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Social Context >> War and Education

Articles
by Ruth Andrus — 1945
Balance in emphasis on human and material values is necessary in a democracy. The human values are the process and the end; material possessions, the means to carry on the process and achieve the end. Young children under six are our basic human resource and most important because their value to themselves and to society is largely determined during those years. While they are young they acquire the physical strength or weakness which makes them as children and adults an asset or a liability to the nation.

by Horace Morse — 1945
Postwar education is not a phase of educational progress which the schools and colleges will enter suddenly after demobilization. Many problems to be encountered then will be those which have been persistent in American education, but which may be accentuated by postwar social and economic conditions.

by Muriel Brown — 1945
Adult education in America, today, is facing unprecedented opportunities. As this book is being written, the European war is entering what many believe will be its final phase. "Postwar" issues which once seemed comfortably remote are now on the front pages of the newspapers. As people try to meet the situations which these issues present there are few, indeed, who are not baffled by the demands for skill and judgment which each day makes upon them.

by Hilda Taba — 1945
Although planning for postwar education is one of the commonest of current topics, the methods by which schools may make more intelligent plans are rarely discussed. Educational literature is filled with proposals for administrative · (lhanges, such as control of education, serving new groups, equalizing educational opportunities, and providing work experience. Less is heard about the internal changes in educational programs, and perhaps wisely so, for many of the issues that will dictate these changes are not yet clear. Yet, the external reforms are important only to the extent that they make possible changes in the programs offered.

by Ruth Strang — 1945
A healthy America in an improved world is not an idle dream. It can be realized. Through the contributions of the natural and humane sciences, the men, women, and children of tomorrow may become more fit to think, to work, to enjoy life, to contribute to the welfare of all.

by Warren Seyfert — 1945
If it is agreed that the school must accept responsibility for aiding young people to define and solve theil' contemporary problems more adequately and to lay the ground work for more satisfying solutions of their problems-in-prospect, and if it is further agreed that the school should use whatever means are at its disposal to help boys and girls with their problem-solving activities, whether or not these means are within the compass of the school's customary range of action, work and service experiences on a comprehensive basis must be a part of the curriculum of the modern schooL

by Henry Harap & James Mendenhall — 1945
Consumer education is a part of the program of education for living. It aims to raise the level of individual and family living by a study of the important personal and social problems involved in choosing, buying, and using goods and services. Consumer education is a part of a consumer movement, the primary objective of which is to attain the highest possible level of living for all consumers.

by George Gant — 1945
Today, as man is surrounded by a glittering-gadget civilization, it is easy for him to forget that gadgets are materials of the earth and that society is but man's mould of his life within the limits of his natural environment. The society that men build is, in final analysis, their adjustment to nature's organization of sun, air and water, soil and minerals, and plant and animal life. Nature's organization is the basis of man's society; man and nature are inseparably bound in a web of interdependence. For man to survive, he must know nature and live in harmony with it.

by Maurice Seay — 1945
"Community school" is the term currently applied to a school that has two distinctive emphases—service to the entire community, not merely to the children of school age; and discovery, development, and use of the resources of the community as part of the educational facilities of the school. The concern of the community school with the local community is intended, not to restrict the school's attention to local matters, but to provide a focus from which to relate study .and action · in the larger community—the state, the region, the nation, the world.

by C. Cushman & John Mason — 1945
In this chapter we are concerned with that portion of the educational program which is designed to give youth a feeling of belonging to the nation and to assist them as they begin to share in national· privileges and responsibilities. The treatment relates particularly to the education of adolescents in junior and senior high schools. The point of view expressed throughout the chapter, however, is, we believe, one that might well be taken into account during the next few years in planning for the work of elementary schools and of the colleges also.

by Howard Wilson — 1945
In the midst of devastating world war, it is increasingly evident that peace can exist only on a global scale. Study of modern economy indicates that no nation can long live to itself alone, that reasonable and enduring prosperity must come for all of mankind or for none of it. The currents of industrial and scientific and humanitarian development flow strongly over and beyond all national boundaries.

by Prudence Cutright — 1945
Curriculum planning is not new in American schools, but there is need for improvement, both in the method of carrying out such activities and in the end results. The prewar period witnessed considerable activity in curriculum overhauling. Many a village, city, county, and state school system had its "curriculum committee." The faculties of many schools spent long hours in considering community needs, listing the concerns and problems of children, and in outlining objectives of education as well as in revising courses of study in selected subject areas.

by Oakley Furney & C. Beach — 1943
The necessity for the United States to take steps to safeguard itself from the growing strength and victories of the Axis countries became evident during the early part of 1940. To take these steps, it became essential to increase production of war industries far beyond that of any previous time. A considerable dearth of skilled labor necessary to produce the enormous output planned in war industries was evident even though there had been a general expansion of vocational training in recent years.

by Donald Cottrell — 1943
This analysis is based upon the conviction, not only that teachers and other educators themselves must be doing straight thinking about their jobs, but also that whatever education can do in the war effort will take its bearing from the way in which the American people see the war and its possible outcomes.

by William Hodson — 1943
The problems of adjustment occasioned by the war are nowhere shown in bolder relief than in the life of the family. One of the basic difficulties lies in the question of how to preserve the values of family life in the face of the disintegrating factors now affecting the family, such as the absence of the father or the mother on a job in industry either part of the day or for considerable periods of time; the absence of the father who serves in the armed forces; the absence of the older brother either because of work or military service.

