Prompting Reflections for Integrating Self-Regulation Into Teacher Technology Education
by Tova Michalsky & Bracha Kramarski — 2015
Background: Technology represents a major topic in educational research. Nevertheless, a gap in the research remains concerning how teachers can bring technology into the classroom. This study focuses on the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) framework, which aims to consolidate the multidisciplinary professional knowledge related to technology, pedagogy, and content that teachers need so that they can teach and students can learn effectively using technology tools.
Purpose: The goal of the present study was to investigate the value of modification reflection prompts (“think ahead”) as a complementary reflective framework during the teacher preparatory program, beyond the more traditional judgment reflection prompts (“think back”). In particular, we examined how preservice science teachers may capitalize on learning from modification prompts versus judgment prompts versus both (“think back” and “think ahead”), compared with learning from generic prompts (“stop and think”) based on the IMPROVE model oriented to TPCK. We examined these four treatments’ effects on preservice teachers’ actual design of science lessons and development of their own self-reflection abilities.
Participants: Participants were 199 first-year preservice science teachers in their preparatory programs at a university in central Israel.
Research Design: We created a quasi-experimental opportunity for four groups of preservice science teachers to systematically contemplate ready-made TPCK-oriented lesson designs. Each used one of four different reflective methods (the independent variable): modification, judgment, combined modification+judgment, or generic prompts. Then we examined the differential contribution of these treatment methods to the two dependent variables: (1) preservice teachers’ skills for designing actual science lessons and (2) their judgment-type and modification-type self-reflection ability regarding the planning, monitoring, and evaluation phases of their lesson-design process.
Data Collection and Analysis: Data were scored by coding schemes and were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up analyses of variance with repeated measures.
Findings: Results indicated that preservice teachers who contemplated a combination of both judgment and modification reflections in treatment improved more in their lesson-design skills and in their self-reflection ability (of both types at the three phases), compared with preservice teachers who contemplated only a single type of reflective prompt (generic or only judgment or modification). Lasting effects (after a semester without the IMPROVE model, prompts, or TPCK focus) revealed that the combined approach continued to significantly outperform the single approaches.
Recommendations: The current study reinterprets the instructional-reflective framework of teacher education programs to include modification reflection too as a means of developing preservice teachers’ capacity to integrate technology in their lesson designs.
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