with its branches in the provinces, the regional schools of architecture, and l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs. In addition to these schools whose courses are essentially artistic and technical the Ecole du Louvre offers courses of an archaeological and historical nature.


L'Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux Arts.—This school provides courses in drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, engraving, lithography, and frescoes.


The school provides (1) studios for drawing open to all students and others admitted as candidates after a qualifying test upon which the professor in charge passes judgment; (2) oral courses bearing on different arts and open to all students and candidates as well as the general public who request permission to attend. These courses include:


General history; anatomy; perspective; statics and resistance of materials; descriptive geometry; physics and chemistry; chemistry of colors; solid geometry and drafting; construction; building law; theory of architecture; literature; history and archaeology; history of art and aesthetics; general history of architecture; French architecture.


The school proper admits students on a competitive examination, which gives them access to the studios where they devote themselves to practical studies and receive their rewards and diplomas. The instruction is given in three sections: (1) painting section which includes engraving of different kinds and lithography; (2) sculpture section in which is also given engraving in medals and precious stones; and (3) architecture section with which are associated eight regional schools of architecture (Lille, Rouen, Rennes, Strasbourg, Lyons, Bordeaux, Grenoble, and Marseilles).


Candidates for the competitive examination for admission to the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts must be between seventeen and twenty-four years of age for painters and sculptors and twenty-six for architects. The age limit is advanced by one year for candidates who have completed their military service.


1. Sections for Painting and Sculpture.—The entrance examination takes place in April or May each year and includes required and optional subjects. The first eight of the successful candidates are definitely admitted and the next twenty-two are admitted on probation for one year. In addition ten additional candidates may be permitted but without the status of students to follow the practical courses if there are any free places in the amphitheatre. The probationers are required to take the succeeding entrance examination, if they have not obtained certain awards during the year. No candidate may sit for the examination more than four times. Foreigners may be admitted on the same conditions as the French, but only as supernumeraries.


2. Section for Architecture.—This section is divided into two classes. The competitive examination for entrance to the second class takes place twice a year in February or March and in June or July, and includes a series of tests in architecture, drawing, and modeling, science and history, at the end of each of which eliminations take place. The final list includes the first fifty candidates. Foreigners are allowed to compete, but in order to be admitted they must obtain at least the same marks as the last French candidate; they are admitted as supernumeraries up to a maximum of seventeen. Admission to the Section for Architecture is definitive. The regional schools of architecture admit students under the same conditions and on the same program.


The students in the different sections carry on their work under the direction of heads of studios and attend oral and practical courses. They take part in the competitions on the basis of which medals and mentions are awarded. In addition to the school competition the students may enter the competitions for financial grants and scholarships to the school. Successes in the competitions are evaluated in terms of marks or valeurs.


For painters and sculptors the final award is the certificat d'études de l’école which can only be given to students who have received certain awards which are strictly defined in the regulations. The Section for Architecture and regional schools of architecture grant a certificat d'études and a diplôme d’architecte. The certificat is granted as in the other sections to students of the first class in architecture who obtained certain awards or a certain number of valeurs. The diplôme d’architecte (D.P.L.G. or diplômé par le gouvernement) is awarded after a series of tests which take place twice a year, in June and in November, and include a practical and an oral part. The practical test consists of an architectural project, conceived and worked out as if it had to be executed; it must be accompanied by a descriptive memoir or an estimate of part of the cost of construction. The oral test consists of questions on the project.


L’Ecole Nationale ¡Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs.—The purpose of this School is to give instruction in design, painting, sculpture, and architecture with an emphasis on their practical application to art industries. The School has two sections, one for men and one for women. Drawing is the fundamental basis of instruction in each section. The students in addition take courses in modeling, study of prints, decorative composition, and decorative architecture. After receiving this general training they are distributed according to their tastes and aptitudes in different studios: industrial art, decorative painting, ornamental sculpture. The section for men in addition provides a course in architecture similar to that of the Section for Architecture in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. The programs are rounded by oral courses in mathematics, anatomy, history of art, etc., and technical lectures on art industries.


