Class attendance and out-of-class study time are known to be strongly associated with student success. The paper examines two other uses of time as influences on academic outcomes in college: those devoted to active engagements with friends and community as opposed to passive entertainments, and those that connect students to campus life rather than separating them from campus life. Controlling for students’ socio-demographic backgrounds, previous academic achievements, and social psychological stressors, we find that “activating” uses of time are associated with higher levels of academic conscientiousness and, through academic conscientiousness, with higher GPAs. However, uses of time that connect students to campus life show inconsistent effects.
This article contrasts the home study activities of two major universities, Columbia and Wisconsin, with the business practices of the proprietary vendors who dominated the large market for correspondence courses in the 1920s and 1930s.
This case study of two women teachers who had a sexual relationship with a student focuses on how and why they crossed ethical and professional boundaries. Implications for a distinction between erotic and abusive pedagogies are considered.
This article examines the efforts to unionize college faculty in the years immediately after World War I. It demonstrates that despite some educators’ beliefs that professorial unionization offered the possibility of real change for faculty members and larger society, external opposition, internal divisions, and faculty apathy ultimately doomed these early efforts to organize American Federation of Teachers locals on college campuses.
This article examines the role of academic preparation in the transition from community colleges to four-year institutions, and, in particular, the ability of community colleges to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate academic preparation.
This article provides an overview of gender inequalities in the transition to college and in college experiences by examining the ways that women are advantaged in higher education and the arenas where they still trail men. It also discusses theoretical perspectives useful in assessing the causes of gender inequality and then suggests how future research could advance our understanding of the complex nature of gender inequality in higher education.
This article provides an overview of a set of articles in this special issue that synthesize current research and provide future directions for research, both conceptually and methodologically, on gender, socioeconomic, and language-minority differences in college transitions, as well as a review of college transitions research in the discipline of human development. It concludes with an example of policy analysis research on college transitions, focusing on 2-year to 4-year college articulation policies. These reviews provide a foundation for further research, policy making, and programmatic action to improve the college transition pathways for all youth, particularly those for whom college-going opportunities are most challenging because of demographic and economic conditions.
This article focuses on the transition to college of English learner and undocumented immigrant students in the United States. The synthesis of research reveals significant challenges faced in the college transition by these two populations, discusses resource and policy implications, and provides a recommended research agenda.
This article examines the role of articulation policies in facilitating transfer from community colleges to 4-year institutions. The author synthesizes previous research, presents new empirical evidence, and concludes with recommendations for improving research and policy regarding transfer.
Callahan and Chumney use a comparative case study approach to examine the experiences and outcomes of remedial writing students enrolled in two urban public institutions: a community college and a research university. Applying Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this ethnographic study reveals that institutions further determine the advantage or disadvantage of remedial students by controlling their access to cultural capital, which is critical for navigating the field of higher education successfully.
As a result of personal experience and professional observations, our initial interest was to ascertain to what extent expertise is associated with rank. We assumed that assistant professors are by no means novices, rather, that they are less expert than professors. We wondered if explicit and differentiated expertise behaviors associated with the three primary ranks could be identified. In other words, to what extent is the acquisition of expert skill related to the progression through academic rank?
This study contributes to the longstanding debate over whether community colleges democratize education or divert students from attaining a bachelor’s degree.
The main objective of this study is to compare the effect of being a successful community college “transfer” student instead of a “rising junior” in a 4-year college on bachelor’s degree attainment. Logistic regression is used to estimate the effect of being a transfer student, and the effects and interplay of factors such as socioeconomic background and institutional selectivity on bachelor’s degree completion are estimated. The results indicate no difference in baccalaureate attainment for transfers after accounting for state-level characteristics.
This article examines students’ strong responses to a doctoral core course that sought to initiate them into the competing theoretical, epistemological, and paradigmatic complexity of contemporary educational research.
This article looks across the introduction to the Spencer Foundation’s Research Training Grant (RTG) program and the four case studies assessing program implementation and impact. It discusses the importance of institutional context and history, curricular content, financial resources, and organizational structure. The article concludes with recommendations for the preparation of education researchers in graduate schools of education.
