by Arnetha F. BallThis introduces the NSSE volume With More Deliberate Speed: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Education—Realizing the Full Potential of Brown v. Board of Education
by James D. AndersonThis chapter has two basic objectives. First, I examine the place and
meaning of Brown in the larger struggle for individual and racial equality. The second objective of this chapter is to provide an understanding
of how the particular implementation of and resistance to Brown
impacted the struggle for equal education.
by Joy Ann WilliamsonThe first section of the chapter examines
two of the historiographical tales of Brown and the black freedom
struggle in the scholarly literature. The second part of the chapter investigates the treatment of the
black freedom struggle and the Brown decision in high school history
by Edmund W. Gordon & Beatrice L. BridglallThe chapter that follows is adapted from the address that inaugurated the American Educational Research Association annual lecture series commemorating the anniversary of the 1954 Supreme Court decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education.
by Carol D. LeeIn my response to Drs.
Gordon and Bridglall’s chapter, I want to further examine the implications
of Brown for institution building and for conceptualizing our
demands for social justice in education.
by John BaughAmerica still
struggles with racial reconciliation in our collective quest to level the
educational playing field so that talent, rather than privilege, will determine
each child’s prospects, regardless of race. This discussion seeks to
introduce some neglected linguistic dimensions into this realm, with
particular attention to the Brown ruling and the growing linguistic
diversity of black America.
by Arnetha F. Ball & H. Samy AlimThis chapter discusses
what needs to happen now—with more deliberate speed—as we
reflect on the years since these two cases were decided and their impact
on language education in the United States. In our
view, three major action points should be placed high on the language
education agenda for the next half-century: the development and implementation
of (1) inclusive, comprehensive, systemic reform in language
education policy; (2) critical language pedagogies; and (3) teacher preparation
programs in language and literacy education.
by Bernard R. Gifford & Guadalupe Valdés In this chapter, we focus on the educational challenges of linguistic
isolation for Latino students by examining the case of California. We
first provide a historical overview of Spanish in California, tracing the
climate of evolving hostility toward Spanish and Spanish-speaking immigrants and describing the challenges of achieving equity for Latino
students segregated by language. We then address four objectives that
are of paramount importance in the challenge of reintegration. Our conclusions will explain why
we believe it is shortsighted to conceive of the challenge of improving
the academic achievement of Hispanic students as subsidiary to the
larger policy objective of promoting systemic educational reform.
by Robert T. JimenezIn their chapter “The Linguistic Isolation of Hispanic Students in
California’s Public Schools: The Challenge of Reintegration,” Gifford
and Valdés consult the historical record concerning English-speaking
Anglo contact with Spanish-speaking Californios in 19th-century North
America and provide statistical evidence of the resegregation currently
being experienced by Latino students (this volume, pp. 125–154). They
describe how, shortly after the Mexican government ceded California
to the United States in 1848, an ideology of racial, cultural, and linguistic
superiority led to the enactment of English-only legislative and educational
policy, as well as, ultimately, a segregated system of schooling.
by Kris D. Gutiérrez & Nathalia E. JaramilloThis chapter attempts to begin a conversation about how so many
of us in the educational and academic communities have come to believe
that educational equity could be mediated by legal measures and federal and local reforms without transformation of the historical practices and
ideologies that preserve supremacy and “White innocence”—a racialized
analytic concept we adapt from Gotanda (2004). We focus on the
landmark Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision, the theme of this
volume, as the context for a discussion of how race and race relations
in this country continue to signal a need for race-conscious practices
that go beyond the limitations of legal remedies and their monitoring
by Yolanda J. Majors & Sana AnsariIn an attempt to enact the stated college mission, this approach
encourages future teachers to confront their own cultural spaces as sites
of ideological development and, more importantly, their privileged
positions. Using culture and language as a starting point to discuss
literacy and learning was met with a marked lack of engagement, and
as a result, the university classroom had become a site of conflict,
resistance, and silence. Inherent in this conflict is a collision of ideologies,
which brings to bear the problems and inconsistencies of instilling
a transformative framework to future urban educators. Now, in the
stillness interrupted by Eddie’s whistles, I have come to the page where
I may perhaps disentangle the impact.
