Home Articles Reader Opinion Editorial Book Reviews Discussion Writers Guide About TCRecord
transparent 13
Gray, William S.
University of Chicago
WILLIAM S. GRAY is a professor at the University of Chicago.

William S. Gray - 1961
Because of the urgency of preparing children and youth to live intelligently and creatively in a rapidly changing world, it is imperative that current programs of teacher education be critically examined and, wherever necessary, upgraded. It is appropriate, therefore, that ways of strengthening the preparation of teachers in reading be considered in this yearbook. Following a brief review of current practices, improvements at both the preservice and in-service levels will be discussed.

William S. Gray - 1959
In the discussion that follows, we shall first view recent progress in extending literacy and the size of the task still faced. The remainder of the chapter will consider selected problems involved in promoting literacy within the framework of community education.

William S. Gray - 1956
The fact was pointed out in the preceding chapter that what adults read and the extent of their reading are influenced by their ability to read. It is equally true that the values derived—pleasure, information, thought stimulation, the solution of personal and group problems—are determined in large measure by their reading efficiency. It follows that the question of how well adults read assumes large importance in any critical analysis of adult reading problems.

William S. Gray - 1949
This chapter is concerned with the conditions under which reading can be used effectively as an aid to learning and with the types of guidance needed by the learners.

William S. Gray - 1948
In order to define more specifically the chief aspects of a sound reading program, this chapter attempts to do three things: first, it reviews briefly the steps which have been taken most frequently in providing for the reading needs of high-school and college students; second, it presents examples of reading programs that differ in various significant ways; and, third, it considers criteria underlying a sound reading program. On this broad basis, it outlines the essential aspects of a reading program as recommended by the yearbook committee.

William S. Gray - 1948
Experience shows clearly that, as a result of carefully planned training adjusted to the progress and needs of students, they are able to read at increasingly high levels of efficiency from year to year. On such a foundation, the guidance in reading provided in the various content subjects can begin at a much more advanced level and can be directed more largely to the development of those aspects of reading competence that are unique to each field.

Harry A. Greene & William S. Gray - 1946
The language arts as a field of instruction may be considered as comprising two main areas of communication skills: (1) the expressional skills, involved in writing and speaking, and (2) the receptive skills, involved in reading and listening. Each presents somewhat different problems in the analysis and appraisal of meanings. The objectives of the language arts outlined in this chapter are grouped, therefore, under these two headings.

William S. Gray - 1943
A basic assumption underlying this Yearbook is that the school library at any level of general education is a vital element in the educational process, deriving its objectives from the society, the community, and the institution that it serves. It is assumed also that modifications in school curriculums made in response to social changes and to the controlling philosophy of the school will be reflected in the character of the library materials provided and in their administration and use.

William S. Gray - 1939
In harmony with the major assumptions underlying this Yearbook, curricula in reading should be based on facts concerning the growth and development of children and concerning their abilities, interests, and needs at each level of advancement. Support for this view is found in the results of research that reveal significant correspondence between a child's level of development and the success accompanying the use of certain types of subject matter and teaching procedures. Other facts, such as the time when various types of experience will be individually most satisfying and socially most fruitful, should also be considered.

William S. Gray - 1938
Because of their intimate relation to subsequent developments in the scientific study of reading problems, the nature and unique contributions of these early investigations will be considered briefly.

William S. Gray - 1937
The last ten years form a notable period in the history of reading. As a result of the stimulus provided by such publications as the Report of the National Committee on Reading/ the place of reading in the curriculum has greatly expanded and the content and methods of teaching pupils to read have improved rapidly. Of even greater importance is the fact that reading has acquired broader relationships than formerly in both child and adult life. With increasing frequency the fact has been emphasized that reading must provide more largely in the future than in the past for promoting clear understanding, developing habits of good thinking, stimulating broad interests, cultivating appreciations, and establishing stable personalities. Furthermore, the results of scientific studies have given us a clearer understanding of the nature of reading and of the basic processes involved.

William S. Gray - 1937
In the discussion that follows, an effort will be made to define reading in sufficiently broad terms to embrace its essential uses in contemporary life, to describe significant purposes of readers, and to suggest important problems involved in improving achievement in reading. Preliminary to these discussions, the relation of reading to learning will be considered briefly.

William S. Gray - 1937
Two important motives underlie the program that is recommended; namely, to provide appropriate initial teaching, thus securing the development of right attitudes and habits and the prevention of wrong ones, and to promote growth at each level of advancement sufficient to insure maximal achievement in all reading activities in which children engage both in and out of school. Although it is assumed that the guidance outlined will be provided in most cases during specific reading periods, the problems considered are pertinent also in highly integrated programs of teaching.

