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Tyler, Ralph W.
University of Massachusetts—Amherst
RALPH W. TYLER is a visiting professor at the University of Massachusetts—Amherst.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1991
This analysis and discussion of program evaluation is based on my experience with the evaluation of education programs. My observations suggest that these experiences can be generalized to a considerable degree to evaluations of other social programs, such as the Poverty Program of the Great Society in the 1960s.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1988
This brief commentary on progress of curriculum development and implementation has concentrated on the problems of identifying what needs to be learned to exercise responsible citizenship in a democratic society, on the extent to which universal access to this curriculum has been achieved, and on the progress made in helping all children learn what the schools are expected to teach. There is little reported evidence on the first problem and I have depended on my own reading and my participation in curriculum development activities. My subjective judgment is that slow but significant progress has been made by schools that are widely regarded as leaders.

Michael W. Apple & Ralph W. Tyler - 1987
No matter how hard curriculum “technicians” try to keep curriculum concerns as purely instrumental matters, reality keeps rearing its head. The language of efficiency, of standardization, of cost accountability, of bureaucratic rationalization—always promising to become the primary if not the only way we deal with curriculum—seems never to quite succeed in placing a lid on other even more powerful curriculum issues.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1985
The conditions required for conscious human learning are the same whether the learning takes place in school or in nonschool settings. Learning is a universal characteristic of all human beings. Behavior that is instinctive, that requires no practice or previous experience to carry on effectively, is very limited in the human species. No child could survive the first year of life without learning many things. Learning is as natural and universal among humans as respiration or digestion. There are no nonlearners.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1971
The American leaders of curriculum development after World War I sought to base their guiding principles upon the results of scientific studies of education. Thorndike's investigations of transfer of training had destroyed the earlier confidence in the educational value of school subjects as such. Formal discipline could no longer be invoked to justify the inclusion of such fields as Latin and geometry in high school programs. The relevance of the content of the curriculum to the problems and activities of contemporary life had to be considered. Furthermore, scientific studies of memorization showed that children forget material in a short time unless they have frequent occasions to recall what they have memorized. These findings suggested that curriculum content must be selected which children will have early and frequent occasions to use.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1969
Since World War II, and particularly during the past decade, profound changes have been taking place in educational evaluation. This yearbook reviews some of these developments and seeks to assess their significance for both educational theory and practice.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1969
The preceding chapters have described and explained some of the significant changes that have taken place in educational evaluation. They have also suggested a number of important implications of these developments for educational practice. In some cases, the reader can discern patterns of future movement that appear to be imminent, but predicting what is to come is hazardous. In a world that is rapidly changing, the future is full of surprises. Nevertheless, this chapter attempts to suggest features of the road ahead, as well as to review the current situation.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1966
Since the previous chapter has dealt with economic, social, and political forces, this one gives primary attention to current work in other social sciences. During the past decade or two, major developments have included not only the great increase in numbers of investigations of human behavior and a corresponding increase in findings but also the emerging conceptions of the human being, of social organizations, and of the individual's relations with others.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1963
American school administrators are currently interested and concerned with the effects upon the high schools of the great increase in pupil participation in external testing programs. Indicative of this interest and concern was the establishment in 1959 of the Joint Committee on Testing of the American Association of School Administrators, the Council of Chief State School Officers, and the National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1961
Since the end of the Second World War, educational changes in the United States have been frequent and, to some extent, contradictory. In most school districts enrollments have sharply increased yet in some districts the number of children in attendance has diminished.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1961
American students are commonly thought of as the objects of education rather than influential factors in directing the work of schools and colleges. The usual way of conceiving the educational system is as an institution which aids in the transformation of the unsocialized child into a responsible, mature, and fully socialized adult. In this way of viewing education, the student is the raw material which is processed and becomes the finished product. The use of such a conception is misleading if it conveys the notion of students as inert, passive individuals, more or less effectively identified with some scholastic regime. But they are, in fact, exceedingly active participants in the educational process, not only in the sense that learning requires the active participation of the learners but also in light of the powerful influence they exert in determining what is learned and how great an effort is expended in the process of learning. Much of this influence arises from the group organization of youth rather than from isolated individual behavior.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1961
