In this paper we explore the Kenyan government’s engagement with LFPSs, document and assess the impact of this support on the behavior of LFPS and clarify key actor perspectives and responses within this context.
Drawing on interviews with 24 Singapore social studies teachers, this study interrogates the concept of harmony, investigates the implications of the state incorporating this concept as an educational goal for the public education system, and examines the affordances and constraints of harmony as an educational goal.
Introduction to the Special Issue
At the turn of the 20th Century, a surprising series of events occurred in Spain, including the loss of its overseas colonies, which sent the country into a state of confusion and provoked strong political tensions within. Simultaneously its cultural scene developed a fascinating degree of momentum. Spain became the cradle of some of the world’s foremost painters, poets, writers, and intellectuals, including the Catalan pedagogue Ferrer i Guàrdia (1859-1909), who became a world figure with his educational project, the Modern School.
For the more than 20,000 working-class women who participated in the Free Women movement in Spain, women’s sexuality was a key topic in both their process of empowerment and their claims and activities. The objective of this paper is to explore the ways in which this movement helped improve the personal lives of women in that period, and to analyze how it contributed to sexual education and encouraged other women to have sexual and affective relationships free of violence.
The article analyzes the democratic organization of the Adult School of La Verneda-Sant Martí in Barcelona, Spain. The school is relevant at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education.
This article studies the origins of democratic adult education in Spain by examining historical educational experiences such as the libertarian movement and the influences of social and educational theories, including Paulo Freire’s work.
This paper draws on a comparative case study of six classrooms in two International Baccalaureate schools to highlight conflicting teacher practices related to global education. One set of teacher practices demonstrated a fixed orientation to global education, acknowledging the global experiences, multiple languages, and variety of viewpoints that students brought into the classroom; other teacher practices exemplified a fixed orientation towards global education, ignoring the variety of student experiences, languages, and viewpoints in the classroom.
The article examines a unique bilingual (Arabic-Hebrew), binational (Jewish-Palestinian) school in Israel/Palestine in its struggle to be a sustainable and broadly transformative endeavor by opening enrollment to external students. In particular, the article analyzes the impact of this process on the school’s counterhegemonic curricula, pedagogy, and dynamics, and the implications for the transformative potential of bottom-up democratic education initiatives in the absence of accompanying policy change.
A main goal of this themed issue of Teachers College Record (TCR) is to move the conversation about PISA data beyond achievement to also include factors that affect achievement (e.g., SES, home environment, strategy use). Also we asked authors to consider how international assessment data can be used for improving learning and education and what appropriate versus inappropriate inferences can be made from the data.
This article is focused on the conflicting ideas of education behind the PISA study and the German school system. It addresses the changes taking place in the German school system enforced by compliance with the educational standards set by the PISA context.
This paper analyzes the political strategies of the early OECD stakeholders in transforming schooling from a cultural to a technological system. In doing so it focuses on the specific rhetoric these stakeholders used and how they were in need of standardizing different existing patterns of thoughts or institutional behaviors in the member countries.
The article analyzes the ideological and political context and mechanisms which have allowed OECD to become a major unchecked power in global educational policy making.
Epitomized by the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the U.S. government’s Race to the Top, “accountability” is becoming a pervasive normalizing discourse, legitimizing historic shifts from viewing education as a social and cultural to an economic project engendering usable skills and “competences.” The purpose of this special issue is to provide context and perspective on these momentous shifts. The papers point to historic antecedents, highlight core ideas, and identify changes in the balance of power between domestic and global policy makers.
This study of 35 social studies teachers in Singapore focuses on constraints to the teaching of controversial topics and the manner in which teachers navigate their personal beliefs amidst the evolving contours of public and official discourses. The findings illustrate how the state's power to define conventional values and demarcate the discursive spaces of teachers can both limit a teacher's capacity to discuss controversial topics in class and, paradoxically, provide more freedom for them to address controversy in the classroom.
Reported in this article is research of literacies in three major museums in Mexico City. The authors examine museum designer and education practices and how those practices are related to identity constructs as well as political and social issues that are important for educators in Mexico and the United States to consider.
