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Volume 108, Number 14 (2006)

by Arnetha F. Ball
This introduces the NSSE volume With More Deliberate Speed: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Education—Realizing the Full Potential of Brown v. Board of Education
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by James D. Anderson
This chapter has two basic objectives. First, I examine the place and meaning of Brown in the larger struggle for individual and racial equality. The second objective of this chapter is to provide an understanding of how the particular implementation of and resistance to Brown impacted the struggle for equal education.
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by Joy Ann Williamson
The first section of the chapter examines two of the historiographical tales of Brown and the black freedom struggle in the scholarly literature. The second part of the chapter investigates the treatment of the black freedom struggle and the Brown decision in high school history textbooks.
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by Edmund W. Gordon & Beatrice L. Bridglall
The chapter that follows is adapted from the address that inaugurated the American Educational Research Association annual lecture series commemorating the anniversary of the 1954 Supreme Court decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education.
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by Carol D. Lee
In my response to Drs. Gordon and Bridglall’s chapter, I want to further examine the implications of Brown for institution building and for conceptualizing our demands for social justice in education.
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by John Baugh
America still struggles with racial reconciliation in our collective quest to level the educational playing field so that talent, rather than privilege, will determine each child’s prospects, regardless of race. This discussion seeks to introduce some neglected linguistic dimensions into this realm, with particular attention to the Brown ruling and the growing linguistic diversity of black America.
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by Arnetha F. Ball & H. Samy Alim
This chapter discusses what needs to happen now—with more deliberate speed—as we reflect on the years since these two cases were decided and their impact on language education in the United States. In our view, three major action points should be placed high on the language education agenda for the next half-century: the development and implementation of (1) inclusive, comprehensive, systemic reform in language education policy; (2) critical language pedagogies; and (3) teacher preparation programs in language and literacy education.
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by Bernard R. Gifford & Guadalupe Valdés
In this chapter, we focus on the educational challenges of linguistic isolation for Latino students by examining the case of California. We first provide a historical overview of Spanish in California, tracing the climate of evolving hostility toward Spanish and Spanish-speaking immigrants and describing the challenges of achieving equity for Latino students segregated by language. We then address four objectives that are of paramount importance in the challenge of reintegration. Our conclusions will explain why we believe it is shortsighted to conceive of the challenge of improving the academic achievement of Hispanic students as subsidiary to the larger policy objective of promoting systemic educational reform.
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by Robert T. Jimenez
In their chapter “The Linguistic Isolation of Hispanic Students in California’s Public Schools: The Challenge of Reintegration,” Gifford and Valdés consult the historical record concerning English-speaking Anglo contact with Spanish-speaking Californios in 19th-century North America and provide statistical evidence of the resegregation currently being experienced by Latino students (this volume, pp. 125–154). They describe how, shortly after the Mexican government ceded California to the United States in 1848, an ideology of racial, cultural, and linguistic superiority led to the enactment of English-only legislative and educational policy, as well as, ultimately, a segregated system of schooling.
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by Kris D. Gutiérrez & Nathalia E. Jaramillo
This chapter attempts to begin a conversation about how so many of us in the educational and academic communities have come to believe that educational equity could be mediated by legal measures and federal and local reforms without transformation of the historical practices and ideologies that preserve supremacy and “White innocence”—a racialized analytic concept we adapt from Gotanda (2004). We focus on the landmark Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision, the theme of this volume, as the context for a discussion of how race and race relations in this country continue to signal a need for race-conscious practices that go beyond the limitations of legal remedies and their monitoring apparatus.
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by Yolanda J. Majors & Sana Ansari
In an attempt to enact the stated college mission, this approach encourages future teachers to confront their own cultural spaces as sites of ideological development and, more importantly, their privileged positions. Using culture and language as a starting point to discuss literacy and learning was met with a marked lack of engagement, and as a result, the university classroom had become a site of conflict, resistance, and silence. Inherent in this conflict is a collision of ideologies, which brings to bear the problems and inconsistencies of instilling a transformative framework to future urban educators. Now, in the stillness interrupted by Eddie’s whistles, I have come to the page where I may perhaps disentangle the impact.