The complexity and variety of factors influencing the development of American education make it impossible, with our present knowledge and our present ways of conceiving social reality, to set forth a single system which accurately and adequately explains what is now taking place in shaping our schools. This was recognized in planning the yearbook, and each of the chapters after the introductory one presented an analysis of American education using a different social-science discipline, thus giving the reader eight views of the scene through eight different lenses,

Ralph W. Tyler - 1958
Since the focus of integration in an educational program is the student, the effectiveness of curriculum organization in facilitating integration depends upon the extent to which it aids the student in perceiving appropriate relationships among phenomena and ideas, in sensing the meaning and significance of his feelings, and in developing abilities, skills, and courses of action which are guided by comprehensive knowledge and thought and by disciplined feelings. The way in which the structure of the curriculum is organized does not in itself guarantee that the student will learn to integrate thought, feeling, and action in the several arenas of life, but a structure which does not bring into relationship learning experiences which students can perceive as having vital connections makes it less likely that many students will learn to react to them in any unified fashion. Hence, the organization of the curriculum makes a difference in the effectiveness of integration.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1953
This chapter and the two following are directed to the work of the classroom teacher in carrying out such a program.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1951
Since the founding of the National Society for the Study of Education fifty years ago, the development and expansion of graduate work in education have been phenomenal. Literally scores of American universities have established graduate programs in education. The number of Master's degrees granted each year exceeds the number of Bachelor's degrees awarded in this field thirty-five years ago, while the Doctor's degrees in education now conferred annually exceed the number of Master's degrees that were earned a quarter century ago.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1951
Because the organization of the University of Chicago is different from that of most American universities, its structure needs to he explained in order for the reader to understand what is included in the graduate departments. The College is the basic unit of the University, offering a four-year program of general education beginning not at the thirteenth grade after the student has graduated from the twelfth grade of high school but commencing at the eleventh grade. Hence, the College includes Grades XI, XII, XIII, and XIV. Upon the successful completion of this four-year program of general education the student receives the Bachelor of Arts degree.

Herbert A. Thelen & Ralph W. Tyler - 1950
The approach to class instruction developed in this chapter emphasizes the factor of interaction among the students in the class as well as the relation between teacher and pupils. This way of viewing teaching and learning in the classroom has emerged out of new findings from studies in social psychology.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1945
During the war and the period immediately after hostilities cease the re-examination and revision of the American school curriculum will go on apace. This is a particularly appropriate time for curriculum revision because the social dislocations of the war make it easier to create interest in change and also because wartime experiences have provided certain new findings of importance to education.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1938
To appraise the significance and the nature of its influence upon American education requires a consideration of the techniques used by achievement-testers and the ideas that their work has injected into our educational program.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1935
This chapter has been written both for producers and consumers. In making diagnosis one needs to appreciate the characteristics that make the diagnostic procedure satisfactory. Frequently, important characteristics are neglected and an inadequate diagnosis results. Furthermore, teachers and administrators who utilize the results of educational diagnoses made by others need to use standards for judging the quality of the diagnoses. The characteristics discussed in this chapter should suggest the qualities expected of an effective diagnosis.

Ralph W. Tyler - 1935
Basically, diagnosis involves two general steps. The first is measurement, or appraisal, and the second is interpretation, or inference. In fourth-grade reading, for example, any satisfactory diagnosis involves measuring or appraising the pupil's reactions under a variety of conditions related to reading effectiveness and difficulties and then the interpretation of the results of these measurements. Diagnostic procedures use, therefore, the techniques of measurement and the methods of interpretation.

Author Index
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A., M.
A.Bailey II, M.D., Joseph
A.Boyce, George
A.Hanson, Abel
Aagaard, Lola
Abbate, Fred J.
Abbe, George
Abbot, Julia W.
Abbott, Allan
Abbott, Daniel H.
Abbott, Dorothy
Abbott, Forest L.
Abbott, Herbert V.
Abbott, Mary Allen
Abbott, Mary Ellen
Abbs, Peter
Abdi, Ali A.
Abdus-Sabur, Qadir
Abe, Shigetaka
Abedi, Jamal
Abel, David A.
Abel, Emily K.
Abel, Jerian
Abel, Yolanda
Abeles, Harold F.
Abelmann, Nancy
Abelson, Harold H.
Aben, Patricia
Abernathy, Ruth
Abernathy, Scott F.
Abeson, Alan
Abney, David
Abney, Louise
Abo-Zena, Mona
Aboulafia, Mitchell
Abouzaglo, Shanee
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
Abrahams, Frank
Abrahams, Salie
Abram, Percy
Abrams, Alfred W.
Abrams, Lisa
Abrams, Samuel E.
Abrams, Sandra Schamroth
Abramson, David A.
