The authors employed multilevel and instrumental variables models to examine class size effects on fourth graders’ reading achievement in Greece. The results indicated a positive association between class size and reading achievement, but the association is overall insignificant, especially when classroom and school variables were taken into account.
This article examines how the context of work affects teachers’ job satisfaction, their decisions to remain in their school, and student achievement. The authors found that teachers are more satisfied and plan to stay longer in schools that have a positive work environment, and that students in these schools achieve greater academic growth. Although a wide range of working conditions matter to teachers, social conditions including the school culture, the principal’s leadership, and relationships among colleagues are most important.
In this chapter, we focus on the role that one policy area—teacher compensation—can play in inhibiting or advancing teacher quality through its impact on attracting, retaining, and developing a high-quality teaching force. Because compensation reform is at a nascent stage of development, we rely on a variety of information sources for our review, including empirical research studies examining the role that compensation plays in influencing teacher behaviors, theoretical studies, and case studies of innovative uses of compensation to affect teacher behavior.
In this chapter, we explore the promise of work redesign for teacher workforce development by examining both the theory of redesign and the research on its effectiveness. After categorizing work redesign along two dimensions—whose work is changed (the individual or the collective) and in what way (reassigned or redefined)—we conclude that initiatives that redefine jobs rather than simply reassigning tasks and that focus on collective rather than individual work should be most effective, especially for promoting teacher performance.
My name is Anthony G. Vandarakis and I am a twenty-eight-year-old white male, a Chicago Public Schools (CPS) employee, and a graduate of the Golden Apple Teacher Education (GATE) alternative certification program at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). I have been asked to reflect on my experiences throughout the various stages of my teaching career. Much of this reflection depends on the accuracy of my memory, which may be one of my finer qualities but is nonetheless flawed and to a lesser degree tempered.
There are obstacles to developing and employing
an effective pool of teachers, some that can be reduced or eliminated through effective human resources and district management and others that exist beyond the control of schools and their communities. One point is abundantly clear to everyone in education: the quality of a school is directly connected to and dependent on the instructional skills and commitment of its teachers.
This is a self-study of an elementary teacher's emotions during the year he took a sabbatical from a position as an education professor.
Relatively little research examines the specific interactions and dynamics by which professional community constitutes a resource for teacher learning and innovations in teaching practice. This paper draws on intensive case studies of teacher knowledge, practice, and learning among teachers of mathematics and English in two high schools to take up the problem of how classroom teaching practice comes to be known, shared, and developed among teachers through their out-of-classroom interactions.
Using data from the Tennessee Project STAR, the authors examine the impact of the duration of participation in small classes in grades K-3 on student performance in
This study reveals that greater autonomy for teachers is accompanied by expanded roles and responsibilities in deregulated schools.
This article examines individual characteristics and the high school departments of teachers who do or do not adapt instruction for a diverse student body.
The author advances an expanded notion of “decent” schools, considering a perspective which balances science with the art of designing, constructing, and renovating schools.
The central thesis of this article is that professionalization projects, such as those endorsed by normal schools and schools of education, contributed to vertical and horizontal divisions of labor by constructing differing views of professionalization, which became associated with and gave institutional support to gendered assumptions about women and teaching in general.
This article argues that the contexts of teaching are more diverse, embedded, and interactive in their effects on teaching practice than is assumed by prior "school effects" research.
Is labeling of teachers' associations indicative of something more than a fad? Does this
self-perception of the nation's largest teacher organization relate to the
current efforts to renew schools? Does it embrace new ways of
thinking about how teachers can play a role in getting schools right for the students presently in them? I will make the case here that there
is such a relationship and that this change of perception will impact
positively on the improvement of American schools.
Teaching has endured largely as an assemblage of entrepreneurial individuals whose autonomy is grounded in norms of privacy and noninterference and is sustained by the very organization of teaching work. This article examines prominent forms of collegiality and discusses their prospects for altering the fundamental conditions of privacy in teaching.
Education bargaining in the future is unlikely to be marked by the absence of conflict or by the declining use of power tactics, but by an increased capacity for cooperation and a more sophisticated use of power that is inherent in the structure of educational systems.
An exploration of the assumptions, implications, and consequences of eight Wisconsin experimental projects concerned with creating career ladders and teacher incentive programs suggests that the reforms resulting from the projects intensify the work of teaching rather than redefine its conditions to make them more intellectually and socially satisfying.
This article suggests that the organizational structure of schools contributes to lowered teacher morale and creativity; and concludes that school policymakers must learn the lessons of industry: Give employees a stake in the system by decentralizing decision making.
A first-year teacher was observed and interviewed weekly to find out what happens to the beginning teacher as he or she tries to fit into an institutionally prescribed role. Problems encountered and the novice's responses to them are examined to see how these responses relate to the development of expertise.
First asking why schools and teachers should be called on to solve social and economically created structural problems in our society, Apple then raises related economic questions about how minorities and working-class students will pay for additional professional education and whether communities intent on keeping taxes low will maintain a lopsided temporary teacher workforce. He also warns of taking a scientific-technical view of teacher education.
This article argues that the most critical issue facing American education today is the professionalization of teaching. Professionalization involves not only the status and compensation accorded to the members of an occupation; it involves the extent to which members of that occupation maintain control over the content of their work and the degree to which society values the work of that occupation.
Teacher burnout has a significant impact on recruitment, retention, and performance of teachers. Basic assumptions, issues, and controversies that have influenced the understanding of teacher burnout are examined.
A discussion of the forces leading to teacher specialization
The causes, conditions, symptoms, and treatment of teacher burnout are discussed. The remediation of teacher burnout requires change strategies that consider psychological and social factors of the educational environment.
This article, the outcome of a study sponsored by the Center for Urban Education, has to do with the potentially cooperative part to be played by union chapter chairmen in the elementary school. It is based on a questionnaire study of such chairmen and presents the findings with respect to several facets of the chairman-principal relationship in the elementary school.
This article discusses the question of the freedom of teaching and study in our American public schools.
In the stories of exorbitant costs and incompetence, teacher tenure laws have achieved mythic proportions. Judge Rolf Treu’s tentative decision in Vergara v. California may be the death knell for teacher tenure. But what will change as a result? A look to the past reveals that teacher tenure never really protected teachers and nor was it supposed to. Using history as a lens, this commentary explores the origination of tenure policies and the debates that surrounded them. This commentary argues that embedded in the tenure debates is a much larger problem that should concern us all.
This essay presents a dialogue between a new teacher and a former professor, generated when the teacher decided to leave the classroom after two years. Contextualized within the literature of teacher attrition and offering implications for teacher education, the essay explores what it means to be (a) a novice educator in the era of accountability and (b) a teacher educator tasked with preparing new teachers for this challenging climate. The authors share their perspectives in the hopes of starting a discussion about an important issue that remains relatively unexplored in the research literature: the stories of teachers who leave and their former professors who watch them go.