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International Education

by Brian Holmes — 1972
Comparative studies show that the dichotomy between empirical (experimental and nonexperimental) and nonempirical (qualitative) research is false. If research on individuals is to be useful, both elements are needed. In this paper some of the claims made for empirical research will be examined.

by Philip Altbach — 1971
The educational policies in effect in former subjugated countries are discussed.

by Lucian Pye — 1970
The author outlines a wide range of ideas and points that he believes are relevant in forming judgments about what can and cannot be done with respect to modern education in Asian societies. He starts with a set of general ideas and moves toward a more concrete and hopefully practical level of analysis.

by Charles Calitri — 1970
The author suggests that the most successful Educational Opportunity Programs are not those that are remedial in concept but those that concentrate on developing individual self-understanding and self-expression and relate content of subject matter to the realities of life.

by Robert Osborn — 1970
The author discusses Tamagawa-Gakuen, a Japanese school, and he is very certain that it is one of the most exciting and interesting to observe and, as such, merits the closest attention of American educators.

by Lewis Feuer — 1969
Japan, after delighting Dewey with its colorfulness and grace, with its courtesy and the gaiety of its children at play, posed for him problems which he did not know how to answer. Its liberals seemed to him lacking in moral stamina, its teachers spokesmen for the militarists, and its education an indoctrination in mythology. This was a country which seemed to exemplify a Marxian pattern of social classes and political structure, and to defy the application of Dewey's method of intelligence. There was little he could finally tell Japan's liberals, and it left Dewey with a kind of despondency.

by R. Butts — 1969
Preoccupation with domestic affairs has been as characteristic of the American academic world in general, of the government, and of the public at large as it has been of professional educators. This is not to deny that international interest has always been strong among a few in the academic and educational worlds nor that it has been increasing rapidly in recent years. But, whatever can be said in these positive respects-and this present yearbook is trying to say it-the over-all "given" of the vast majority of American teachers and professors is a preoccupation with the local or national scene and with the special aspects of their particular tasks.

by Donald Adams — 1969
The challenge and the complexities of the task of fulfilling the minimum aspirations of the peoples of the less developed regions of the world are unsurpassed by those of any human endeavour except, possibly, the search for lasting peace. Since poverty is no longer considered inevitable, it has become intolerable. In the most fundamental terms, societal development is an educational process whereby people come to understand and alter constructively their relations to their natural and social environments. Schooling and the formal system of education are intricately linked with this process in which new human wants emerge and seek satisfaction; however, the precise nature and the extent of this linkage are subject to considerable speculation and more than a little controversy.

by C. Anderson — 1969
There is little that is novel in principle about the awesome structure of American "international education" activities, whether carried out on the home campus or abroad. The variety of these activities far outspans anything known before World War II, and their aggregate weight within our multifaceted system of higher education creates a truly novel effect. What is most important, perhaps, is the number and variety of educated men who believe that we have accepted a national commitment to extend these educational and technological activities. Whether this sense of obligation will prove enduring and longsighted is uncertain—but the exploration of that question is not feasible in this chapter.

by Michael Chiappetta — 1969
This chapter deals with those activities and programs of the U.S. government which are aimed at the cultivation of international understanding through the exchange of persons and programs involved in the reconstruction of educational systems throughout the world. While this treatment is limited to the period since World War I, a few references are made to the antecedents of present programs. These programs, supported or administered by the U. S. government, manifest its concern for comparative education, cultural and educational exchanges, and development education.

by Irwin Sanders — 1969
Americans for a century or more have viewed educational activities overseas as a route to social change. Missionaries from the United States, who carried their religious teachings into many countries in the latter part of the nineteenth century, set up schools wherever they went. The purposes of these schools were to train a clergy which could continue the religious organization being instituted and to provide a literate membership which itself could study the Bible once it had been translated into and published in the language of that membership. Though the primary stress was on intellectual and spiritual growth, there was also a recognition of the need to change living conditions. This led, in turn, to the institution of programs in practical arts and agriculture as well as in regular school subjects and to the organization of medical missions and the establishment of medical schools where none had existed before.

by Herman Wells & David Arnold — 1969
The amazing expansion of attention of American universities to international education has matched the transformation of the U.S. role in world affairs that began with World War II. From a period of deep isolationism in the 1930s, this nation has come in some thirty years to overseas concerns so strong that political, economic, and social developments nearly everywhere in the world would appear to fall somehow within the scope of the U.S. national interest. And, as this nation has turned to the world, so have its universities.

by Robert Jacobs — 1969
Although some imaginative individuals and a few daring institutions have experimented with unconventional ways of reaching educational goals, such departures from traditional practices have been viewed with suspicion and alarm by the great majority of educators. And, in spite of the fact that most of these experimental trials have shown considerable promise (many have been notably successful), the educational establishment in general looks much as it did fifty years ago, still using the basic tools which were available in that day.

by Cole Brembeck — 1969
What does the American presence represent in terms of United States designs woven into international education? To what extent do we understand this massive American involvement in cross-cultural education? What are American educators doing abroad? What is the nature of U.S. patterns of education found overseas? What motivations support our efforts? Are these motivations in conflict with those of foreign educators? To what extent are U.S. patterns congenial to foreign soil? What evolutionary changes have marked our educational work overseas? Can we hypothesize about the future patterns of American education abroad? It is difficult, with our present limited knowledge, to answer questions like these with any degree of precision. In the following sections of this chapter, an attempt is made to elaborate upon these questions to indicate what seems to be known in relation to them and to indicate areas of these problems that yet need to be explored.