The Research Training Grant (RTG) program at the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education aimed to create strong research training experiences for predissertation fellows through generous financial aid, mentored research apprenticeships, and cocurricular experiences. The article describes the aims and organization of the program and discusses strengths and challenges identified by students and faculty.
The University of Wisconsin-Madison participated with the Spencer Foundation in developing a model program for doctoral education called the Wisconsin-Spencer Doctoral Research Program (DRP). This article reports results of an evaluation of the program’s effectiveness in meeting its goals of educating selected students in interdisciplinary research and effecting change in the structure of doctoral education in participating departments. The study raises questions about the DRP’s development and implementation but concludes that the DRP was at least partially effective in meeting its goals.
Using a value-added model, the experiences and performance of nine cohorts (n = 52) of UCLA education PhD students participating in the Spencer Foundation Institutional Research Training Grant (RTG) were assessed and compared with those of a matched comparison group.
Focusing on students in the middle years of their PhD programs, the Spencer Foundation-sponsored project at Michigan State University gave priority to mentoring and participation in communities of interest in the College of Education. As the project evolved, socialization into research careers and academic life also came to play a role in activities for fellows. Thus, experiences of learning and doing research were incorporated into the intellectual, professional, and social contexts of education.
In 1994, the Spencer Foundation embarked on an ambitious experimental initiative to support the preparation of education researchers. This article traces the development of the Research Training Grant program, situating it in the longstanding commitment of the Spencer Foundation to promote high-quality education research and describing the purposes and practices of the program. Threaded through the discussion are endemic problems of doing research in education and the problems of schools of education in research universities, and the consequences that these both have for doctoral training in education schools.
Recent educational policy developments have sought to raise the academic rigor of students’ high school experiences to increase student preparation for postsecondary education. The expansion of credit-based transition programs (CBTPs), both in number and in the type of student served, represents one such strategy. The research question guiding this study was, Through what mechanisms might credit-based transition programs encourage student success in postsecondary education? Five in-depth qualitative case studies were conducted. The case study data demonstrated that our initial conceptual model oversimplified program structure and the interaction among program components. The model was refined to reflect that complexity and to take student motivation into account. The final model hypothesizes that student participation in college coursework and support services, along with the attendant growth in academic skills, knowledge of the social aspects of college, and motivation, will lead students to matriculate into postsecondary education.
This analytical review of the major findings of research on the transition to college emphasizes those studies conducted by higher education researchers. The specific areas covered are college preparation, college access, persistence, and college outcomes. Also discussed are methodological and conceptual shortcomings of this body of work, and how further research might be improved.
This article explores what historical scholarship might contribute to advocates for equal access to higher education. Historians of college access have analyzed the impact that institutional stratification, segregation, and broader structural forces have had on college enrollments and outcomes. Although connections between past and present are suggestive rather than definitive, the article concludes by sketching tentative historical lessons about topics such as student preparation, admissions standards, and state intervention in higher education.
This essay reviews recent demographic literature on school transitions.
I describe how a demographic perspective, by which I mean using methods
that are standard in the study of population processes, is a useful way
to examine differences in access to and completion of post secondary
schooling in the United States.
This review article brings together anthropological and ethnographic studies, conducted during the last two decades, which examine issues of college access, preparation, financing, and retention. In it, the author synthesizes exiting knowledge and examines the ways in which this scholarship informs our knowledge about the processes of going to college.
This article addresses what we know around the transition to college from selected disciplines, the gaps therein, and finally, where we need to go next, in terms of methodological and substantive concerns.
The essay provides a comprehensive review of work by economists and others in related quantitative disciplines on the transition of students to college. A particular emphasis is given to the role of price and financial aid although issues related to college preparation, access, and persistence are also investigated. The final section discusses ongoing debates within economics about college access and success and suggests directions for future research.
This review focuses on the transition to college literature in sociology published since 1983 with an emphasis on revealing the contribution that sociology has made to our understanding of under-represented U.S. populations and their transition into and completion of postsecondary education.
This article introduces a special issue on discipline and field based research on youth transitions into and through college. This article describes the role of the Social Science Research Council and its scholars advisory group in sheparding field and discipline reviews, six of which are included in this journal. The article concludes with the group's recommendations for future integrated research.