William S. Gray - 1925
It is the purpose of this section to consider important facts concerning reading in school and in modern life, and to outline types of reading activities in which children and adults frequently engage. Such an outline reveals, in a limited way, the breadth and variety of reading activities that should be considered in planning a program of instruction.

William S. Gray - 1925
A detailed study of the desirable reading activities of children and adults of the attitudes, habits, and skills that are involved has led to the adoption of three major objectives of reading. The first two are broad, comprehensive aims that are of first importance in the life of every child and adult. The third emphasizes desirable attitudes and essential habits and skills.

William S. Gray - 1925
This chapter outlines a modern reading program which, it is believed, will provide rich experience through reading, inculcate strong motives for reading, and develop essential reading attitudes, habits, and skills. The major divisions of such a program, based on periods of devdlopment in reading ability, will be distinguished first. More detailed information will then be presented concerning the purpose, organization of instruction, and desirable levels of achievement for various school grades.

William S. Gray - 1921
Four years ago a boy who now ranks slightly above the average of his age-group in general intelligence began his school career. He advanced regularly with his class until the autumn of 1920. At that time it became necessary for him to discontinue regular school work because he was unable to read. In class discussions, in ability to solve problems, and in all phases of school work which did not involve reading he equalled or excelled his classmates.

William S. Gray - 1919
The Committee on Economy of Time in Education has reported during the last four years a number of studies and reports on reading. In the Fourteenth Yearbook (1915) Supt. R. G. Jones discussed the determination and use of standard vocabularies in the primary grades, and S. A. Courtis discussed the determination and significance of standard rates of reading. In the Sixteenth Yearbook (1917) the relation of silent reading to economy in education was discussed and O. F. Munson and J. H. Hoskinson reported the results of an investigation to determine the prevailing practice regarding the use of library and supplementary-reading books in the different grades of the elementary schools in fifty American cities.

George N. Cade & William S. Gray - 1919
The investigation which is reported in this article was undertaken to determine the relative efficiency of teaching in elementary training schools which are connected with normal schools and in elementary public schools. The investigation was prompted primarily by the fact that in some communities in which training schools are located patrons object to sending their children to the training school on the assumption that student teaching is inferior. Universities in many sections meet the same objection when they attempt to secure the co-operation of public high schools in the training of teachers.

William S. Gray - 1917
Economy of time and effort in education depends in a large measure upon the fulfillment of the following conditions: (a) that there be concentration of attention upon those phases of instruction which are highly important; (b) that each phase of instruction be emphasized at that stage in the development of the child when such instruction will be most effective, and (c) that the subject matter and methods of instruction be selected upon the basis of well-defined and highly desirable purposes which are to be realized. In harmony with these prerequisites of economy in education it is the purpose of this article to discuss the importance and economy of silent reading in elementary-school instruction, to formulate a tentative answer in regard to the periods at which instruction in silent reading may be emphasized effectively, and to outline certain conclusions concerning the subject matter and methods of teaching which are most appropriate for instruction in silent reading.

Robinson G. Jones, Stuart A. Courtis & William S. Gray - 1915
The word "reading" is here used to include the formal aspects of oral and silent reading. The content aspect of reading is discussed in a later chapter on literature. The determination of the minimum essentials in reading involves two problems, one the determination of standard vocabularies and the other the determination of standard rates of reading. One of these is discussed by Mr. Jones and the other by Mr. Courtis. In view of the active scientific experimentation and investigation that are being carried on at the present time in the subject of reading, a select bibliography by Mr. Gray is provided in order to introduce the reader to some of the more recent experiments.