Abrego, Michelle
Abry, Tashia
Abu El-Haj, Thea
Acharya, Urmila
Achenbach, Thomas M.
Achilles, Charles M.
Achinstein, Betty
Achner, M. J.
Ackerman, Debra
Ackerman, John M.
Ackerman, Phillip L.
Ackerman, Winona B.
Acosta, Elda
Acosta, Melanie M.
Acosta, Rudy
Acosta , Vasthi Reyes
Acuff, Bette
Ada, Alma Flor
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Adair, Vivyan C.
Adam, Roy
Adamany, David
Adams, Arlene
Adams, Arthur S.
Adams, Curt M.
Adams, Donald
Adams, Hazard
Adams, Kathy
Adams, Kenneth R.
Adams, Margaret
Adams, Megan
Adams, Natalie Guice
Adams, Susan R.
Adams-Bass, Valerie
Adamson, Susan C.
Adelson, Joseph
Adely, Fida J.
Adeyemo, Adeoye O.
Adigun, Olajumoke "Beulah"
Adkins, Amee
Adkins, Dorothy C.
Adkins, Winthrop D.
Adkison, Judith
Adler, Chaim
Adler, Karlyn
Adler, Mortimer J.
Adler, Susan Matoba
Ado, Kathryn
Aemero Tekleselassie, Abebayehu
af Malmborg, Nils M.
Afonso, Robert
Afzal, Saima
Agans, Jennifer P.
Agee, Jane
Agirdag, Orhan
Agius, Kirsten
Agne, Russell M.
Agnew, Walter D.
Agosto, Vonzell
Agre, Gene P.
Agren, Raymond
Aguiar, Jeff
Aguilar, Jose V.
Aguilera-Black Bear, Dorothy
Aguirre, Julia
Aguirre Jr, Adalberto
Ahearn, Amy
Ahern, T. James
Ahern, Terence
Ahlberg, Mauri
Ahlstrom, Winton M.
Ahmad, Iftikhar
Ahmad, Nabeel
Ahn, June
Ahram, Roey
Ahrens, Maurice R.
Aiken, Henry David
Aiken-Wisniewski, Sharon A
Aikin, Wilford M.
Aikins, Ross
Airasian, Peter W.
Airton, Lee
Aitchison, Alison E.
Aitchison, Gertrude M.
Aitken, Graeme
Aitken, Jenny
Aitken, Johanna
aka Don Trent Jacobs, Four Arrows
Akanbi , Linda
Akers, Milton E.
Akerson, Valarie L.
Akiba, Daisuke
Akiba, Motoko
Akin, Clayton
Akin-Sabuncu, Sibel
Akinrinola, Ademola
Akita, Kiyomi
Akkari, Abdeljalil
Akom, Antwi
Akrawi, Matta
Akridge, Samantha L.
Al Atiyat , Ibtesam
Alaca, Zahide
Alarcon, Jeannette
Alatis, James E.
Alba, Richard
Albers, Peggy
Albert, Gerald
Albert, Marta K.
Alberty, H. B.
Alberty, Harold
Albrecht, Arthur E.
Albrecht, Lisa
Albright, Julie M.
Albright, Kathy Zanella
Albro, Elizabeth
Alcantar, Cynthia M.
Aldemir, Jale
Alden, Elizabeth
Alden, Vernon R.
Alderfer, H.F.
Aldrich, Grace L.
Alessi, Jr., Samuel J.
Alexander, Carter
Alexander, Dameon V.
Alexander, Francie
Alexander, Gadi
Alexander, Herbert B.
Alexander, Jonathan
Alexander, Karl L.
Alexander, Leslie
Alexander, Nathan N.
Alexander, Neville
Alexander, Nicola A.
Alexander, Patricia A.
Alexander, Theron
Alexander, Thomas
Alexander, W. P.
Alexander, William M.
Alexander, M.D., Franz
Alfonso, Mariana
Alford, Harold D.
Alford, Schevaletta M.
Alfred, Mary
Alger, Chadwick F.
Alharthi, Ahmad A.
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
Ali, Khalilah
Ali, Salma
Ali-Khan, Carolyne
Alibutod, Marilyn
Alicea, Monica
Alishahi, Afsoon
Alkin, Marvin C.
Allegrante, John P.
Alleman, Janet
Allen, Anna-Ruth
Allen, Arthur
Allen, Ayana
Allen, C. R.
Allen, Carrie D.
Allen, Charles R.
Allen, Clinton M.
Allen, Danielle
Allen, Danielle
Allen, David
Allen, Forrest
Allen, Harvey A.
