Comparative studies show that the dichotomy between empirical (experimental and nonexperimental) and nonempirical (qualitative)
research is false. If research on individuals is to be useful, both elements
are needed. In this paper some of the claims made for empirical
research will be examined.
The educational policies in effect in former subjugated countries are discussed.
The author outlines a wide range of ideas and points that he believes are relevant in forming judgments about what can and cannot be done with respect to modern education in Asian societies. He starts with a set of general ideas and moves toward a more concrete and hopefully practical level of analysis.
The author suggests that the most successful Educational Opportunity Programs are not those that are remedial in concept but those that concentrate on developing individual self-understanding and self-expression and relate content of subject matter to the realities of life.
The author discusses Tamagawa-Gakuen, a Japanese school, and he is very certain that it is one of the most exciting and interesting to observe and, as such, merits the closest attention of American educators.
Japan, after delighting Dewey with its colorfulness and grace, with its courtesy and the gaiety of its children at play, posed for him problems which he did not know how to answer. Its liberals seemed to him lacking in moral stamina, its teachers spokesmen for the militarists, and its education an indoctrination in mythology. This was a country which seemed to exemplify a Marxian pattern of social classes and political structure, and to defy the application of Dewey's method of intelligence. There was little he could finally tell Japan's liberals, and it left Dewey with a kind of despondency.
Preoccupation with domestic affairs has been as characteristic of the American academic
world in general, of the government, and of the public at large
as it has been of professional educators. This is not to deny that international
interest has always been strong among a few in the academic
and educational worlds nor that it has been increasing rapidly in recent
years. But, whatever can be said in these positive respects-and
this present yearbook is trying to say it-the over-all "given" of the
vast majority of American teachers and professors is a preoccupation with the local or national scene and with the special aspects of their particular tasks.
The challenge and the complexities of the task of fulfilling the
minimum aspirations of the peoples of the less developed regions of
the world are unsurpassed by those of any human endeavour except,
possibly, the search for lasting peace. Since poverty is no longer
considered inevitable, it has become intolerable. In the most fundamental
terms, societal development is an educational process whereby
people come to understand and alter constructively their relations
to their natural and social environments. Schooling and the
formal system of education are intricately linked with this process
in which new human wants emerge and seek satisfaction; however,
the precise nature and the extent of this linkage are subject to considerable
speculation and more than a little controversy.
There is little that is novel in principle about the awesome structure
of American "international education" activities, whether carried out
on the home campus or abroad. The variety of these activities far outspans
anything known before World War II, and their aggregate
weight within our multifaceted system of higher education creates
a truly novel effect. What is most important, perhaps, is the number
and variety of educated men who believe that we have accepted a national
commitment to extend these educational and technological
activities. Whether this sense of obligation will prove enduring and
longsighted is uncertain—but the exploration of that question is not
feasible in this chapter.
This chapter deals with those activities and programs of the U.S.
government which are aimed at the cultivation of international understanding
through the exchange of persons and programs involved in
the reconstruction of educational systems throughout the world.
While this treatment is limited to the period since World War I, a
few references are made to the antecedents of present programs.
These programs, supported or administered by the U. S. government,
manifest its concern for comparative education, cultural and educational
exchanges, and development education.
Americans for a century or more have viewed educational activities
overseas as a route to social change. Missionaries from the United
States, who carried their religious teachings into many countries in
the latter part of the nineteenth century, set up schools wherever they
went. The purposes of these schools were to train a clergy which
could continue the religious organization being instituted and to provide
a literate membership which itself could study the Bible once it
had been translated into and published in the language of that membership.
Though the primary stress was on intellectual and spiritual
growth, there was also a recognition of the need to change living conditions.
This led, in turn, to the institution of programs in practical
arts and agriculture as well as in regular school subjects and to the
organization of medical missions and the establishment of medical
schools where none had existed before.
The amazing expansion of attention of American universities to international
education has matched the transformation of the U.S. role
in world affairs that began with World War II. From a period of deep
isolationism in the 1930s, this nation has come in some thirty years to
overseas concerns so strong that political, economic, and social developments
nearly everywhere in the world would appear to fall
somehow within the scope of the U.S. national interest. And, as this
nation has turned to the world, so have its universities.
imaginative individuals and a few daring institutions have experimented
with unconventional ways of reaching educational goals, such
departures from traditional practices have been viewed with suspicion
and alarm by the great majority of educators. And, in spite of the
fact that most of these experimental trials have shown considerable promise (many have been notably successful), the educational establishment
in general looks much as it did fifty years ago, still using the
basic tools which were available in that day.
What does the American presence represent in terms of
United States designs woven into international education? To what
extent do we understand this massive American involvement in cross-cultural
education? What are American educators doing abroad?
What is the nature of U.S. patterns of education found overseas?
What motivations support our efforts? Are these motivations in conflict
with those of foreign educators? To what extent are U.S. patterns
congenial to foreign soil? What evolutionary changes have
marked our educational work overseas? Can we hypothesize about
the future patterns of American education abroad?
It is difficult, with our present limited knowledge, to answer questions
like these with any degree of precision. In the following sections of this chapter, an attempt is made to elaborate upon these questions to
indicate what seems to be known in relation to them and to indicate
areas of these problems that yet need to be explored.
