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by Arthur Woodward & David Elliott — 1990
In this chapter we argue that the kind of consensus that would make it feasible to publish single textbook programs to be marketed across the entire nation while maintaining high standards of instructional quality does not exist.

by Michael Tulley & Roger Farr — 1990
The recent interest in textbook adoption stems from the general criticisms of education that reached a crescendo with the publication of A Nation at Risk. Criticisms of education included the claim that since textbooks dominated classroom instruction and were relied on to such an extent by classroom teachers, the textbooks should be examined as one of the potential culprits in the decline in educational achievement. When researchers and educational critics declared that the textbooks were inadequate, attention shifted to the procedures for adopting textbooks.

by Arthur Woodward & David Elliott — 1990
Present research evidence indicates that textbooks are widely used, yet most are poorly written and conceived and emphasize lower-order facts and skills rather than higher-order cognitive activities. There is also a body of evidence indicating that teachers feel compelled to follow these materials, flawed though they may be, and policies and practices supporting the use of textbooks are in effect in most school districts across the country.

by Stephen Kerr — 1990
In this chapter I review the origins of ways of thinking about technologically enhanced alternative materials in American schooling. I then examine new alternatives that have recently become available (especially computers and related technologies), and the usefulness and capabilities of these materials as "textbooks." I conclude with a look at possible futures, and the likelihood of further incorporation of electronic text materials into classrooms of the twenty-first century, given probable continuities and changes in schools.

by David Elliott & Arthur Woodward — 1990
The preceding chapters of this Yearbook have described the status of commercially published textbooks as the premier instructional material of American public elementary and secondary schools, how they achieved that status, and some of the problems involved. In this final chapter, we summarize and briefly reflect on what we see as the major themes that have emerged from the preceding chapters and then conclude by presenting what we see as some promising directions for future curriculum development efforts and the role of textbooks in these efforts.

by Philip Jackson & Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon — 1989
This volume explores the relationship between teachers and texts. It does so within a structure that departs noticeably from the usual format of the yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Education. Unlike the typical volume in this series, ours does not offer a systematic coverage of a single topic nor does it examine a controversial issue from a variety of perspectives.

by Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon — 1989
The essays which make up Section One of this volume draw our attention to teachers who appear in the works of Plato, John Dewey, Charles Dickens, and Charlotte Brontë. Each of the teachers studied here differs dramatically from the others, as does their creator's view of education. And so, these essays arouse in us a succession of queries, worries, puzzlements, and perspectives on the subject of teaching. We find ourselves wondering about such things as the nature of the ideal teacher, the effects of teachers upon students, and the consequences of teaching for the teachers themselves. The power of these essays to provoke our thought derives in part from the fact that they take moving portrayals of educators as their subjects.

by Daniel Tanner — 1988
Why is the textbook, along with other books in the classroom and school library, so dominant and durable? In an age of microelectronic-media technology, why is it that the textbook and other conventional print media continue to serve as the predominant classroom resource? Is the dominance of the textbook and other conventional print media largely attributable to the resistance of the school to change? Or are there unique attributes and functions indigenous to these conventional print media which distinguish them from other media as a principal teaching-learning resource? These are some of the questions, along with related issues, to be addressed in this chapter.

by Charles Suhor — 1984
I will begin this exploration of the role of print in our society by outlining the popular view of literacy in crisis. Then I will pose the question of print and other media in terms most commonly used by educators, namely, the cognitive and social consequences of shifts in media dominance in a society.

by David Olson — 1974
Our attack on the problems of the "media revolution" is in three parts. The first concerns the general structure of the symbolic world that is created by our media of expression and communication. The second section concerns the particular potentials and limitations of several media for educational purposes. The third examines the social context of educational technological reform. These sections will be introduced successively.

by Larry Gross — 1974
In the following it will be argued that thought and knowledge are always active processes and that they exist in a variety of distinct modes. These modes are systems of symbolic thought and action which (dependent upon the nature of our biological structures and physical environment) determine the kinds of information we can perceive, manipulate, and communicate.

by John Carroll — 1974
The task of this paper is and must be to defend print as a medium of instruction. This task is paradoxical in the extreme, if only for the reason that all the "papers" for this yearbook were initially circulated in "print" (if one can use that term for mimeograph), now formally appear in print, and, if they are attended to at all, will be nearly always read rather than listened to. It is also paradoxical because I am very sure that, whatever I might say in this paper, instruction will continue to occur in the print medium—if anything, increasingly so. It does not appear necessary to defend print as a medium of instruction, yet it is. Voices have been raised to the effect that print is a plague upon us. After having devoted a considerable amount of effort to reviewing the research literature on learning from verbal discourse—primarily printed discourse—I find myself confronted with the coy question: why should anyone want to learn from printed discourse?

by Rudolf Arnheim — 1974
Throughout this brief survey we shall have to keep in mind the active as well as the passive use of the various media. Passive use serves the dispensing of knowledge. Pictures carry images of the world into the classroom. They offer the raw material for factual information. However, the pictures or models have been made by experts somewhere else. They arrive ready-made. Student and teacher act as consumers. Their acts are responses.

