by Thomas S. Popkewitz & Fazal RizviGlobalization is the type of phrase that Antonio Nóvoa (2002) has called planetspeak. It appears as an ubiquitous word that everyone “knows.” It appears daily in the newspapers about the promise of progress that once was spoken about through the worldwide Church’s redemption of the soul, or as the evil that will erode one’s senses of national belonging. It becomes the watchword of both good and evil, or what is right about the new world of this millennial and what needs to be corrected in this world.
by Thomas S. Popkewitz & Fazal RizviGlobalization has been in the forefront of public debates in recent decades. It was brought anew in the debates surrounding the current global financial crisis that have forced many to reconsider the idea of globalization and raise a number of new questions. To what extent has the current crisis been caused by the ways in which the possibilities of globalization have been interpreted and enacted? In what ways did the rhetorics of globalization unleash a range of practices that led many countries to abandon prudent regulatory systems of financial systems? Were global processes badly managed or was their very construction flawed? To what extent and how did the dominant construction of globalization re-shape not only economic activity but also other fields of human endeavor, such as education, and with what effects? How did the narratives of globalization become so ideologically dominant? Is it possible to imagine a different form of globalization that does not have such disastrous social consequences?
by Daniel TröhlerThe history of education in relation to globalization is quite paradoxical. The first global phenomena of education emerged out of reactions against the Reformation in the late sixteenth century, when the Counter-Reformation Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, started to establish institutions of higher education, first in Europe and later in other parts of the world. Provided in architecturally standardized buildings, the Jesuit education was based on a standardized curriculum developed by international experts and used standardized quality rating systems to assess students’ achievement.
by Noah W. Sobe & Nicole D. OrtegónThe purported “liquidity” of knowledge is often posed as one of the defining characteristics of the present “age of globalization.” Liquidity describes the present moment as one marked by flows, flexibility and flux, and it also can be invoked to define the here-and-now by suggesting contrasts and departures from earlier historical eras. A statement such as the following: “Knowledge is no longer an immobile solid, it has been liquefied. It is actively moving in all the currents of society itself,” would seem to have tremendous import for the study of education.
by Rosa Nidia Buenfil-BurgosThe links between globalization and territory seem to constitute a productive matter to discuss, since one of the most visible processes we are witnessing at an existential level involves massive and multi-directed migrations from less developed places to others upon which hopes of better opportunities have been conferred, and this traveling has educational effects. People from rural areas go to cities, thousands of persons from Africa and Asia migrate to Europe (from Turkey to Germany, from Algeria to France, from India and Pakistan to the UK, and so on), especially from previous colonies to the countries that were the colonizer.
by Inés DusselIf there is a field in which the talk on globalization is strong, it is media studies. Since the early 1990s, many theorists have been arguing that the production of visual subjects is taking place through globally-owned and globally-broadcast media (Maharaj, 1994), and that the spread of “landscapes of images” generated by these global electronic media is providing the world population with “repertoires of images, narratives, and ethnoscapes” that constitute a new “imagined community” which is replacing the declining national imaginaries.
by Roger Dale & Susan RobertsonIt is clear that we are entering a new and unknown world, where it seems that nothing can be predicted, except perhaps that it will be both in the short term rather uncomfortable and in the longer term quite different. This is at least as true of education as of any other area of organised human activity, and the fundamental concern of this chapter will be the changing role, nature, and place of “education” in twenty-first century societies.
by Phillip Brown & Hugh LauderThe idea that education is intimately linked to the reproduction of social class has a long pedigree. Through the theoretical contributions of writers such as Bowles and Gintis (1976), Bourdieu and Passeron (1977), and Collins (1979) it has been established that there are systemic educational inequalities: the children from professional middle class backgrounds are far more likely to succeed in the competition for credentials than those from the working class. But there has always been another element to theories of class reproduction which relate, broadly speaking, to character. It is that education, as a classed institution, shapes or informs character by differentially creating or reinforcing the kinds of dispositions, attitudes, and cultural attributes necessary for entry into professional middle class occupations.
by Kalervo N. GulsonThis chapter is part of broader ongoing attempts to demonstrate that shifts in educational policy can be understood as mutually constitutive with the changing nature of contemporary cities, including changes in urban policy (see, e.g., Gulson, 2007a, 2007b, 2008). In this chapter I want to explore one aspect of these broader attempts, namely the relationships between education policy, globalization, and the notion of the neighborhood. To do this I am going to briefly propose that the neighborhood has been deemed as relatively insignificant within certain discourses of globalization, and then use the chapter to try and argue that the neighborhood retains significance not despite but through neoliberal globalization as played out in the connections between gentrification and education markets.
by Kentaro Ohkura & Masako ShibataIn this chapter, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan’s positioning of self within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan’s relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified. The argument is developed in the context in which Japan sees itself through its image of the international community. The so-called Westernization theme of Japan, and probably of other “catch-up” countries, is not as linear as before, and does seem to be more complex in this age of globalization. The dominance of the West in education and other fields has steadily been multi-polarized, and its decline has raised competition among countries around the world.
by Sverker Lindblad & Rita Foss LindbladThis chapter is about globalization in higher education and how “globalism” is playing a role in stimulating university transformation around the world. Our specific focus is on international university ranking lists. Such lists are being given increasingly more space and attention in the mass media and by governments as well as by supranational organizations and the universities themselves. There has also been an increase in the number of ranking lists, each one presenting somewhat different criteria and procedures for identifying ranking positions.
by Michael A. PetersOpenness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of “social production” based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. Openness in this sense refers to open source models of scientific communication, knowledge distribution, and educational development, although it has a number of deeper registers that refer more widely to government (“open government”), society (“open society”), economy (“open economy”) and even psychology (openness as one of the traits of personality theory). The concept and evolving set of practices has profound consequences for education at all levels. “Openness” has become a leading source of innovation in the world global digital economy, increasingly adopted by world governments, international agencies, and multinationals, as well as by leading educational institutions as a means of promoting scientific inquiry and international collaboration.
by Bob LingardGlobalization means that we have to reconsider the ways we do education policy analysis. This is because changes as a result of globalization have had an impact on policy and policy production in education. These changes include: the rescaling of contemporary politics (Brenner, 2004); the move from government to governance (Rhodes, 1997; Roseneau, 1997); and the effects of those processes on the object of education policy analysis, namely, policy and policy processes. These changes and their effects have implications for theory and methodology for doing education policy analysis.
by Thomas S. PopkewitzGlobalization is a word that flows through many different contexts. A Google search identifies over 20 million sites for its descriptions and prescriptions. It is a topoi, it is a word that everyone seems to know and which needs no author. Globalization is a contemporary industry that crosses academia, commerce, and governments. In a European study of educational governance and social inclusion, it travels in the narratives of politicians, ministries, school leaders, and teachers to describe the fate of humankind: globalization was the given fact of the world, and schools are to prepare children for this future-to-come (Lindblad & Popkewitz, 2001). The hope of globalization is also the darkness of present economic woes and the homogenizing of cultures and traditions.
by Fazal RizviOver the past few decades, we have witnessed ever-increasing levels of mobility facilitated not only by the revolutionary developments in communication and transport technologies but also by major shifts in the ways in which economic and political activity is conducted. A number of chapters in this volume have noted how educational ideas now move, circulating globally, and how there are now new modes in the production and dissemination of educational knowledge that are globally calibrated.