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Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of the Higher Learning


reviewed by William Summerscales - 1976

coverTitle: Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of the Higher Learning
Author(s): Carol S. Gruber
Publisher: John Wiley, New York
ISBN: , Pages: , Year:
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By the year 1900 the university movement was remolding the structure of American higher education. Cornell, Johns Hopkins, Clark, Chicago, and Stanford had been founded as new university centers in the space of three decades. Meanwhile, a university consciousness was transforming the character of well-established institutions like California, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Columbia, Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. After three and a half centuries during which the old-time college had been dominant in higher education, new and rapid forces of academic reform produced an institution that was radically different in form, purpose and methods. Before the Civil War higher degrees were sought in Germany where two hundred Americans had studied before 1850, and several thousand had taken graduate work by the end of the century. Toward the end of the nineteenth century earned doctorates were being conferred in America at an increasing rate: over 100 in 1890, and 250 in 1900. By that... (preview truncated at 150 words.)


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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 78 Number 1, 1976, p. 125-132
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 1243, Date Accessed: 10/23/2020 1:58:33 AM

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