Students are admitted by competitive examination, which is given twice a year, at the beginning of October and at the beginning of February. Candidates must be between fifteen and thirty, if men; twenty-five, if women. The examination for men includes three special branches—designers, sculptors, architects—one of which must be selected. For women there is only one series of tests.


The award at the end of the course is a certificat d’études, which is given to students who have obtained a prescribed minimum of marks. For men there are several kinds of certificates—for decoration, sculpture, and architecture; for women there is only one certificate, given to students who have obtained the requisite marks in the higher divisions of the three courses in decoration or who have been admitted to the studio for decoration. The School also awards to students in the division of architecture a diplôme d’architecte (A.D.A.D.Architecte des Arts Décoratifs), under conditions similar to those in the Section for Architecture in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.


L’Ecole du Louvre.—Mention must here be made of the Ecole du Louvre, although it does not belong in the list of institutions which give instruction in design and the arts associated with it. Besides its own proper task—the training of the scientific personnel for museums and scholarly missions—the Ecole du Louvre supplements the general education of the artists who take its courses. It also aims to disseminate among the public some general ideas on the collections in the museums, history of art, and archaeology. The courses are divided into three sections: (1) national, Egyptian, Oriental, and Greco-Roman archaeology; (2) Indian art and archaeology, history of art in the Far East; (3) history of arts from the Middle Ages down to the present. This program is supplemented by technical lectures in epigraphy and a course on museums with theory and practical exercises.


The Ecole du Louvre is open without conditions or distinctions of nationality to regular students and auditors. The latter attend the courses without being required to take examinations. For matriculated students, registered at their request in one or more courses, the period of study is three years. At the end of each year they take an examination on the courses attended; the examination at the end of the first year is preceded by an eliminatory examination on the general history of art. The title of élève diplômé of the Ecole du Louvre is given to students who, successfully passing the examination, present and defend a thesis. The élèves diplômés may receive appointments in the many departments of the national or municipal museums, or they may be entrusted by the Government or leading scientific societies with missions, and archaeological research.


Art Education Outside of the Control of Beaux-Arts.— The schools of art discussed up to this point are under the general direction of Beaux-Arts. It is important, however, to emphasize the point that art education—design, decorative arts, history of art, etc.,—is also given in a certain number of institutions, both public and private, which are not under the control of Beaux-Arts. An important place is assigned to drawing, for instance, in the elementary schools; to drawing and decorative composition in the higher elementary and normal schools; to drawing, decorative composition, and quite recently, history of art in the secondary schools. The faculties of letters have organized many courses in the history of art and aesthetics, while a number of universities have institutes of art and archaeology whose courses lead up to the degree of licence d'art.


Finally, important institutions for training in art and archaeology have been established abroad—the Academy of France in Rome, the School of Athens, the School of Cairo, the Casa Velasquez in Madrid. A number of art centers and courses have been organized through private initiative, such as academies of painting and sculpture, special schools of architecture, etc. Some organizations also offer art courses in the form of walks and talks in the museums and visits to the monuments.


THE TEACHING PERSONNEL.—The recruiting of teachers in public schools of art and fine arts is conducted under conditions which vary with the character of the institutions concerned. Unlike the practice in other branches of education, examinations, whether qualifying or competitive, are entirely unknown, and recruiting by qualifications is the general rule. In the National Schools of Fine Arts and Decorative Arts in Paris the professors are appointed by the Minister of National Education, and are selected by him from a list of three candidates drawn up by the Higher Council of each school by secret vote. For the art schools in the provinces the appointments are always made on the presentation of qualifications—by the Minister for the national schools, and by the prefect, on the nomination of the mayors, for regional and municipal schools; but in the latter case definitive appointments must have the approval of the.Minister. Teachers of drawing in elementary and secondary schools, who are also appointed by the Minister, must have special certificates—the certificat d’aptitude à l’enseignement du dessin, the higher grade of which is required from candidates for positions as teachers of drawing in secondary schools, and the lower grade from candidates for positions as teachers of drawing in normal and higher elementary schools.