by Florence Stratemeyer — 1943
Education must help to win the war. Education must develop the effective citizenry required for the peacetime world of tomorrow. Both are imperative. Both must be included in the educational program of today. But the pattern of behavior which is modern total war and the pattern of the democratic way of life are in essential conflict. This creates a difficult question of choice and balance requiring educational statesmanship of the highest order.

by I. L. Kandel — 1942
The Atlantic Charter is a proclamation to the world that the two leading English-speaking nations intend to cooperate until victory is assured in order that other peoples of the world may enjoy the privileges and the responsibilities of freedom which these two great nations have made their ideal of life. And yet, although the cause for which the democracies are fighting is clear, there is a background of suspicion and criticism which is not altogether the result of fifth-column activities.

by John Childs — 1942
If democracy is to win this war, it must also win the peace. That means putting at the head of all of our directing governmental agencies leaders who share the longing of the common man for a world of peace, abundance, and security. To get that kind of result from the war will require basic changes in our attitudes and relationships in our dealings with the people of the East. These changes are discussed.

by Will French — 1942
Among the aspects of life ahead for which we should now plan is the education of American youth. This article discusses youth education and postwar democracy.

by L. Thomas Hopkins — 1942
The place and function of the teacher in the future will be considered under four aspects: (1) What are the general and educational conditions which we as a people face at the moment? (2) What are the operating antecedents to these conditions? (3) What is the direction for life and education which appears to be more fruitful in producing better conditions of living in the future than in the past? (4) What are the opportunities of the teacher in maintaining, extending, and enriching this more desirable life and learning in America and in the world?

by Clarence Linton — 1942
This discussion focuses on the participation of youth in making the postwar world.

by William Russell — 1942
In prosecuting this total war our nation finds itself with shortages not only in military and naval equipment, factories and raw materials, but also in men and women who are able and prepared to perform the kinds of tasks that mechanical warfare requires. These shortages have come despite recent great educational advances.

by Ralph Spence — 1942
We have become so accustomed to miracles in our economy that we are in danger from a psychological point of view of lapsing into a fairy-tale state once more. We are inclined to believe that if we wish for things hard enough, they will be provided for us.

by Arthur Jersild — 1942
This article deals with the impact of the war situation upon children, and some of the practical responsibilities that confront parents, teachers, and other adults on the home front.

by George Stoddard — 1942
In the midst of war it is helpful to ask ourselves as teachers and teacher guides what we may expect as we plunge deeply into the war and into preparations for a peace to follow. To the extent that teachers everywhere demonstrate the fine principles of democracy in their daily lives, we shall be able to place the young people of America—and perhaps of the world— on the true path to righteousness and happiness.

by William Russell — 1941
“The Schools and the Defense” was a Symposium on Defense Activities, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, August 6, 1941. Paul R. Mort, Chairman.

by Thomas Briggs — 1941
“The Schools and the Defense” was a Symposium on Defense Activities, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, August 6, 1941. Paul R. Mort, Chairman.

by Clifford Brownell — 1941
“The Schools and the Defense” was a Symposium on Defense Activities, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, August 6, 1941. Paul R. Mort, Chairman.

by Mary Bryan — 1941
“The Schools and the Defense” was a Symposium on Defense Activities, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, August 6, 1941. Paul R. Mort, Chairman.

by Lyman Bryson — 1941
“The Schools and the Defense” was a Symposium on Defense Activities, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, August 6, 1941. Paul R. Mort, Chairman.

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Resources
  • Impact of Armed Conflict on Children
    A study of the effects of war on children.
  • The Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies
    The Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies is the only journal that publishes critical essays relating pedagogy to a wide variety of political, social, cultural, and economic issues.
  • The Social Science Research Council
    This website features an extraordinary and still-expanding collection of essays by leading social scientists from around the country and the world. These are efforts by social scientists to bring theoretical and empirical knowledge to bear on the events of Sept. 11, their precursors, and what comes after.
  • Mobilizing American Youth
    Consideration of the appropriate role for American youth in World War II.
  • American Journal of International Law
    The American Journal of International Law features articles and editorials, notes and comment by preeminent scholars on developments in international law and international relations.
  • Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education
    The purpose of the LSU Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education (ACE) is to plan and administer high quality, comprehensive, and uniformly delivered programs through the most efficient use of resources available, in order to assist in meeting the training and educational needs of as many personnel as possible and in order that lives and property may be saved more safely and effectively.
  • Stop the Use of Child Soldiers
    A critical look at children schooled only in war.
  • Journal of Political and Military Sociology
    The Journal of Political and Military Sociology has helped to generate scholarly interest in political and military sociology by seeking to advance and disseminate social science knowledge in these two areas.
  • The Cold War Museum
    A museum dedicated to the study of the cold war from the 1940s to the 1990s
  • The Other Side of War
    A skeptical view of World War II
  • International Journal of Intercultural Relations
    IJIR is dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of theory, practice, and research in intergroup relations.
  • Human Rights Watch
    Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organization, supported by contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide. It accepts no government funds, directly or indirectly.
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