by Christian Faltis & Guadalupe Valdés This essay introduces the issue, Educating Immigrant Students, Refugees, and English Language Learners: A No Borders Perspective
by Tamara Lucas & Ana María VillegasThis chapter examines what some teacher educators are already doing and what all teacher educators need to do to prepare general classroom teachers to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). The authors argue that, because of the trend toward inclusion of ELLs in the mainstream class and the role of language in schooling, it is essential that all teachers be prepared to teach ELLs. They then present a conception of linguistically responsive teaching that outlines essential curriculum content for preparing teachers for ELLs, and they highlight elements of program design that can support the preparation of teachers for teaching ELLs.
by Rebecca Blum Martínez & Susan BakerIn this chapter, the authors describe the changes that have taken place in Bilingual Teacher Preparation since 1993 and analyze these changes in light of national and international political and social changes. Their analysis also reveals persistent problems that have yet to be resolved and highlights possible next steps in the field.
by George C. BunchGiven the increasing likelihood that secondary teachers either are or will be responsible for teaching English learners (ELs) and other language minority students from immigrant backgrounds, this chapter explores recent efforts to conceptualize and act upon what mainstream secondary teachers need to know about language. While widespread agreement exists regarding the importance of “academic language” for ELs in secondary school, there is less agreement about how this language should be conceptualized or how teachers should be prepared to facilitate students’ development of it. The chapter reviews different conceptions of
academic language and argues for the importance of collaborative efforts between content-area and language specialists to promote ELs access to mainstream curriculum and opportunities to expand their linguistic repertoire for increasingly challenging academic endeavors.
by Elsa S. Billings, Melinda Martin-Beltrán & Anita Hernández This chapter describes bilingual approaches to teaching immigrants and English learners in elementary schools, situating program models within a shifting sociopolitical climate, grounding bilingual education theoretically, and describing bilingual teaching practices. Profiles are presented of successful dual language programs that demonstrate the ways that schools must negotiate priorities of bilingualism with pressures of accountability in English.
by Barbara J. Merino & Kathleen S. DixonThe authors explore how two exemplary beginning teachers investigate their instruction in English language arts as they scaffold the development of academic literacy/language at two critical points of entry: kindergarten and sixth grade. Tanya targets the development of narrative structure; Rachel focuses on grammatical resources to provide support to claims in response to literature. The authors rely on multiple frameworks of AL to investigate how each demonstrates evolving professional competence and understandings of how to facilitate development in their students as they progress through their inquiry.
by Paula WolfeThis chapter explores the concept of transmediation or translation from one mode (textual) to another (visual). Transmediation has proven valuable in increasing English Learners’ academic reading abilities. There are multiple conceptions of what transmediation is and how it should be implemented, and this paper argues that choices about implementation should be connected to student needs and abilities.
by Jin Sook LeeThis chapter offers a conceptual review of culturally relevant pedagogy and a synthesis of research that documents its application to immigrant children and English language learners. The examination of culturally relevant pedagogy across various subject matters and student populations shows how this critical approach can make a difference in the learning experiences for linguistic and culturally diverse students.
by Christina Chávez-ReyesThis chapter presents a strength-based approach to inclusive parent involvement for young English language learners and their families. The approach recommends that schools re-orient their ideology and organization of parent-school interaction to emphasize human relations (collaboration and mutual relationships) rather than human resource management (efficient use of human capital). It also provides administrators and teachers practical strategies guided by research and theoretical considerations.
by Lilia I. BartoloméThis chapter chronicles the curricular efforts in one applied linguistics graduate department to prepare prospective and current language-teachers to work more effectively with non-white, low socioeconomic (SES) immigrants and other linguistic minority students from subordinated cultural groups by infusing the explicit study of ideology and its role in teacher preparation into the course of study. Since most language teachers will likely work with these students, it is important that teachers understand that there are political and ideological dimensions to English as a Second Language (ESL) and Sheltered English (SE) education that, in most instances, may adversely impact their work.
by Reynaldo Reyes & Leena HerThis chapter examines ways that high schools have addressed the needs of English learners and immigrant students from diverse language backgrounds in an era of nationwide high-stakes testing and accountability policies. Tapping into a host of programmatic efforts and pedagogical approaches from prior and extant research, the authors propose a number of ways to help English learners and immigrants become successful in today’s high schools.
by Karla Giuliano Sarr & Jacqueline MosselsonThis chapter counters the notion of refugee-ness as a condition to overcome in favor of a holistic and actor-oriented approach to the experiences of refugee students and their families in United States schools. Examples of refugees in the U.S. as well as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia illustrate the heterogeneity of refugees, challenges of isolation, and expressions of agency as refugee students and parents seek possibilities for economic mobility and selectively adapt to their new host community, often characterized by class and racial struggle. The last section of the chapter presents a number of promising practices and recommendations for educators.