Performance-based funding programs have become a popular state policy strategy for increasing college completions, among other things. This study asks, To what extent does the introduction of performance funding programs impact two-year degree completion among participating states? Using a difference-in-differences technique, we find that the program had no effect on average and mixed results for the individual states. We conclude that the policy is not a “silver bullet” for improving community college completions.
This article explores the extent to which students’ precollege exposure to racial/ethnic difference within schools, neighborhoods, and friendship groups predicts their complex racial attitudes upon entering college.
In this paper the authors utilize a rational choice framework to examine the factors that influenced college choice for community college and for-profit college students.
The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.
This article draws interview data from three community colleges in Virginia to articulate the largely unspoken expectations, behaviors, and attitudes to which community college students must adhere if they are to be successful.
Non-tenure track faculty now make up two-thirds of the faculty, but we have very little research on this growing population. What little we know is that they often have poor working conditions. Some leaders are beginning to alter policies and practices on campus to better support these faculty. The question addressed in this particular article is: How do non-tenure-track faculty construct an understanding of support within their department? The results showcase individual and institutional conditions that uniquely shape their views, dispelling the notion that they are a mostly homogenous group. Practical implications for improving departmental and institutional life are also offered.
We examined admissions and transcript records for first-year students at Georgia Tech
from 1999-2009. Patterns of AP exams completed and AP exam performance were
evaluated to determine the associations between AP and graduation rates, STEM
persistence, and enrollment patterns—in isolation and in conjunction with traditional
predictors (e.g., SAT and High School GPA).
This study measures the impact of co-enrollment on community college success outcomes. Results demonstrate co-enrolling significantly increases students’ odds of success.
This research analyzes key aspects of an alternative counseling model, the college coach program in Chicago Public Schools, using interviews with coaches and students. The results suggest that coaches use innovative advising strategies to increase students’ social capital, resulting in more students completing key college actions.
Drawing upon data from the first and second follow-up interviews of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), this study investigated socio-demographic, motivational, and postsecondary contextual factors that explain community college students‘ baccalaureate expectations.
This article presents a review of research relevant to postsecondary writing remediation. The purpose of the review is to assess empirical support for policy aimed at improving the degree completion rates of students who arrive at tertiary settings underprepared to write.
Examination of the political origins of state performance funding for higher education in six states (Florida, Illinois, Missouri, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington) and the lack of its development in another two states (California and Nevada).
In view of the widespread attention given to endowments of colleges and universities in recent decades, this historical essay explains how the importance of endowment, the emphasis upon increasing it, the competition for it, and even its current meaning originated between 1890 and 1930. This development established an upper tier of wealthy universities that maintained their elite status through the ensuing century, thereby contributing to the stratification of higher education in the United States over the long term.
This article explores the laws and legislation pertaining to historically Black colleges and universities using Derrick Bell’s notion of interest convergence—the idea that most Whites will only accommodate the interests of Blacks in achieving racial equality when it is in the best interest of middle- and upper-class Whites.
In this study, social exchange frameworks are used to frame and explore the influence of mentoring and student interaction on Black faculty productivity. Findings indicate that in addition to considering frequency of student interaction, understanding the structure of the mentoring relationships that faculty form can improve understanding of faculty outcomes.
This article analyzes why half the states that have adopted performance funding for higher education later abandoned such funding. The analysis is based on case studies of three states that abandoned performance funding in whole or in part (Missouri, Washington, and Florida) and one that has maintained it for more than 30 years (Tennessee).
This article analyzes the national discourse surrounding women’s higher education during the Depression of the 1930s. It focuses on eugenics and the need for education for good citizenship as rationales for women’s education.
The authors used cross-classified hierarchical generalized linear modeling to examine predictors of enrolling in college due to being admitted through an early decision or early action program in a national dataset of 88,086 students. Although research has investigated the types of institutions that tend to offer early action and early decision programs, the types of students who apply to these programs, and the types of high schools that they come from, no prior study has examined these three contexts simultaneously.
The authors use a panel data set covering all 50 states from the years 1969–2002 to investigate the growth of community colleges. They find that community college expansion was driven in large part by changes in state populations, while growth was slowed by competition from other institutions.
By comparing and contrasting the civic functions adopted by and ascribed to Bowdoin College and Stanford University during their founding decades, this study contends that the social ethos guiding colleges and universities’ institutional priorities, as well as students’ reasons for engaging in higher learning, changed between 1794 (the year of Bowdoin’s founding) and 1885 (the year Stanford was established), resulting in a modification of what we might today call higher education’s institutional mission.
This article uses data from descriptive case studies of 15 high schools in five states to explore students’ perceptions and expectations of student financial aid and the contextual forces that influence these perceptions and expectations.
Although the historical and contemporary contributions of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to educating college-going African American students are well documented, such analysis often neglects to highlight the male student role or perspective. This article presents a review and critique of past and contemporary HBCU research focusing explicitly on African American men, with the hope of recentering the gendered dialogue.
Focusing on students aged 19 and 20 who lived with their parents and commuted from home, this study examines the shifting patterns of college access from 1960 and 1980, when commuters became the largest category of beginning college students. Using various sources of information, including data from IPUMS and NCES, this study finds that for most American youth, going to college appears to have remained a solidly middle- and upper-class phenomenon, even in commuter institutions.
In the present review of recent empirical research, the authors point to ways by which meditation may complement the traditional goals of the academy by helping to develop traditionally valued academic skills as well as help to build important emotional and interpersonal capacities that foster psychological well-being and the development of the “whole person.”
This article provides perspective on laws mandating openness in higher education, describes differences in the laws across states, and reports on select findings from a study that we conducted on the impacts of the laws on public colleges and universities nationally. The article seeks to contribute to a growing body of literature on information policy and its uses in society, in this case, how the public information laws of state governments influence the climate of data access and decision-making in public higher education.
Class attendance and out-of-class study time are known to be strongly associated with student success. The paper examines two other uses of time as influences on academic outcomes in college: those devoted to active engagements with friends and community as opposed to passive entertainments, and those that connect students to campus life rather than separating them from campus life. Controlling for students’ socio-demographic backgrounds, previous academic achievements, and social psychological stressors, we find that “activating” uses of time are associated with higher levels of academic conscientiousness and, through academic conscientiousness, with higher GPAs. However, uses of time that connect students to campus life show inconsistent effects.
This article contrasts the home study activities of two major universities, Columbia and Wisconsin, with the business practices of the proprietary vendors who dominated the large market for correspondence courses in the 1920s and 1930s.
This case study of two women teachers who had a sexual relationship with a student focuses on how and why they crossed ethical and professional boundaries. Implications for a distinction between erotic and abusive pedagogies are considered.
This article examines the efforts to unionize college faculty in the years immediately after World War I. It demonstrates that despite some educators’ beliefs that professorial unionization offered the possibility of real change for faculty members and larger society, external opposition, internal divisions, and faculty apathy ultimately doomed these early efforts to organize American Federation of Teachers locals on college campuses.
This article examines the role of academic preparation in the transition from community colleges to four-year institutions, and, in particular, the ability of community colleges to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate academic preparation.