by John Kennedy — 1974
This chapter is intended as a kind of model for an attempt to understand icons and like displays. It will try to suggest some ways to study icons, give examples appropriate even for children, and provide a practical theoretical viewpoint for the instructor. The viewpoint is that only some displays rely on cultural canons; other displays (icons) rely heavily on perceptual skills that usually develop spontaneously, without tutoring.

by Sol Worth — 1974
The purpose of this paper will be an attempt, first, to clarify some of the causes of the current confusion, which is characterized by seemingly irreconcilable goals, theories, and statements of purpose as to what film is and what it should be in education; second, to present a description of film as a process of communication that can be used in subsequent discussion; third, to discuss how film is used in the classroom; fourth, to present some evidence supporting several new directions in the use of film as a means of instruction related to the notion that film is a means of communication; and fifth, to suggest lines for future research in education relating to such uses of film.

by Edward Palmer — 1974
There is currently in the United States unparalleled interest in the systematic use of broadcast television to promote the social, emotional, and intellectual growth of young children. Support for this movement lies in the recognition that television is ubiquitous, reaching into 97 percent of all U.S. households; that young children are exposed to upwards of thirty hours of television fare each week; that while they learn a great deal from what they watch, there have been far too few significant attempts to plan program content in order to address important areas of learning and development systematically; and that no other approach can promise to deliver so much to so many at so small a unit cost.

by T. Ide — 1974
Any statement of the potentials and limitations of television as a means of expression, communication, and education is necessarily tentative, given the rapid changes in this powerful technology.

by Gavriel Salomon — 1974
The four factors of media use in education interact with each other in rather complex ways. However, before attempting to describe these interactions, three basic distinctions need to be made. These distinctions should aid us in identifying the educationally most significant features of media.

by Aletha Stein — 1972
Recently, public and professional attention has focused on the few television programs designed to contribute positively to the development of cognitive and social skills. Simultaneously, empirical literature devoted to observational learning and imitation has burgeoned in the field of child development. In the following discussion, direct studies of the media are integrated with those of imitative learning in order to draw conclusions and implications concerning media effects on "young children," that is, those of preschool and early elementary school age. The review is restricted to studies of publicly distributed media, primarily television and films, which are the subject of most publications.

by Dean O'Brien — 1971
A reporter assigned to a school area describes his experiences.

by Maxine Greene — 1970

by Edgar Dale — 1954
This book is prepared with teachers, parents, supervisors, principals, and superintendents in mind. Its title, Mass Media and Education, suggests that mass media play a role in education and that these media must, therefore, be looked upon with concern and respect. We are concerned with these mass media as influences arising in the out-of-school life of the child or youth and in the normal experiences of the adult.

by Fred Siebert — 1954
The functions and control of the mass media of communication in any organized society are inextricably bound up with the basic theories, both political and economic, which underlie that society. The functions which the mass media perform, the purposes for which they are used, and the controls which are imposed upon them are, by and large, determined by the fundamental political and economic principles which provide the foundations for the society in which these media operate.

by Theodore Peterson — 1954
As the libertarian philosophy of freedom developed in England and America, the press became accountable for performing at least six social functions. In brief, its six assigned jobs are these: (a) enlightening the public, (b) servicing the political system, (c) safeguarding personal liberties, (d) making a profit, (e) servicing the economic system, and (f) providing entertainment.

by Robert Wagner — 1954
The production methods in the making of a radio program, a television broadcast, or an issue of a daily newspaper are historically different from those involved in the production of a motion picture. It is to these beginnings of the industry, then, and to these methods that we must turn to assess the present condition and problems of the motion picture as a mass medium.

by I. Tyler — 1954
What is the purpose of broadcasting? What functions do radio and television perform for individuals and for society? Only with a clear understanding of the part these media play in present-day life can we appraise their success or failure or take appropriate action with regard to them.

by Wilbur Schramm — 1954
It will be easier to see how mass communication works if we first look at the communication process in general.

by Charles Swanson — 1954
The emphasis in this chapter is upon learning from the printed word what occurs today beyond the reach of your senses.

by Franklin Fearing — 1954
What does communication do to people? Or, perhaps the more meaningful question: What does it do for people? The answers will depend upon the level of sophistication, the insights, and perhaps the urgency of the questioner's need.

by Dallas Smythe — 1954
In this chapter we will be considering the material which comes on the TV screen and over the radio, and its effects. This is a large order, for the number of radio and TV programs broadcast every day in the year in the United States is very great. No one has ever measured all of it over the same interval of time. When we attempt to determine the content of TV and radio, we are forced to rely on samplings. When we come to consider the effects of all this material, we are even more certainly on a frontier of knowledge. There are a number of theories about the effects of mass communications in general. We will consider some of them as they apply to radio and TV, but it is appropriate to warn the reader at the outset that these theories are still far from thoroughly tested or adequately developed.

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