Gates, Arthur I.Teachers College, Columbia University
ARTHUR I. GATES is a supervisor of the Institute of Language Arts at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Because of objections raised by numerous readers, we have decided to give up the experimental approach to paragraphing which attracted so much attention throughout the past year. Nonetheless, we are pleased to present a response to that approach written by one of the best known scholars of the language arts in the country: Processor Arthur Gates.
What causes one child to be a troublemaker in school and another a co-operative and eager student? Why does this child love to read and that child resist every effort to teach him to read? The question of motivation in learning is a matter of great importance in interpreting the positive and negative reactions of children and youth to their developmental experiences in and through reading.
Uppermost for consideration in this discussion is whether the sharp distinction between real or direct experience and vicarious experience (the classification for reading or talking about things) has been pushed beyond reasonable limits and threatens to lead to an unsound educational policy.
It has been almost fifty years since the field of educational psychology, with learning as a significant area of study, had its beginnings. The field came of age a little more than a quarter of a century ago with the widespread investigations of learning in such subjects as reading and arithmetic and with general recognition of the necessity for basic training in educational psychology as part of the preparation of the teacher. But in the twenty-five years since the mid-1920's, certain trends in our conceptions of the nature of learning have occurred which today make the field much different from what it was when many who are now teaching first studied it.
This yearbook has been prepared as a guide to teachers and school officers in their efforts to improve reading in the elementary school.
The reports in this issue of The Record are, with the exception of President Russell's tribute, those that were planned to be presented to him as a birthday greeting, with a few minor modifications.
This monograph reports the results of a study undertaken to determine the nature of the factors which influence hard-of-hearing children to continue or discontinue the use of hearing aids.
Current staff publications.
The type of psychology usually referred to in this volume as connectionism has also been called "S-R bond psychology," "dynamic psychology," stimulus-response psychology, the reaction hypothesis, and the like. Stimulus-response psychology is usually regarded as a modern development of associationism although, as Dr. Sandiford has pointed out in chapter iii, it has been developed to a point where it now has very little in common with any form of associationism in existence before 1900. Connectionism since that time has been developed in many forms, both in systematic accounts and in well-rounded applications to almost every field of life—animal behavior, advertising, business and industry, abnormal behavior, social affairs,
For a period of five years, an experimental program for slow-learning pupils was conducted in Public School 500. This article gives a brief report of the methods and certain results of teaching reading to the slow-learning pupils in the school.
An introduction to this issue of THE RECORD. In this issue there appear articles on each of the six major fields in which Professor Hollingworth taught, wrote, lectured, advised, and conducted research.
Tribute to Leta S. Hollingworth.
Portrait of Leta S. Hollingworth.
In a popular sense reading readiness implies that a child will be successful and interested in learning to read if reading is introduced when he is "ripe" for it and that he is likely to fail and to be annoyed when instruction is begun before this time. The major difficulties have been to determine the characteristics which underlie readiness and to appraise them.
During our survey of changes wrought during these years, some suggestions concerning the justification for these views will be offered.
The Twenty-Fourth Yearbook on reading recommended the occasional use of standardized tests and the frequent use of informal tests as part of the normal teaching program. That the use of standardized and informal tests and examinations is now regarded as a vital phase of classroom work is implied by the fact that most of the preceding chapters in this Yearbook, which deal with teaching some phase of the subject, include numerous suggestions on measurement and evaluation of attainments.This special chapter on the topic has been included for two purposes; first, to supplement the discussions of other chapters, and, second, to suggest certain newer practices that, although employed in some schools, have not as yet come into general use.
The preceding chapters in this Yearbook are devoted primarily to developmental and preventive rather than to remedial measures. In Chapter XII, for example, is sketched a plan for making such comprehensive studies of pupils on entering schools and such careful appraisals of progress thereafter as to enable teachers promptly to detect limitations and difficulties. Other chapters deal with the materials and methods needed to make prompt adjustments to individual needs and limitations so as to correct difficulties before they have become fixed habits and thus to forestall serious disabilities. Up to the present time, how- ever, few schools have employed programs of appraisal and instruction sufficiently effective entirely to avoid serious reading difficulties among pupils. In fact, in most schools will be found many reading defects that cry for diagnosis and correction. This is the justification of a chapter on extreme reading difficulties.
