This article explores the role of personality in teacher retention using a rich set of quantitative and qualitative measures. The author finds that despite stereotypes of American teachers as unambitious, a “special kind of ambition”—self-promotion coupled with a commitment to others—predicts a long-term commitment to the occupation.
The authors use cognitive flexibility theory to theoretically and empirically explore the relationship between how high school teachers understand student engagement and their ability to consistently engage students in class. Using three years of data from annual student surveys and teacher focus groups, they find that teachers whom students rated as being more engaging tended to illustrate more cognitive flexibility in how they spoke and thought about engagement.
This study examines relations between fifth-grade teachers’ use of general teaching practices, such as emotional support, and mathematics-specific practices, such facilitating mathematical discourse, over the course of a school year.
This article explores the contributions of minority serving institutions to the production of teachers of color. The authors lay the groundwork for research in this area and put forth an agenda for future research.
This article analyzes the way that a teacher community shares stories about students in a racially and socioeconomically diverse elementary school. The narratives that emerge from the teacher community’s discourse reveal these middle-class White women teachers’ intense ambiguity about, and social distance from, their students. Implications for leadership and policy in response to this common occurrence in schools are discussed.
In this study, authors use data from 2006 to 2010 to examine the impact of school-based financial incentives on patterns of teacher mobility, focusing on teachers' strategic moves.
This article reframes the debate about what fuels high rates of teacher turnover in high-poverty schools. After reviewing findings from past studies of turnover, it focuses on recent scholarship suggesting that teachers who leave such schools are not fleeing their students, but rather the poor working conditions that make it difficult for them to teach and for their students to learn.
Our purpose is to enrich current conceptualizations of autonomy support that remain constrained by the context of study and by the limited available descriptions of teacher enactment. Toward this end, we richly describe teachers’ provision of academically significant autonomy support within an inquiry-based science curricular context to incorporate higher quality differentiations.
This article presents and analyzes a variety of approaches that teachers in a struggling urban school used after a violent teacher attack ushered in a culture of chaos and fear throughout the school. As this paper suggests, many of these approaches failed to generate the authority necessary to restore student engagement and the relational trust between teachers and students that they had lost following this incident. At the same time, one teacher implemented an approach that allowed him to reclaim his authority, repair the teacher-student relationship, and increase student engagement in his classroom. Drawing on various theories about power and authority in schools, I argue that the degree to which these different approaches created engaging learning environments and restored a meaningful teacher-student relationship depended on whether students recognized a teacher’s authority as legitimate.
Alternative teacher certification programs have surfaced as a popular remedy to alleviate anxieties about the quality of teachers in hard-to-staff schools and in such high needs areas as mathematics. Despite the growth in the number and influence of alternative route programs their particulars remain largely unexamined. This study addresses this situation by investigating the preparation of mathematics teachers in the New York City Teaching Fellows (NYCTF) program, an alternative route program of national prominence.
This comparative, longitudinal study of 30 beginning teachers from three mission-driven, teacher education programs explores career commitments among beginning teachers and how school environments shape them. The study confirms the importance of administration support and professional community even for elite college graduates who are highly motivated to teach and make a difference in the lives of children.
To teach for instrumental and innovative growth for both student and teacher is not simply a technical challenge. It is a moral task, requiring intimacy in the service of developing autonomy. It involves moral sensitivity and moral perception in prompting and framing responsible pedagogical action. It is an emotionally fraught enterprise, one that runs headlong into the human resistance to development and growth (Bion, 1994). What follows is an uncovering of this pedagogical responsibility. As we shall show, the way in to the moral dimensions of a teacher’s work is the same path that leads to academic effectiveness. Taking the moral seriously is not a diversion from the preparation and development of effective teachers, nor is it an added consideration; it is central to the very possibility of responsive and responsible education.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the spiritual dimensions of teaching by elucidating the cardinal and forgotten virtue of reverence. Reverence has a power beyond a typical understanding of it as something religious. Reverence involves a sense of wonder and awe for something or someone that meets at least one of the following conditions: (1) something we cannot control; (2) something we cannot create; (3) something we cannot fully understand; (4) something transcendent, even supernatural The chapter shows reverence in a wider context that does not diminish its spiritual connotations, but rather shows its importance and relevance to teaching in today’s classrooms.
This research identifies strategies that principals in high-, middle- and low-financial resource Catholic, independent, and public schools use to foster school climates that promote teacher learning and development.
In this introduction to a special section on teaching practice, Pam Grossman introduces the ideas from the original study on teaching practice that inspired the work in teacher education described in the articles that follow. She describes the constructs of the representation, decomposition, and approximation of practice and how these help us understand more deeply how professional practice is taught.