Author Index
Jump to lastname starting with:
A., M.
A.Bailey II, M.D., Joseph
A.Boyce, George
A.Hanson, Abel
Aagaard, Lola
Abbate, Fred J.
Abbe, George
Abbot, Julia W.
Abbott, Allan
Abbott, Daniel H.
Abbott, Dorothy
Abbott, Forest L.
Abbott, Herbert V.
Abbott, Mary Allen
Abbott, Mary Ellen
Abbs, Peter
Abdi, Ali A.
Abdus-Sabur, Qadir
Abe, Shigetaka
Abedi, Jamal
Abel, David A.
Abel, Emily K.
Abel, Jerian
Abel, Yolanda
Abeles, Harold F.
Abelmann, Nancy
Abelson, Harold H.
Aben, Patricia
Abernathy, Ruth
Abernathy, Scott F.
Abeson, Alan
Abney, David
Abney, Louise
Abo-Zena, Mona
Aboulafia, Mitchell
Abouzaglo, Shanee
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
Abrahams, Frank
Abrahams, Salie
Abram, Percy
Abrams, Alfred W.
Abrams, Lisa
Abrams, Samuel E.
Abrams, Sandra Schamroth
Abramson, David A.
Abrego, Michelle
Abry, Tashia
Abu El-Haj, Thea
Acharya, Urmila
Achenbach, Thomas M.
Achilles, Charles M.
Achinstein, Betty
Achner, M. J.
Ackerman, Debra
Ackerman, John M.
Ackerman, Phillip L.
Ackerman, Winona B.
Acosta, Elda
Acosta, Melanie M.
Acosta, Rudy
Acosta , Vasthi Reyes
Acuff, Bette
Ada, Alma Flor
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Adair, Vivyan C.
Adam, Roy
Adamany, David
Adams, Arlene
Adams, Arthur S.
Adams, Curt M.
Adams, Donald
Adams, Hazard
Adams, Kathy
Adams, Kenneth R.
Adams, Margaret
Adams, Megan
Adams, Natalie Guice
Adams, Susan R.
Adams-Bass, Valerie
Adamson, Susan C.
Adelson, Joseph
Adely, Fida J.
Adeyemo, Adeoye O.
Adigun, Olajumoke "Beulah"
Adkins, Amee
Adkins, Dorothy C.
Adkins, Winthrop D.
Adkison, Judith
Adler, Chaim
Adler, Karlyn
Adler, Mortimer J.
Adler, Susan Matoba
Ado, Kathryn
Aemero Tekleselassie, Abebayehu
af Malmborg, Nils M.
Afonso, Robert
Afzal, Saima
Agans, Jennifer P.
Agee, Jane
Agirdag, Orhan
Agius, Kirsten
Agne, Russell M.
Agnew, Walter D.
Agosto, Vonzell
Agre, Gene P.
Agren, Raymond
Aguiar, Jeff
Aguilar, Jose V.
Aguilera-Black Bear, Dorothy
Aguirre, Julia
Aguirre Jr, Adalberto
Ahearn, Amy
Ahern, T. James
Ahern, Terence
Ahlberg, Mauri
Ahlstrom, Winton M.
Ahmad, Iftikhar
Ahmad, Nabeel
Ahn, June
Ahram, Roey
Ahrens, Maurice R.
Aiken, Henry David
Aiken-Wisniewski, Sharon A
Aikin, Wilford M.
Aikins, Ross
Airasian, Peter W.
Airton, Lee
Aitchison, Alison E.
Aitchison, Gertrude M.
Aitken, Graeme
Aitken, Jenny
Aitken, Johanna
aka Don Trent Jacobs, Four Arrows
Akanbi , Linda
Akers, Milton E.
Akerson, Valarie L.
Akiba, Daisuke
Akiba, Motoko
Akin, Clayton
Akinrinola, Ademola
Akita, Kiyomi
Akkari, Abdeljalil
Akom, Antwi
Akrawi, Matta
Akridge, Samantha L.
Al Atiyat , Ibtesam
Alaca, Zahide
Alarcon, Jeannette
Alatis, James E.
Alba, Richard
Albers, Peggy
Albert, Gerald
Albert, Marta K.
Alberty, H. B.
Alberty, Harold
Albrecht, Arthur E.
Albrecht, Lisa
Albright, Julie M.
Albright, Kathy Zanella
Albro, Elizabeth
Alcantar, Cynthia M.
Aldemir, Jale
Alden, Elizabeth
Alden, Vernon R.
Alderfer, H.F.
Aldrich, Grace L.
Alessi, Jr., Samuel J.
Alexander, Carter
Alexander, Dameon V.
Alexander, Francie
Alexander, Gadi
Alexander, Herbert B.
Alexander, Jonathan
Alexander, Karl L.
Alexander, Leslie
Alexander, Nathan N.
Alexander, Neville
Alexander, Nicola A.
Alexander, Patricia A.
Alexander, Theron
Alexander, Thomas
Alexander, W. P.
Alexander, William M.
Alexander, M.D., Franz
Alfonso, Mariana
Alford, Harold D.
Alford, Schevaletta M.
