by Kim Schildkamp & Cindy PoortmanThis study focuses on the factors influencing a professional development intervention for data-based decision making: the data team procedure. Data teams are teams of teachers and school leaders who collaboratively learn how to use data. In this article, we discuss how data characteristics (e.g., access to data), school organizational characteristics (e.g., shared goal), and individual/team characteristics (e.g., pedagogical content knowledge) influence the use of data in data teams, and how these factors are interrelated.
by Elizabeth Farley-Ripple & Joan ButtramThis paper explores the development of data use capacity in an elementary school through a social network approach. Findings reveal that data use networks are influenced by the larger professional structure of the school and may be productive in developing shared practices. This study illustrates several ways in which this approach can be valuable in understanding individual and school capacity for data use.
by Candice Bocala & Kathryn Parker BoudettThis essay describes the habits of mind that underlie data literacy courses offered by the Data Wise Project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and how those preparing educators can incorporate these habits into instructional design. The habits include: shared commitment to action, assessment, and adjustment; intentional collaboration; and relentless focus on evidence.
by Nancy GerzonThis article proposes a conceptual framework for school and district data use practices based on an analysis of current research. The author outlines considerations for professional learning for each of the five framework elements and closes with a set of questions that may help to highlight future research needs in the area of school-level data use.
by Jo Beth Jimerson & Jeffrey C. WaymanIn this article, we draw from document analysis as well as interview and focus group data in three school districts to examine teacher needs specific to building data use capacity. Informed by work on knowledge-based organizational learning, we conclude that teacher professional learning needs specific to data use were met only partially and that existing systems overemphasized data systems access and operations at the expense of other skills needed to turn data into action.
by Edith Gummer & Ellen Mandinach This article presents a conceptual framework for a new construct, data literacy for teachers, laying out the knowledge and skills teachers need to use data effectively and responsibly. The framework emerges from a domain analysis, but the complex construct requires additional discussions to refine and reorganize it.
by Martin Orland This article summarizes some significant insights of articles in this issue from the perspective of public policy, emphasizing their potential resonance in today's policy environment in using data for program improvement as well as accountability purposes.
by Ellen Mandinach & Edith GummerIntroduction to the special issue on data-driven decision making and the components needed to enculturate data use in education. The article briefly examines the landscape of existing literature and positions the papers for the special issue.
by Amanda Datnow & Lea HubbardThis article provides a review of literature on teachersí use of assessment data to inform instruction. The article reviews research on the types assessment data teachers use to inform instruction, how teachers analyze data, and how their instruction is impacted. Although teachers are often asked to analyze data in a consistent way, agendas for data use, the nature of the assessments, and teacher beliefs all come into play, leading to variability in how they use data.
by Julie A. Marsh, Melanie Bertrand & Alice HuguetDrawing on data collected in six middle schools, this article finds that coaches and professional learning communities (PLCs) played an important role in mediating teachersí responses to data. We find that dialogue and the dynamic relationship between two types of expertise may help explain the ways in which PLCs and coaches facilitated deeper-level changes in pedagogy, and that school leadership and district-level context shaped the possibility for such changes.
by Ellen Mandinach , Jeremy M. Friedman & Edith GummerThis article reports on a three-part study about how schools of education are preparing teacher candidates to use data effectively and responsibly. The study consisted of a survey to a nationally representative sample of schools of education, a review of select syllabi, and an examination of state licensure and certification requirements. This article provides a context for why schools of education can and must play an important role in preparing teachers to use data.