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by Jonathan D. Jansen
Whereas African Americans as a declining demographic minority have limited options in radically altering the entrenched patterns of unequal education in the face of a powerful white electorate, black South Africans brought to power an essentially black nationalist government with a decisive electoral mandate for pursuing social and educational change.
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by Chika Trevor Sehoole
My purpose for this chapter is two-fold: to build on Jansen’s work so as to develop further an examination of both the U.S. and South African black education experiences with respect to (1) the curriculum taught in schools and (2) the experiences of students and educators in desegregated schools. This chapter argues that the efficacy of education policies and laws aimed at redressing racial discrimination and attainment of equity and social justice should be judged not only on the merits of the law or policy but on what happens, literally, within the desegregated schools in a given school system.
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by Neville Alexander
South African liberals had a field day in attacking the evidently stone-deaf neo-Nazi apartheid regime from the position of the moral high ground. Left-wing opponents of the regime, such as the members of the TLSA, had a more ambivalent position since in their view, slanted by both a class struggle as well as an anti-Western angle of vision, it was always advisable to examine carefully any gifts borne by the ruling class of the United States. Even though we were stridently anti-Stalinist and consistently critical of the authoritarian and tyrannical rule of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, we were even more ardently and implacably opposed to the enticements of what to us was the imperialism of the West. In reflecting on the dynamics of that period, I find that we were decidedly myopic in not making much more of the political propaganda value of the Court’s judgement.
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by Monica Hendricks
This chapter argues that a detailed, grounded understanding of classroom literacy practices as well as of learners’ writing is crucial to begin to change the ongoing and patently unequal educational outcomes that schools often produce. It is impossible to intervene realistically and effectively in an evidential vacuum. The 1955 Brown v. Board of Education judgement called for “all deliberate speed” in desegregating education in the United States. Yet, rather than signalling speed or urgency, that formulation was actually a multipurpose compromise that allowed pro-segregationist southern states to decide their own timeframes for desegregation.
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by Gloria Ladson-Billings
I am completing this chapter at the same time that my television, radio, and newspapers are filled with images of the horror that is Hurricane Katrina. These images are the starkest indications that America is sharply divided along race and class lines. Tens of thousands of poor people are displaced and penniless. Their homes, jobs, possessions, and hope have washed away in the putrid, toxic waters of Lake Pontchartrain and the Gulf of Mexico. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, have died. Americans outside of the area have had to transition from the military assault known as “shock and awe” to a federal disaster response that has been called “shockingly awful.”
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by Carla O'Connor
In this response chapter, my analysis begins by elucidating how the premise of black inferiority was articulated in the written opinion of Brown. I then discuss some of the ways this premise haunts contemporary academic and popular discourse on black achievement.
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by Joyce E. King
This chapter presents a morally engaged pedagogical approach that has evolved from my teaching and research on race, ideology, and education: the praxis of Critical Studyin,’ which addresses these questions (King, 1995a, 1995b, 1997). Four key points delineate the logic of this pedagogical praxis and the conceptual tools—Diaspora Literacy (culturally informed knowledge) and Heritage Knowledge (group memory)—that define it.
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by Maisha T. Fisher
In this response, I revisit young men and women whose voluntary writing and visual literacy practices helped teachers, teacher educators, and literacy researchers rethink the “funds of knowledge” (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & González, 1992) urban youth bring to classroom communities. Although this review is not exhaustive, it calls attention to the pervasive need to recognize and cultivate the skills urban youths receive from their families and communities.
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by Kenji Hakuta
The themes that have emerged in the chapters of this volume give rise to several reactions: an appreciation of legends and legacies—the giants on whose shoulders we stand; a fear of societal complacency in seeing the glass as half full; an anger at the mistaken shape that the public debate has taken; a sense of pragmatism to seek the next steps; and a hope that the cumulative nature of scholarship will give rise to a more promising future.
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