by Jonathan D. JansenWhereas African
Americans as a declining demographic minority have limited options in
radically altering the entrenched patterns of unequal education in the
face of a powerful white electorate, black South Africans brought to
power an essentially black nationalist government with a decisive electoral
mandate for pursuing social and educational change.
by Chika Trevor SehooleMy purpose for this chapter is two-fold: to build on Jansen’s work
so as to develop further an examination of both the U.S. and South
African black education experiences with respect to (1) the curriculum
taught in schools and (2) the experiences of students and educators in
desegregated schools. This chapter argues that the efficacy of education
policies and laws aimed at redressing racial discrimination and attainment
of equity and social justice should be judged not only on the merits
of the law or policy but on what happens, literally, within the desegregated
schools in a given school system.
by Neville AlexanderSouth African liberals had a field day in attacking the evidently
stone-deaf neo-Nazi apartheid regime from the position of the moral
high ground. Left-wing opponents of the regime, such as the members
of the TLSA, had a more ambivalent position since in their view, slanted
by both a class struggle as well as an anti-Western angle of vision, it
was always advisable to examine carefully any gifts borne by the ruling
class of the United States. Even though we were stridently anti-Stalinist
and consistently critical of the authoritarian and tyrannical rule of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, we were even more ardently
and implacably opposed to the enticements of what to us was the
imperialism of the West. In reflecting on the dynamics of that period,
I find that we were decidedly myopic in not making much more of the
political propaganda value of the Court’s judgement.
by Monica HendricksThis chapter argues that a detailed, grounded understanding of
classroom literacy practices as well as of learners’ writing is crucial to
begin to change the ongoing and patently unequal educational outcomes
that schools often produce. It is impossible to intervene realistically
and effectively in an evidential vacuum. The 1955 Brown v.
Board of Education judgement called for “all deliberate speed” in desegregating
education in the United States. Yet, rather than signalling
speed or urgency, that formulation was actually a multipurpose compromise
that allowed pro-segregationist southern states to decide their
own timeframes for desegregation.
by Gloria Ladson-BillingsI am completing this chapter at the same time that my television,
radio, and newspapers are filled with images of the horror that is
Hurricane Katrina. These images are the starkest indications that
America is sharply divided along race and class lines. Tens of thousands
of poor people are displaced and penniless. Their homes, jobs, possessions,
and hope have washed away in the putrid, toxic waters of Lake
Pontchartrain and the Gulf of Mexico. Hundreds, perhaps thousands,
have died. Americans outside of the area have had to transition from
the military assault known as “shock and awe” to a federal disaster
response that has been called “shockingly awful.”
by Carla O'ConnorIn this response chapter, my analysis begins by elucidating how the
premise of black inferiority was articulated in the written opinion of
Brown. I then discuss some of the ways this premise haunts contemporary
academic and popular discourse on black achievement.
by Joyce E. KingThis chapter presents a morally
engaged pedagogical approach that has evolved from my teaching and
research on race, ideology, and education: the praxis of Critical
Studyin,’ which addresses these questions (King, 1995a, 1995b, 1997).
Four key points delineate the logic of this pedagogical praxis and the
conceptual tools—Diaspora Literacy (culturally informed knowledge)
and Heritage Knowledge (group memory)—that define it.
by Maisha T. FisherIn this response, I revisit young men and women whose voluntary
writing and visual literacy practices helped teachers, teacher educators,
and literacy researchers rethink the “funds of knowledge” (Moll,
Amanti, Neff, & González, 1992) urban youth bring to classroom communities.
Although this review is not exhaustive, it calls attention to the
pervasive need to recognize and cultivate the skills urban youths receive
from their families and communities.
by Kenji HakutaThe themes that have emerged in the
chapters of this volume give rise to several reactions: an appreciation of
legends and legacies—the giants on whose shoulders we stand; a fear of
societal complacency in seeing the glass as half full; an anger at the
mistaken shape that the public debate has taken; a sense of pragmatism
to seek the next steps; and a hope that the cumulative nature of scholarship
will give rise to a more promising future.