In an article in the November, 1936, issue of THE RECORD Professor Leta S. Hollingworth described the organization and certain characteristics and purposes of the work in the Speyer Experimental School, operated under the joint auspices of Teachers College and the Board of Education of the City of New York. It is the purpose of this article to report some of the results of the work of the first term in six of the nine classes in the school.
This article is a partial report of a study of four large classes of children who were given instruction in reading soon after entering the first grade. This preliminary report is concerned primarily with the relationships of the characteristics of the pupils when they entered school and their achievements in reading during the year.
This volume reports the results of studies of teaching spelling by a method designed to foster generalizing and by the method of specific study of words treated as isolated items.
DURING the past twenty years important advances have been made in the development and application of practice exercises in the fundamental subjects.
During the past twenty years important advances have been made in the development and application of practice exercises in the fundamental subjects. To this improvement contributions have been made by both educationists and experimental psychologists. The former have made contributions by means of criticism of the older educational method termed "drill"; the latter by technical studies of a newer method termed "practice exercise" or "practice experiment."
Though many facts have been accumulated, they have been too diverse and seemingly conflicting to provide an unequivocal answer to the question: How much does nature and how much does experience contribute to one's equipment? Out of all the studies, one thing appears certain: The relative potency of these two factors differs with different human traits. The influence of events and circumstances of living have different effects upon the color of the eyes, the length of the skeleton, the preferences for the primary gustatory qualities, the evenness of temper, the speed of running, and the ability to do arithmetic.
IN,1 a recent article in THE RECORD,2 the team of four tests designed for the objective measurement and diagnosis of ability in reading in Grades 3 to 8 was described and methods of using the instruments were explained.
THIS paper gives a description of a series of tests designed to make possible a comprehensive measurement of achievement in reading in such a way as to reveal special strengths and weaknesses and thereby to indicate the type of training most needed by the pupil.
In the reading of any pupil we may seek to discover the following characteristics: (1) The rate of reading is adequately understood or not; (2) the rate of reading, or the amount read in a given time with a prescribed, satisfactory degree of comprehension; (3) the accuracy of reading, or the degree to which a pupil fully comprehends what he reads, and (4) the degree to which a pupil possess a particular, important type of reading technique or ability.
THE selection of a series of words most suitable for use in primary reading material—for reading lessons, for drill in word perception, for children's stories, for informative matter concerning history, geography, nature, health, etc., for lessons and texts in arithmetic, etc.,—offers a complex problem.
THIS study, conducted in the Horace Mann School during the school year 1923-24, was designed to disclose, in some measure, the outcomes in the form of significant information, skills, habits and attitudes of a year of school work carried on in one group by a modern systematic method and in another by what we have decided to term an "opportunistic" method.1
Within the short space of ten years the education of children in the principles of healthy living has progressed from factual instruction in physiology to the encouragement of children in the application of health knowledge to everyday life.
THE theory underlying the prevailing method of teaching reading in American schools is well expressed in the recent Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, which recommends "vigorous emphasis from the beginning on reading as a thought-getting process and the subordination of the mechanics of reading to thoughtful interpretation."
The test herein described is one of several which have been devised for use in the study of reading ability in the elementary grades. The pronunciation test was constructed primarily as an instrument to use in the diagnosis of special difficulty in reading.
A number of psychological considerations indicate that the first year of instruction in reading, like the first stage in other forms of learning, is of prime importance. The initial period is of special significance since it is therein that methods of perceptive attack, good or bad, emotional and mental attitudes, favorable or unfavorable, are established, often to be perpetuated.
Arthur I. Gates, Grace A. Taylor, Eloise Boeker & Dorothy Van Alstyne - 1924
Between scholastic achievement and general mental ability, both carefully measured by objective tests, substantial correlations are usually found.
That "reading" is not a single or unitary power but merely a name for a large number of abilities, more or less specifically acquired, even if positively intercorrelated, is now rather commonly recognized. 1
The facts concerning economy in motor learning developed within the last twenty-five years have been based mainly upon experimental studies of adults in a variety of laboratory functions.
Although experimental studies of the advanced and intermediate phases of the reading process are numerous, scant attention has been given to the initial steps in primary reading.