Alfred, Mary
Alger, Chadwick F.
Alharthi, Ahmad A.
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
Ali, Khalilah
Ali, Salma
Ali-Khan, Carolyne
Alibutod, Marilyn
Alicea, Monica
Alishahi, Afsoon
Alkin, Marvin C.
Allegrante, John P.
Alleman, Janet
Allen, Anna-Ruth
Allen, Arthur
Allen, Ayana
Allen, C. R.
Allen, Carrie D.
Allen, Charles R.
Allen, Clinton M.
Allen, Danielle
Allen, Danielle
Allen, David
Allen, Forrest
Allen, Harvey A.
Allen, Ira Madison
Allen, Jan
Allen, Jane C.
Allen, Jennifer
Allen, Keisha McIntosh
Allen, R. V.
Allen, Richard D.
Allen, Ryan
Allen, Ryan M.
Allen, Tawannah G.
Allen, Virginia F.
Allen, W. Paul
Allen, Walter R.
Allen, Wendell C.
Allen, Willard Paul
Allen-Handy, Ayana
Allen-Jones , Glenda L.
Allensworth, Elaine
Allensworth, Elaine
Allexsaht-Snider, Martha
Alleyne, Melissa L.
Alline, Anna L.
Allington, Richard
Allison, Valerie A.
Allport, Gordon W.
Allyn, David
Almack, John C.
Almamoori, Omar J.
Almeda, Victoria Q.
Almog, Tamar
Almy, Millie
Alomary, Norah
Alonso, Harriet Hyman
Alonzo, Julie
Alpern, D. K.
Alperstein , Janet F.
Alpert, Augusta
Alridge, Derrick P.
Alsaedi, Najah
Alsbury, Thomas L.
Alson, Allan
Alston, Amberlina
Alston, Chandra
Altbach, Philip G.
Althouse, J.G.
Altman, James W.
Altman, William
Altshcul, Sarah R.
Alvarado, Rafael E.
Alvarez, Adam Julian
Alvermann, Donna E.
Alviar-Martin, Theresa
Alvy, Harvey B.
Amanpour, Christiane
Amanti, Cathy
Ambach, Gordon M.
Ambrosio, John
Ames, Carole A.
Ammah-Tagoe, Naa
Amonette, Henry L.
Amory, Alan
Amos, Yukari
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
Amsel, Eric
Amster, Jeanne E.
Amthor, Ramona Fruja
An, Sohyun
Anagnostopoulos , Dorothea
Anastasi, Anne
Ancess, Jacqueline
and Associates,
And His Students,
and others,
and others,
and others,
Anderegg, David
Anderman, Lynley H.
Anders, Patricia
Andersen, C. T.
Andersen, Erik A.
Andersen, Neil
Anderson, Archibald W.
Anderson, Ashlee
Anderson, Barry D.
Anderson, Bernice E.
Anderson, Brett
Anderson, C. Arnold
Anderson, Cecilia
Anderson, Cecilia
Anderson, Celia Rousseau
Anderson, Celia M.
Anderson, Eleanor R.
Anderson, Erin
Anderson, G. Lester
Anderson, Gary L.
Anderson, Gina
Anderson, Gregory M.
Anderson, Haithe
Anderson, Harold A.
Anderson, Helen
Anderson, Homer W.
Anderson, Howard R.
Anderson, James D.
Anderson, James
Anderson, Jeffrey B.
Anderson, Jervis
Anderson, John E.
Anderson, Kaitlin P.
Anderson, Kate T.
Anderson, Kelly
Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo
Anderson, L. Dewey
Anderson, Lauren
Anderson, Lorin W.
Anderson, Marti
Anderson, Michael L.
Anderson , Noel S.
Anderson, O. Roger
Anderson, Richard E.
Anderson, Richard C.
Anderson, Robert H.
Anderson, Rodino F.
Anderson, Rowland C.
Anderson, Roy N.
Anderson, Sir George
Anderson, Thomas H.
Anderson, W. P.
Anderson-Long, Maria
Anderson-Thompkins, Sibby
Andic, Martin
André, Aline B.
Andreescu, Titu
Andrei, Elena
Andress, Paul
Andrew, Thomas
Andrews, Alon
Andrews, Benjamin R.
Andrews, Gillian "Gus"
Andrews, Richard L.
Andrews-Larson, Christine
Andrianaivo, Solange
Andrus, Ruth
Andry, Robert C.
Andrzejewski, Carey E.
Angelis, Janet
Anglum, J. Cameron
Angoff, Charles
Angulo, A. J.
Angus, David L.
Annamma, Subini
Annenberg, Norman
Ansari, Sana
Ansell, Amy E.
Anthony, Albert S.
Anthony, Kate S.
Antia , Shirin
Antler, Joyce