Allen, Ira Madison
Allen, Jan
Allen, Jane C.
Allen, Jennifer
Allen, Keisha McIntosh
Allen, R. V.
Allen, Richard D.
Allen, Ryan
Allen, Ryan M.
Allen, Tawannah G.
Allen, Virginia F.
Allen, W. Paul
Allen, Walter R.
Allen, Wendell C.
Allen, Willard Paul
Allen-Handy, Ayana
Allen-Jones , Glenda L.
Allensworth, Elaine
Allensworth, Elaine
Allexsaht-Snider, Martha
Alleyne, Melissa L.
Alline, Anna L.
Allington, Richard
Allison, Valerie A.
Allport, Gordon W.
Allyn, David
Almack, John C.
Almamoori, Omar J.
Almeda, Victoria Q.
Almog, Tamar
Almy, Millie
Alomary, Norah
Alonso, Harriet Hyman
Alonzo, Julie
Alpern, D. K.
Alperstein , Janet F.
Alpert, Augusta
Alridge, Derrick P.
Alsaedi, Najah
Alsbury, Thomas L.
Alson, Allan
Alston, Amberlina
Alston, Chandra
Altbach, Philip G.
Althouse, J.G.
Altman, James W.
Altman, William
Altshcul, Sarah R.
Alvarado, Rafael E.
Alvarez, Adam Julian
Alvermann, Donna E.
Alviar-Martin, Theresa
Alvy, Harvey B.
Amanpour, Christiane
Amanti, Cathy
Ambach, Gordon M.
Ambrosio, John
Ames, Carole A.
Ammah-Tagoe, Naa
Amonette, Henry L.
Amory, Alan
Amos, Yukari
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
Amsel, Eric
Amster, Jeanne E.
Amthor, Ramona Fruja
An, Sohyun
Anagnostopoulos , Dorothea
Anastasi, Anne
Ancess, Jacqueline
and Associates,
And His Students,
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and others,
Anderegg, David
Anderman, Lynley H.
Anders, Patricia
Andersen, C. T.
Andersen, Erik A.
Andersen, Neil
Anderson, Archibald W.
Anderson, Ashlee
Anderson, Barry D.
Anderson, Bernice E.
Anderson, Brett
Anderson, C. Arnold
Anderson, Cecilia
Anderson, Cecilia
Anderson, Celia Rousseau
Anderson, Celia M.
Anderson, Eleanor R.
Anderson, Erin
Anderson, G. Lester
Anderson, Gary L.
Anderson, Gina
Anderson, Gregory M.
Anderson, Haithe
Anderson, Harold A.
Anderson, Helen
Anderson, Homer W.
Anderson, Howard R.
Anderson, James D.
Anderson, James
Anderson, Jeffrey B.
Anderson, Jervis
Anderson, John E.
Anderson, Kaitlin P.
Anderson, Kate T.
Anderson, Kelly
Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo
Anderson, L. Dewey
Anderson, Lauren
Anderson, Lorin W.
Anderson, Marti
Anderson, Michael L.
Anderson , Noel S.
Anderson, O. Roger
Anderson, Richard E.
Anderson, Richard C.
Anderson, Robert H.
Anderson, Rodino F.
Anderson, Rowland C.
Anderson, Roy N.
Anderson, Sir George
Anderson, Thomas H.
Anderson, W. P.
Anderson-Long, Maria
Anderson-Thompkins, Sibby
Andic, Martin
André, Aline B.
Andreescu, Titu
Andrei, Elena
Andress, Paul
Andrew, Thomas
Andrews, Alon
Andrews, Benjamin R.
Andrews, Gillian "Gus"
Andrews, Richard L.
Andrews-Larson, Christine
Andrianaivo, Solange
Andrus, Ruth
Andry, Robert C.
Andrzejewski, Carey E.
Angelis, Janet
Anglum, J. Cameron
Angoff, Charles
Angulo, A. J.
Angus, David L.
Annamma, Subini
Annenberg, Norman
Ansari, Sana
Ansell, Amy E.
Anthony, Albert S.
Anthony, Kate S.
Antia , Shirin
Antler, Joyce
Antler, Stephen
Antonelli, George A.
Antonenko, Pavlo
Antrop-González, René
Anyon, Jean
Aoudé, Ibrahim G.
Apfel, Nancy
Appell, Clara T.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony
Apple, Michael W.
Applebaum, Barbara
Applebee, Arthur N.
