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Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge


by Punya Mishra & Matthew J. Koehler ó 2006

Research in the area of educational technology has often been critiqued for a lack of theoretical grounding. In this article we propose a conceptual framework for educational technology by building on Shulman's formulation of "pedagogical content knowledge" and extend it to the phenomenon of teachers integrating technology into their pedagogy. This framework is the result of 5 years of work on a program of research focused on teacher professional development and faculty development in higher education. It attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of teacher knowledge required for technology integration in teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted, and situated nature of this knowledge. We argue, briefly, that thoughtful pedagogical uses of technology require the development of a complex, situated form of knowledge that we call Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). In doing so, we posit the complex roles of, and interplay among, three main components of learning environments: content, pedagogy, and technology. We argue that this model has much to offer to discussions of technology integration at multiple levels: theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological. In this article, we describe the theory behind our framework, provide examples of our teaching approach based upon the framework, and illustrate the methodological contributions that have resulted from this work.


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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 108 Number 6, 2006, p. 1017-1054
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12516, Date Accessed: 11/24/2014 12:45:58 PM

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About the Author
  • Punya Mishra
    Michigan State University
    E-mail Author
    PUNYA MISHRA is assistant professor of Learning, Technology and Culture at Michigan State University. He has a bachelorís degree in electrical engineering, masterís degrees in visual and mass communications and a Ph.D. in educational psychology. His research has focused on the theoretical, cognitive, and social aspects related to the design and use of computer-based learning environments. He has worked extensively in the area of technology integration in teacher education and teacher professional development both in face-to-face and online settings. He has been working with Dr. Matthew J. Koehler to develop a framework for understanding the process and nature of teacher knowledge as it develops through design-based activities. He has received over $4 million in grants from national and international agencies. He has recently published in the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Communications of the ACM and the Journal of Interactive Learning Research.
  • Matthew Koehler
    Michigan State University
    MATTHEW J. KOEHLER is assistant professor of technology and education in the College of Education at Michigan State University. He has bachelorís degrees in computer science and mathematics, a masterís degree in computer science, and a Ph.D. in educational psychology. His research interests include the study of how recent technologies, such as digital video and hypermedia, may enhance case-based approaches to develop teachers' knowledge and craft in the complex, ill-structured domain of teaching. He is also interested in pedagogical approaches that help educators develop an understanding of the affordances and constraints of technology that may be fruitfully applied to their teaching. This has led, in collaboration with Punya Mishra, to the development of innovative learning environments whereby educators learn about educational technology by designing educational technology. He has received over $6 million in grants for his research and development work. He has recently published in Cognition and Instruction, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, and the Journal of Educational Computing Research.
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