Educational Yearbook of the International Institute of Teachers COllege
 

Volume 1, Number: 1, 1938


Introduction

by I.L. Kandel
The present volume of the Educational Yearbook of the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia University, the fifteenth of a series inaugurated in 1924,1 is devoted to the discussion of a problem which is assuming increasing importance in the educational developments of most of the countries of the world—the problem of rural education.

Argentine Republic

by R. Teodora Moreno
The social conditions of rural life in the Argentine Republic are as varied as the agricultural products of the country, which range through the whole scale of sugar plantations and forestry in the sub-tropical regions of the north, cotton-growing in the north-central district, vineyards and orchards in the irrigated areas of the Andes, the vast lucerne and pastoral area of the Pampas, the wheat-growing area of the Litoral, and the extensive sheep stations of Patagonia.

Australia

by C.R. McRae
Since Australians returning from abroad are wont to lament that the people of other countries know almost nothing about Australia, it is necessary to begin this article with the reminder that it is a big country.

Brazil

by A. Carneiro Leao
Brazil with an area of 9,000,000 square kilometers is a country with a low density of population and a great variety of physical and social resources.

Canada

by E.A. Hardy
The fundamental relationship of the geography and the history of a country to its educational system is well exemplified in the story of education in Canada.

China

by H.C. Tao
It has been estimated that China has a million villages with an average of four hundred persons for every village. The villages differ very widely in their composition and manner of living.

Czechoslovakia

by Antonin Prokes
The culture and spirit of Czechoslovakia have been determined by the history of the country and the ideals of peace already formulated by King George von Podĕbrad and later by Comenius. The great historian, Fr. Palacký, the father of the nation, summarized this in his statement, "Whenever we have made conquests in the world, it has always been through spiritual strength and not by the power of the sword."

Denmark

by Peter Manniche
Denmark has been called a cooperative commonwealth. While this term is perhaps an exaggeration, it is true, nevertheless, that Danish farmers have carried cooperation farther than farmers in other countries. This advanced development of cooperation is partly traceable to an unusually high level of adult education set afoot by the Danish folk high school system.

England

by W.H. Perkins
No nation, least of all a small island, has ever been able to neglect entirely the home production of food, and agriculture is still, in terms of the numbers employed, one of the foremost British industries. England has a magnificent agricultural tradition and it has always been a great breeding ground of high-grade stock for export to other countries.

France

by Paul Barrier
Everyone is familiar with the saying of Sully at the beginning of the seventeenth century that "Farming and pasture are the two breasts of France, her real Peruvian mines." Today although urban life and especially industrial life have increased enormously, the rural population constitutes half of the total population.

Germany

There is hardly any region in Germany comparable to the so-called "rural areas" in the United States. Except for small parts of the country that are not habitable at all—some high mountain ranges or swampy lowlands—the population is rather dense everywhere. But even where this is not the case, single houses and homesteads at great distances from each other are rarely found; life alone in the wilderness does not appeal to the German mind.

India

by Sir George Anderson
India is a land of villages. There are approximately 700,000 of them, many of which are minute in size and have a population of below five hundred. Communications are both inadequate and difficult, and each village is therefore thrown largely on its own very limited resources.

Mexico

by Rafael Ramirez
Rural education in Mexico is worthy of study and understanding, not only for its current importance or the influence that it has had so far on reconstruction, but because of the vigorous, progressive tendencies that it encourages and the social perspective it projects into the future.

Norway

by Einar T. Boyesen
Generally, the whole frame of Norwegian society is strongly impressed with the character of the rural parts and their peasantry. Not only is the number of the inhabitants in rural districts far higher than that of the town-dwellers, but, as stated earlier, 37 per cent of the whole population support themselves only by farming, forestry, and fishing.

United States

by Edmund De S. Brunner
Recent years have brought a growing conviction to the schoolmen of the United States that the school cannot function or even exist save in relation to the community and the society of which it is inevitably a part. This is seen perhaps most easily in the relatively simple structure of rural society.


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