Appleman, Deborah
Aptheker, Herbert
Apugo , Danielle L.
Aquino-Sterling, Cristian
Araaya, Hailu
Arafeh, Sousan
Araujo, Blanca
Araujo, Blanca
Arbeit, Miriam R.
Arberg, Harold W.
Arbuckle, Dugald
Archambault, Leanna
Archibald, Sarah
Arcilla, Rene Vincente
Ardsdale, May B.
Areen, Judith
Arenas, Alberto
Arends, Jack
Arent, Emma
Ares, Nancy
Arey, Charles K.
Argyris, Chris
Arias, M. Beatriz
Arisman, Kenneth J.
Arlett, Elizabeth
Armbruster, Bonnie B.
Armentrout, W.D.
Armor, David J.
Arms, Emily
Armstrong, Denise E.
Armstrong, John A.
Armstrong, Louis W.
Armstrong, Willis C.
Arndt, C. O.
Arnesen, Arthur E.
Arnett, Alex Mathews
Arnheim, Rudolf
Arnold, Bryan P.
Arnold, David B.
Arnold, Karen D.
Arnold, Katharine S.
Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon
Arnot, Madeleine
Arnspiger, V. C.
Arnstein, George E.
Arnstine, Barbara
Arnstine, Donald J.
Arnstine, Donald
Arntsine, Barbara
Aronowitz, Stanley
Arons, Stephen
Aronson, Brittany
Arrastia, Lisa
Arrington, Angelique Renee
Arrington, Ruth E.
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arroyo, Andrew T.
Arroyo, Michelle A.
Arsenian, Seth
Arseo, Sean
Arshad, Rosnidar
Arshavsky, Nina
Artelt , Cordula
Artiles, Alfredo J.
Arzubiaga, Angela E.
Asby, Sir Eric
Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura
Asch, Adrienne
Aschbacher, Pamela R.
Ascher, Abraham
Ascher, Carol
Ash, Doris
Ashbaugh, Ernest J.
Ashby, Christine
Ashby, Lloyd W.
Ashcom, Banjamin M.
Ashcraft, Carrie
Ashcraft, Catherine
Asheim, Lester
Asher, Nina
Ashford, Shetay N.
Ashida, K.
Ashley, Dwayne
Ashmore, Jerome
Ashton, Patricia E.
Ashworth, Delmer
Asil, Mustafa
Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Askari, Emilia
Askeland, O.
Assouline, Susan G.
Assow, A. Harry
Assuncao Flores, Maria
Astelle, George E.
Aster, Samuel
Astin, Helen S.
Astin, John A.
Astor, Ron Avi
Astuto, Terry A.
Ata, Atakan
Atanda, Awo Korantemaa
Ateh, Comfort
Athanases, Steven Z.
Atherley, Marilyn
Atkin, J. Myron
Atkinson, Ruth V.
Attannucci, Jane S.
Atteberry, Allison
Atteberry, Allison
Attwood, Adam
Atwater, Mary
Atwater, Sheri
Atwell, Nancie
Atwell, Robert King
Atwood, Virginia Rogers
Atyco, Henry C.
Au, Wayne
Aubert, Adrianna
Aubrey, Roger F.
Aucejo, Esteban
Audley-Piotrowski, Shannon
Auerbach, Susan
Auguste, Byron
Augustine, Norman R.
Aultman, Lori
Aurini, Janice
Auser, Cortland P.
Austin, Ann E
Austin, David B.
Austin, Duke W.
Austin, Glenn
Austin, Jean
Austin, Mary C.
Austin, Mike
Austin, Theresa
Austin, Vance
Ausubel, David P.
Author, No
Autin, David B.
Avalos, Mary A.
Avcioglu, Ilhan
Averch, Harvey
Averill, Hugh M.
Averill, Julia
Averill, W. A.
Avila, Maria
Avila, Oscar
Avila Saiter, Sean M.
Aviles, Ann M.
Avison, O. R.
Axelrod, Paul
Axelrod, Ysaaca
Axelson, Alfhild J.
Axline, Virginia M.
AXT, Richard G.
Axtelle, G. E.
Axtelle, G. E.
Ayala, Jennifer
Ayalon, Aram
Ayalon, Hanna
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Fred C.
Ayers , Bill
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Ayers, Leonard P.
Ayers, Richard
Ayers, Rick
Ayers, William
Ayieko, Rachel
Aylward, Lynn
Ayscue, Jennifer B.
Azano, Amy
Azevedo, Roger
Azzam, Tarek
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