PRESENT SPIRIT AND TENDENCIES IN FINE ARTS EDUCATION.— After half a century of experimentation and the lessons of the expositions in which the schools of art participated, particularly the great exposition of the Decorative Arts in 1925, art education seems finally to have found its way and to have defined its methods and field of action. The teaching personnel has understood that in the face of the demands of our age, in which the rôle of design is extending indefinitely—no occupation can dispense with it—design must constitute the keystone of all art education because of the excellence of its educative value and in order to give the pupils a sense for form and a comprehension of expression as well as to develop his taste. This training in integrity before the forms of life and their translations in feeling and intelligence is conducted with special care to avoid formalism and to respect the independence of the pupils in giving expression to their observations.


The value and prestige of this type of education are obviously a function of the teaching personnel and of the experience which it has freely acquired, sometimes at a cost of delusive experiments and under not very favorable conditions, if one remembers the isolation in which many educators find themselves and the slight contact with important centers of artistic and intellectual influence.


Design is, then, considered to-day indispensable for all art occupations; it enjoys and should retain a preponderant place in the time-schedule, because it is impossible to become a painter, sculptor, architect, or decorator without being an excellent designer. All schools have understood that their mission is to give instruction in this general subject, care being taken not to restrict the work in applied arts to specialized courses which would destine their students, despite their tastes and aptitudes, to a narrow vocation in which they would not always find a suitable outlet.


In decorative composition the student is first trained in understanding; he draws, he observes life, he analyzes the human figure and nature. He can only copy ancient statuary with profit in order to understand the synthesis of movement in these models, which in one attitude, in one moment, combine all phases of life. Having passed through the first stage, he will study the classical elements of architecture to discover the relations of fine proportions, then history of art, which with the characteristics peculiar to each epoch will explain the fundamental laws of composition, and finally, decorative composition properly so-called, which will provide the general rules for inventiveness and composition. The student must paint from nature, since the analysis of color is indispensable to him in decoration, even if he does not intend to be a painter; he will model, for even if he does not become a sculptor, it is essential that he be familiar with pure form in space or with form in architecture. From then on he can complete his education as a decorator.


Decorative art is, in fact, the application of all means of expression in relation to the epoch, the environment, and the material; it forces intelligence to understand and to invent; it must be constantly renewed, for the needs for adaptation are many. This adaptation is made on the basis of free reasoning and eclecticism; the scope of action is vast and what is expected is stimulation of creative qualities which depend on the value of the training whose purpose should be the development of an elite among the most gifted of the creative artists and, à fortiori, the best artisans.


The leading schools are gradually finding more and more room in their work for architecture and construction with an eye on regional adaptation; varying with the localities they have workshops for practical applications (engraving, embossing, sculpture in wood or stone, metals, ceramics, glass, decorative painting, frescoes), and courses for training foremen for building industries (metal-work, carpentry, furniture, carving in wood and stone).


This trend in art education and its application corresponds adequately to what might well be expected of it. The new regulations are being gradually introduced into all schools, no matter what their standing may be. Everywhere sections in drawing, modeling, painting, and architecture are required to give instruction in decorative composition with a view to their application to the technique of each trade.


Schools of art are thus being gradually transformed into schools of applied art and occupational technique. While the sections in painting, sculpture, and architecture keep alive the flame in these centers of art which every important regional school should be, the intermediate schools undertake in their work all that they can do for the artistic education of their pupils and direct them toward quality in creativeness and production. Thus art and technique, understood in the light of the needs of our age, are intimately bound together both in spirit and in reality for the greatest profit to the art industries of the nation.