by John Lunstrum — 1969
In a general sense, the major task of this chapter is to analyze Curie's "pathetic paradox" as it bears on overseas educational activities of the United States and other great powers. More specifically, such analysis requires a consideration of the following questions: (a) What are the motives of the several nations, and how may we assess them? (b) How have the Great Powers demonstrated their interest in overseas education in the 1960s? (c) What encounters have occurred between U.S. and British and between U.S. and French education as exported overseas? (d) What confrontations between the United States and the U.S.S.R. and the United States and China have occurred?

by Paul Hanna — 1969
The approach employed in this chapter to examine the place of education in the creation of multinational communities is to describe briefly a river basin that drains or floods several adjoining nations and, with this specific situation in mind, to discuss what the role of education might be in helping to create one of the next episodes of human history—the forming of multinational communities of men.

by Harold Shane — 1969
This chapter is concerned with the nature and the quality of the education provided for students now enrolled in elementary and secondary schools—the young people of today who will spend a large part of their lives in a new century. How shall the schools of the United States endeavor to direct the course of their experiences so as to increase the prospect that our youth of today can develop and maintain sound relationships with billions of highly combustible humans around the globe?

by Richard Humphrey — 1969
It is now commonly accepted that man has created an environment in the late twentieth century which he may not survive. Although every age tends to view its own crises as unique, ours is probably the first generation in history to seek insurance against ultimate disaster. Only sufficient understanding of the dissonances and diversities with which we are surrounded may assure mankind the necessary accommodation and control. It is for this reason, perhaps, that in nation after nation education is coming to be seen as a prime resource for framing the conditions of survival.

by Claude Eggertsen — 1969
The survival of civilized life on this planet is thought to depend upon the understandings human beings have of each other, upon the willingness of the members of one group to come to terms with those of another. Perhaps the most crucial factor in the harmonious occupancy of the world is a greater appreciation on the part of the next generation of Americans for the cultural differences in value and style of those who are "not like us," for it is highly probable that these Americans are among those who, during the next half-century, will have the wealth and power to set models for mutual acceptance around the globe.

by Paul Schwarz — 1969
Despite the promise of unlimited potential, the history of international research has been one of negligible fulfillment. As a starting point in planning future research directions, it seems appropriate to ask why this should be so. What have been the barriers to tangible research contributions? What can be done to make international research fully productive?

by Ella Griffin — 1967
Today, most children in the economically advanced and technologically developed countries take education at all levels for granted. Education is compulsory, and there are adequate resources to provide enough schools, teachers, and teaching materials for all the children of all people. Yet, even in the United States of America, there is still much to be done in backward areas of the country where education has long been substandard.

by William Wattenberg — 1966
The last yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education to deal with social deviancy was issued in 1948. That yearbook was based on the state of knowledge, both as to theory and technology, in the period ending with World War II. Much of what was then believed true has stood the test of time. Yet, there has been enough significant new knowledge, enough changes in the play of social forces, and enough experience with new programs to warrant a thorough re-examination of the field of social deviancy as it relates to education.

by Jose Aguilar — 1953
A developing educational concept must seek reality in and draw its support from a body of general principles found acceptable by the social, economic, and political forces of the community. Conversely, as a powerful instrument of growth, the school with its guiding concepts may help redirect the aspirations of the community, making possible a revision of the body of general principles.

by Howard Wilson — 1945
In the midst of devastating world war, it is increasingly evident that peace can exist only on a global scale. Study of modern economy indicates that no nation can long live to itself alone, that reasonable and enduring prosperity must come for all of mankind or for none of it. The currents of industrial and scientific and humanitarian development flow strongly over and beyond all national boundaries.

by William Russell — 1942
In prosecuting this total war our nation finds itself with shortages not only in military and naval equipment, factories and raw materials, but also in men and women who are able and prepared to perform the kinds of tasks that mechanical warfare requires. These shortages have come despite recent great educational advances.

by Lyman Bryson — 1941
When we consider the problem of character education in the light of the world crisis, we have first to decide what kind of civilization we want and what kind of citizens we want to educate to lire in it.

by James Shotwell — 1937
Properly considered, International Relations is not a subject that lies apart from the ordinary interests of daily life. It extends and enriches those interests by the exploration of new and unfamiliar fields, bringing new meanings to homely things and a challenge to accepted ways of acting and thinking. For International Relations includes much more than the politics of war and peace, or even of dealings in foreign market-places; it opens up cultural contacts and interchanges that affect the folk-ways of nations, and by cutting into habit makes for progress in the arts and sciences. All these things go together.

by Paul Monroe — 1937
That 'disarmament of the mind' must precede any disarmament of the nation is a truth that has been often emphasized. After the Pact of Paris had been signed, I heard Judge Kellogg, then Secretary of State and co-author of the Pact, say that, notwithstanding the fact that it had been signed by praetically all the nations of the world, it would be without force unless preceded by this disarmament of the mind of the peoples of the world. Leaders of the League of Nations as well as peace advocates in our own and other countries have made similar statements.

by Esther Brunauer & Daniel Prescott — 1937
Education to develop wholesome attitudes toward international affairs shares many characteristics and requirements with national civic education but differs from it in one important respect; namely, that there has not yet come into existence the world community as a political unit with recognized authority and the right to claim loyalty to its institutions. Human inertia, taken advantage of by special interests and national dictators, perpetuates international political anarchy in a world already interdependent economically, spiritually, and culturally.

by I. L. Kandel — 1937
To those who look back upon the period that has elapsed since the World War and see only failure in the attempts to develop international understanding, to those who view the conditions that confront the world today with greater misgivings than in 1914, and to those who refuse to admit that any progress has been made in the control of world affairs because they can point to the disregard of pact after pact, and to the nullification of one treaty after another, it may seem paradoxical even to consider the possibility of education for international understanding.

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