In a general sense, the major task of this chapter is to analyze
Curie's "pathetic paradox" as it bears on overseas educational activities
of the United States and other great powers. More specifically, such
analysis requires a consideration of the following questions: (a) What
are the motives of the several nations, and how may we assess them?
(b) How have the Great Powers demonstrated their interest in overseas
education in the 1960s? (c) What encounters have occurred between
U.S. and British and between U.S. and French education as exported
overseas? (d) What confrontations between the United States
and the U.S.S.R. and the United States and China have occurred?
The approach employed in this chapter to examine the place of
education in the creation of multinational communities is to describe
briefly a river basin that drains or floods several adjoining nations and,
with this specific situation in mind, to discuss what the role of education
might be in helping to create one of the next episodes of human
history—the forming of multinational communities of men.
This chapter is concerned with the nature and the quality of the education
provided for students now enrolled in elementary and secondary
schools—the young people of today who will spend a large part
of their lives in a new century. How shall the schools of the United
States endeavor to direct the course of their experiences so as to increase
the prospect that our youth of today can develop and maintain
sound relationships with billions of highly combustible humans around
It is now commonly accepted that man has created an environment
in the late twentieth century which he may not survive. Although
every age tends to view its own crises as unique, ours is probably the
first generation in history to seek insurance against ultimate disaster.
Only sufficient understanding of the dissonances and diversities
with which we are surrounded may assure mankind the necessary
accommodation and control. It is for this reason, perhaps, that in
nation after nation education is coming to be seen as a prime resource
for framing the conditions of survival.
The survival of civilized life on this planet is thought to depend
upon the understandings human beings have of each other, upon the
willingness of the members of one group to come to terms with those
of another. Perhaps the most crucial factor in the harmonious occupancy
of the world is a greater appreciation on the part of the next
generation of Americans for the cultural differences in value and
style of those who are "not like us," for it is highly probable that
these Americans are among those who, during the next half-century,
will have the wealth and power to set models for mutual acceptance
around the globe.
the promise of unlimited potential, the history of international research
has been one of negligible fulfillment. As a starting point in
planning future research directions, it seems appropriate to ask why
this should be so. What have been the barriers to tangible research
contributions? What can be done to make international research fully
Today, most children in the economically advanced and technologically
developed countries take education at all levels for
granted. Education is compulsory, and there are adequate resources
to provide enough schools, teachers, and teaching materials for all
the children of all people. Yet, even in the United States of America,
there is still much to be done in backward areas of the country
where education has long been substandard.
The last yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education to deal with social deviancy was issued in 1948. That yearbook was based on the state of knowledge, both as to theory and technology, in the period ending with World War II. Much of what was then believed true has stood the test of time. Yet, there has been enough significant new knowledge, enough changes in the play of social forces, and enough experience with new programs to warrant a thorough re-examination of the field of social deviancy as it relates to education.
A developing educational concept must seek reality in and draw
its support from a body of general principles found acceptable by the
social, economic, and political forces of the community. Conversely,
as a powerful instrument of growth, the school with its guiding concepts
may help redirect the aspirations of the community, making
possible a revision of the body of general principles.
In the midst of devastating world war, it is increasingly evident
that peace can exist only on a global scale. Study of modern
economy indicates that no nation can long live to itself alone, that
reasonable and enduring prosperity must come for all of mankind or
for none of it. The currents of industrial and scientific and humanitarian
development flow strongly over and beyond all national boundaries.
In prosecuting this total war our nation finds itself with shortages not only in military and naval equipment, factories and raw materials, but also in men and women who are able and prepared to perform the kinds of tasks that mechanical warfare requires. These shortages have come despite recent great educational advances.
When we consider the problem of character education in the light of the world crisis, we have first to decide what kind of civilization we want and what kind of citizens we want to educate to lire in it.
Properly considered, International Relations is not a subject that lies apart from the ordinary interests of daily life. It extends and enriches those interests by the exploration of new and unfamiliar fields, bringing new meanings to homely things and a challenge to accepted ways of acting and thinking. For International Relations includes much more than the politics of war and peace, or even of dealings in foreign market-places; it opens up cultural contacts and interchanges that affect the folk-ways of nations, and by cutting into habit makes for progress in the arts and sciences. All these things go together.
That 'disarmament of the mind' must precede any disarmament of the nation is a truth that has been often emphasized. After the Pact of Paris had been signed, I heard Judge Kellogg, then Secretary of State and co-author of the Pact, say that, notwithstanding the fact that it had been signed by praetically all the nations of the world, it would be without force unless preceded by this disarmament of the mind of the peoples of the world. Leaders of the League of Nations as well as peace advocates in our own and other countries have made similar statements.
Education to develop wholesome attitudes toward international affairs shares many characteristics and requirements with national civic education but differs from it in one important respect; namely, that there has not yet come into existence the world community as a political unit with recognized authority and the right to claim loyalty to its institutions. Human inertia, taken advantage of by special interests and national dictators, perpetuates international political anarchy in a world already interdependent economically, spiritually, and culturally.
To those who look back upon the period that has elapsed since the World War and see only failure in the attempts to develop international understanding, to those who view the conditions that confront the world today with greater misgivings than in 1914, and to those who refuse to admit that any progress has been made in the control of world affairs because they can point to the disregard of pact after pact, and to the nullification of one treaty after another, it may seem paradoxical even to consider the possibility of education for international understanding.