Drawing on interviews with 20 second-stage teachers (in their 3rd ï¿½10th year), this study examines the experiences of teachers who were relatively new to the teaching profession yet occupied positions that set them apart from their colleagues. We found that these teachers encountered resistance from their colleagues who invoked teachingï¿½s traditional norms of autonomy, egalitarianism, and seniority in rebuffing the second-stage teachersï¿½ efforts to change their classroom practice.
This article examines school-based professional inquiry communities known as Critical Friends Groups, analyzing how four design features—their diverse menu of activities, their decentralized structure, their interdisciplinary membership, and their reliance on structured conversation tools called “protocols”—influence the capacity of these groups to pursue whole-school reform and instructional improvement.
This article examines reasons underlying the professional entry of African American women teachers who participated in two separate qualitative studies. Study findings suggest that for some Black women teachers, teaching is more than a vocational choice, but rather a decision related to intergenerational connections, communities, and cultural work.
Accounts of teaching experience punctuate teachers’ talk with one another in a range of workplace contexts: in staffroom or hallway encounters, regularly scheduled meetings of one sort or another, professional development events, and increasingly, activities focused on reviews of school assessment data or samples of student work. Such accounts, whether in the form of passing references or extended narratives, form a pervasive feature of professional interaction. Yet in studies that now span several decades, scholars offer quite mixed assessments of them: what they convey of teachers’ knowledge; what they signify regarding teachers’ beliefs about and dispositions toward students, parents, and colleagues; how they function in shaping or changing the norms of professional discourse; and what they offer as resources for problem solving and innovation.
A critique of current educational policies effects on teaching and teacher education, focusing on the redefinition of teaching in new economic and cultural conditions.
In this article, we present profiles of two high school English teachers and their classrooms as the teachers responded to mandated high-stakes test accountability.
This case study examines the experiences of a young African American English teacher over 3 years as she tried to teach multicultural literature.
Although ensuring that our nation’s classrooms are all staffed with quality teachers is a perennially important issue in our schools, it is also among the most misunderstood. This misunderstanding centers on the supposed sources of the problem—the reasons behind the purportedly low quality of teaching in American schools—and has undermined the success of reform efforts. Underlying much of the criticism and reforms is a series of assumptions and claims as to the sources of the problems plaguing the teaching occupation. In this chapter I will focus on four of these.
In this chapter, we argue that increasing the racial/ethnic diversity of the teacher workforce should be a key component of any system that aims to supply schools with well-prepared teachers for all students. We first explain why we think attention and resources should be devoted to increasing the diversity of the teacher workforce. We then provide a brief account of minority teacher and student representation in U.S. public schools since 1950, followed by a discussion of the reasons why the percentage of minorities in the teacher workforce declined significantly during the 1970s and 1980s.
In this chapter, we focus on the role that one policy area—teacher compensation—can play in inhibiting or advancing teacher quality through its impact on attracting, retaining, and developing a high-quality teaching force. Because compensation reform is at a nascent stage of development, we rely on a variety of information sources for our review, including empirical research studies examining the role that compensation plays in influencing teacher behaviors, theoretical studies, and case studies of innovative uses of compensation to affect teacher behavior.
This chapter draws attention to two of the major and unique contributions teacher unions have made to the quality of the teacher workforce over the past several decades. It draws from more than a decade of research on U.S. and Canadian teacher unions’ roles in both the backwaters and the frontiers of educational reform.
Over the past two decades in the United States, there has been an increased emphasis on ensuring an adequate supply of teachers to serve our diverse student population. In response to this need, a movement to redefine teaching as a profession in order to attract and retain more teachers has emerged. At the same time, a countermovement has emerged, advocating that anyone who can meet minimal content and pedagogical standards should be allowed to teach. Both approaches use the phrase “highly qualified” to describe their teacher candidates.
If you visit the human resource operations of most districts, you will see that they are focused primarily on triage—handling the most immediate problem facing the school system that day. These problems can range from not having enough substitutes to meeting the No Child Left Behind mandates to finding mid-year replacements for specialists or for particular courses. As important as it is to have a full, well thought out, rational strategy for teacher recruitment and retention, it is hard to sustain this effort alone, when day-today emergencies must take precedence.
Teaching entails a love of learning. In teaching, teachers invite students to learn more about the grace of great things.
This study uses data from a 10-year longitudinal study to explore how women graduates of a liberal arts college experience the gendered construction of teachers and teaching as they make life and career choices.