In this chapter, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan’s positioning of self within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan’s relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified. The argument is developed in the context in which Japan sees itself through its image of the international community. The so-called Westernization theme of Japan, and probably of other “catch-up” countries, is not as linear as before, and does seem to be more complex in this age of globalization. The dominance of the West in education and other fields has steadily been multi-polarized, and its decline has raised competition among countries around the world.
This chapter is about globalization in higher education and how “globalism” is playing a role in stimulating university transformation around the world. Our specific focus is on international university ranking lists. Such lists are being given increasingly more space and attention in the mass media and by governments as well as by supranational organizations and the universities themselves. There has also been an increase in the number of ranking lists, each one presenting somewhat different criteria and procedures for identifying ranking positions.
This article considers the ways in which school systems in New York City and Amsterdam have shaped the educational trajectories of two groups of relatively disadvantaged immigrant youth: the children of Dominican immigrants in New York and the children of Moroccan immigrants in Amsterdam. It describes the salient features of the two educational systems and the ways in which they structure opportunity for children of immigrants.
This article addresses the growing diversity in religious and ethnic backgrounds among students at primary and secondary schools in Western Europe. Presented are the outcomes of international comparative anthropological (qualitative) research on multiculturalism, citizenship, and nation building in schools in Paris, Berlin, London, and Rotterdam.
This article introduces the special issue, which focuses on the ways in which educational institutions in Europe and North America are responding to the growing number of children of immigrants entering schools and universities. It discusses the ways in which the needs of children of immigrants differ from those of native-born students, and the ways in which variations in the structure of national education systems, and in policy and practice, may shape the pathways that children of immigrants take into the labor market, higher education, and their lives as citizens. The authors review existing research on this topic and highlight some of the difficulties involved in comparative studies. They close with an overview of the articles presented in the special issue.
This article explores the ways in which educational systems shape the educational attainment of children of Mexican immigrants in the United States and of North Africans in France.
Using a general framework for multileveled and multidimensional citizenship education and with reference to Hong Kong and Shanghai, this study assesses students’ views of citizenship in a multileveled polity. Its empirical evidence suggests that citizenship and citizenship education are dynamic, context-bounded, and multileveled social constructions reinvented through the intertwined interactions of different actors in response to, and as part of, social changes, including globalization.
This introduction to the special issue lays out a framework for the articles to follow by outlining the ways in which the governance structures of education—from national authorities that set federal policy, down to individual schools and administrative practices—shape the opportunities open to children of immigrants. The authors outline some of the main features of educational governance and discuss their relevance to the education of immigrants. It concludes with an overview of the articles in the issue.
This article examines the American Montessori movement from its failed introduction in the United States in 1911, to its rebirth in 1960, to its current resurgence as a time-tested alternative to traditional public schooling. Montessori pedagogy is situated in an international context, exploring both the manner by which an essentially twentieth-century European import was transformed into a predominantly twenty-first-century American export and the impact of a continually changing American educational landscape on the movement.
This article compares the cost-effectiveness of private and government secondary schools in Uganda, where student learning is the measure of effect. The research design includes a measure of prior learning, enabling the researchers to hold constant the effects of ability while comparing a unit measure of learning per dollar of expenditure in private and government schools. Similar to findings of other scholars, the authors conclude that there is substantial evidence in favor of private secondary schools in Uganda as more cost effective than government institutions.
This article examines the causes and prevalence of private tutoring as a form of supplementary education from a comparative perspective: Who takes private tutoring and why? It explains both between-country and within-country variations in after-school math tutoring as collective and individual choice through secondary analyses of the 1995 TIMSS eighth-grade student and teacher survey data sets, with a focus on the cases of Korea and the United States.
This chapter offers an historical overview of the development
of media education in Canada, the theory informing Canadian practice, common classroom practices and approaches, comments about some significant resources, and conclusions and implications for future work.
Drawing on observation data from two U.S. and two Chinese mentor-novice pairs in induction contexts, this study analyzed the content and forms of mentor-novice conversations about novices' lessons.
This paper draws on data from a group case study of women in higher education management in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. It investigates culture-specific dimensions of what the Western literature has conceptualized as "glass ceiling" impediments to women's career advancement in higher education.