Antler, Stephen
Antonelli, George A.
Antonenko, Pavlo
Antrop-González, René
Anyon, Jean
Aoudé, Ibrahim G.
Apfel, Nancy
Appell, Clara T.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony
Apple, Michael W.
Applebaum, Barbara
Applebee, Arthur N.
Appleman, Deborah
Aptheker, Herbert
Apugo , Danielle L.
Aquino-Sterling, Cristian
Araaya, Hailu
Arafeh, Sousan
Araujo, Blanca
Araujo, Blanca
Arbeit, Miriam R.
Arberg, Harold W.
Arbuckle, Dugald
Archambault, Leanna
Archibald, Sarah
Arcilla, Rene Vincente
Ardsdale, May B.
Areen, Judith
Arenas, Alberto
Arends, Jack
Arent, Emma
Ares, Nancy
Arey, Charles K.
Argyris, Chris
Arias, M. Beatriz
Arisman, Kenneth J.
Arlett, Elizabeth
Armbruster, Bonnie B.
Armentrout, W.D.
Armor, David J.
Arms, Emily
Armstrong, Denise E.
Armstrong, John A.
Armstrong, Louis W.
Armstrong, Willis C.
Arndt, C. O.
Arnesen, Arthur E.
Arnett, Alex Mathews
Arnheim, Rudolf
Arnold, Bryan P.
Arnold, David B.
Arnold, Karen D.
Arnold, Katharine S.
Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon
Arnot, Madeleine
Arnspiger, V. C.
Arnstein, George E.
Arnstine, Barbara
Arnstine, Donald J.
Arnstine, Donald
Arntsine, Barbara
Aronowitz, Stanley
Arons, Stephen
Aronson, Brittany
Arrastia, Lisa
Arrington, Angelique Renee
Arrington, Ruth E.
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arroyo, Andrew T.
Arroyo, Michelle A.
Arsenian, Seth
Arseo, Sean
Arshad, Rosnidar
Arshavsky, Nina
Artelt , Cordula
Artiles, Alfredo J.
Arzubiaga, Angela E.
Asby, Sir Eric
Asch, Adrienne
Aschbacher, Pamela R.
Ascher, Abraham
Ascher, Carol
Ash, Doris
Ashbaugh, Ernest J.
Ashby, Christine
Ashby, Lloyd W.
Ashcom, Banjamin M.
Ashcraft, Carrie
Ashcraft, Catherine
Asheim, Lester
Asher, Nina
Ashford, Shetay N.
Ashida, K.
Ashley, Dwayne
Ashmore, Jerome
Ashton, Patricia E.
Ashworth, Delmer
Asil, Mustafa
Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Askari, Emilia
Askeland, O.
Assouline, Susan G.
Assow, A. Harry
Assuncao Flores, Maria
Astelle, George E.
Aster, Samuel
Astin, Helen S.
Astin, John A.
Astor, Ron Avi
Astuto, Terry A.
Ata, Atakan
Atanda, Awo Korantemaa
Ateh, Comfort
Athanases, Steven Z.
Atherley, Marilyn
Atkin, J. Myron
Atkinson, Ruth V.
Attannucci, Jane S.
Atteberry, Allison
Atteberry, Allison
Attwood, Adam
Atwater, Mary
Atwater, Sheri
Atwell, Nancie
Atwell, Robert King
Atwood, Virginia Rogers
Atyco, Henry C.
Au, Wayne
Aubert, Adrianna
Aubrey, Roger F.
Aucejo, Esteban
Audley-Piotrowski, Shannon
Auerbach, Susan
Auguste, Byron
Augustine, Norman R.
Aultman, Lori
Aurini, Janice
Auser, Cortland P.
Austin, Ann E
Austin, David B.
Austin, Duke W.
Austin, Glenn
Austin, Jean
Austin, Mary C.
Austin, Mike
Austin, Theresa
Austin, Vance
Ausubel, David P.
Author, No
Autin, David B.
Avalos, Mary A.
Avcioglu, Ilhan
Averch, Harvey
Averill, Hugh M.
Averill, Julia
Averill, W. A.
Avila, Maria
Avila, Oscar
Avila Saiter, Sean M.
Aviles, Ann M.
Avison, O. R.
Axelrod, Paul
Axelrod, Ysaaca
Axelson, Alfhild J.
Axline, Virginia M.
AXT, Richard G.
Axtelle, G. E.
Axtelle, G. E.
Ayala, Jennifer
Ayalon, Hanna
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Fred C.
Ayers , Bill
Ayers, David
Ayers, Leonard P.
Ayers, Richard
Ayers, Rick
Ayers, William
Ayieko, Rachel
Aylward, Lynn
Ayscue, Jennifer B.
Azano, Amy
Azevedo, Roger
Azzam, Tarek
Member Center
In Print
This Month's Issue