MUSIC


HISTORY.—Until the close of the eighteenth century instruction in music in France was exclusively technical in character. It looked only to the training of professional musicians whose assistance was necessary in religious ceremonies. In 1784, a few years before the Revolution, Louis XVI established a Royal School of Singing and Lyric Declamation in Paris. After some vicissitudes this school became in 1795 the National Conservatory of Music and Declamation. About this time, the director of the Conservatory, Sarrette, proposed the creation in the departments of fifty-five preparatory schools of music. This project remained a dead letter. The first branches of the Conservatory were not opened in the provinces until the Restoration. Their number was still only six when, in 1889, the present system of education in music was adopted.


ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION IN MUSIC.—Education in music in France is free. The numerous municipal and private schools which give instruction in this field are not subjected to any supervision by the State. The public system, which is under the direction of the Under-secretary of State for Fine Arts, includes the following institutions: The National Conservatory of Music and Declamation in Paris, twenty-two branches of the Conservatory, and twenty-one national schools of music in the departments. The enrollment in the forty-three schools is about 13,000.


CONSERVATOIRE NATIONAL DE MUSIQUE ET DE DECLAMATION. —The National Conservatory of Music and Declamation is the highest institution for education in music. It is administered by a Higher Council consisting of ex officio members, members appointed by the Ministry of National Education, and members elected by the professors. The Council presents to the Minister lists of candidates for appointment as professors and gives advice on all questions submitted to it by the Ministry.


The length of the courses at the Conservatory varies from three to five years, according to their nature. The courses include: solfeggio and musical theory, harmony, organ, composition, singing, lyrical declamation, dramatic declamation, piano and harp, string and wind instruments, orchestral and chamber music, classes in dramatics, general history of music, history and literature of drama.


Conditions of admission are not the same for all classes. Entrance may be (1) by qualifying examination in solfeggio, dancing, harmony, counterpoint, piano, musical composition, and organ, or (2) by competitive examination for the classes in singing, dramatic declamation, and instrumental playing. Foreign students are admitted to the Conservatory but not more than three in a class; they are subject to the same requirements as the French.


Regular attendance at classes is required and students must devote themselves to their studies above all. They may not take part in a theatrical performance or a concert without permission, given only rarely, from the director of the Conservatory. Each professor organizes his course as he pleases; there are not prescribed methods or courses. At the end of the year there are competitions for prizes, medals, "accessits," and mentions.


The diplôme d'études musicales supérieures is given only to winners of three first prizes in the following subjects: fugue, harmony, piano accompaniment, organ, and history of music. As a rule no position is guaranteed to the holders of diplomas; the directors of national theatres are, however, required to employ certain graduates of the Conservatory from the classes in singing and declamation.


In addition to other prizes there is a competition for the grand prize in musical composition—the prix de Rome, organized by the Academy of Fine Arts and open to young French musicians; the only requirements are that they have satisfactory references.


BRANCHES OF THE CONSERVATORY AND NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF MUSIC.—The standing of musical training in the provinces varies with the institutions; in the branches of the Conservatory instruction in solfeggio, piano, and violin is often given in elementary, intermediate, and advanced courses; there is no general course of study. The professors are appointed on their qualifications by the prefect on the nomination of the mayor; the directors are appointed by the Minister on the recommendation of the prefect after consultation with the mayor. Students are admitted by examination; a provisional examination is held in October and is followed by a definitive entrance examination in January. At the end of the year the students may enter competitions for certain awards or honor certificates, such as prizes, medals, and mentions. The qualifying and competitive examinations take place before juries, whose membership varies with each school; some juries include only professors, others only musicians who are not on the staff of the school, others again amateurs, or, finally, juries may be made up of representatives of each of these groups.





Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 1 Number 1, 1934, p. 222-240
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 14899, Date Accessed: 1/23/2022 4:56:22 PM

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