Suggestions to make some Holmes Group proposals into workable platforms for action are made. These include twelve-month employment for professionals, changes in classroom teaching, professional development schools which reflect the unity of the workplace, reconceptualization of professional knowledge, and coordination of teacher education and the liberal arts curricula.
What teacher education should be at this moment in history is reflected upon. Plato's ideal of guardian education seems to be embraced by the Holmes Group, thereby ignoring society's reproductive functions of rearing children, caring for the sick, feeding people, and other forms of social responsibility.
The president of the American Federation of Teachers accepts the basic model of teacher education found in the Holmes Group Report, which includes a liberal education, mastery of a subject, professional specialization, and a structured clinical induction program. He calls for a profession-based national teacher exam.
An overview of the proposals for reforming teacher education
Misconceptions about the Holmes Group Report are addressed, and its proposals are clarified.
First considering the threat of the Holmes Group proposals to teacher educators in undergraduate colleges, Raywid then turns to criticize the differential staffing proposal as a cutting up of what should be a connected set of roles and tasks that all good teachers should be able to perform. She ends with a critical exploration of the idea of sound subject matter preparation for teachers.
This article criticizes the lack of research and research findings to support the claims and proposal in the Holmes Group Report. Also argued against is the idea of entrusting teacher education to research universities and their faculties, who have a poor record.
This article examines a wide range of policies recommended for teaching teachers more effectively, classifying them into four models for the reform of teacher education. Educational desirability and political feasibility are assessed, and major trends in higher education are reviewed.
This article uses three vignettes to illustrate the pitfalls that must be overcome if classroom experience during teacher preparation is to serve the broad purposes of learning to teach. These pitfalls mislead prospective teachers into believing that central aspects of teaching have been mastered and understood.
The author questions basic assumptions for improving teaching and teacher education programs advanced by Donna Kerr (Teachers College Record, Spring 1983). Overemphasis on educational theory and technique separates teaching from subject matter content and from the context of the student teacher relationship.
Responding to an article by Donna Kerr (Teachers College Record, Spring 1983), Davy argues that improving teacher education demands a clear understanding of the teacher's role and of how recruiting "the best and the brightest" student relates to teaching. Teachers need intuition, imagination, and inspiration, and the ability to relate to children.
The present level of competence in teaching and the quality of teacher education are discussed. More emphasis should be placed on graduate professional education programs, which would draw the "best and the brightest." Eight recommendations for improving preservice teacher education are given, including creation of a teaching doctorate and differentiated school staffs.
Educational researchers cling to the goal of a science of education although this objective is unlikely. Research should focus on a conception of the teaching-learning process that confronts the full complexity of educational phenomena.
Socrates understands what his strategy is, knows its various parts,
and has a keen insight about teaching it to others. Hence, he proceeds
one "step" at a time in his demonstration and points out the essence of
his "step by step" procedure before and after each step. By this
demonstration for Meno, Socrates shows his mastery of teaching on
two levels, teaching and teaching how to teach. On each level he uses a
different strategy. An explication of these different strategies follows
in this chapter.
The 1960s saw the widespread adoption in this country of early education pro¬grams aimed at counteracting the effects of poverty on human development. This article is an analysis of seven early education program studies.
The authors submit that teacher training programs must find routes that they can live with equally well in terms of a commitment to a tradition of scholarship and a belief in the ever-present child. Their experiences provided them with an environment where the reality of a teacher training program could be tested and measured against the issues of relevance, professional training, the flare of scholarship, and concern for learning.
The relevance of Dewey's thought for American education and culture
The big question it seems, is why educational research has not lived up to the promise which is often fulfilled when scientific methods are applied to a problem. Education certainly has all the necessary elements for basic scientific re¬search and its technological application. Yet the consensus of opinion holds that education has been denied its share of the rewards of scientific endeavor.
School administrators seeking teachers of art have the choice of the product of the art school, the teachers' college, or the university. It is well to recognize the differing emphases of instruction in these institutions.
The group selected for study included eighteen state universities, nineteen state teachers' colleges, and thirteen colleges and private schools.
An address delivered February 23, 1935 before Section C of the American Educational Research Association meeting in Atlantic City, N. J.
THE main purpose of Teachers College is to train for leadership in the profession of education. As one of the higher levels of vocational education, the professional school aims to fit its students for expert service in a particular field.
Ultimately, bringing school leadership into the twenty-first century will require that programs prepare principals to make hard choices relating to staffing, program effectiveness, and budgeting, while also cultivating the kinds of softer skills that will make them effective team- and bridge-builders. Such measures alone are insufficient, however. It will be equally necessary to rethink how we select leaders and reconfigure the authority they wield. Anything less is a blueprint for disappointment.
In a recent article, the author documents a startling difference between the grades that are awarded to undergraduate students in education and non-education classes at universities. Students pursuing undergraduate degrees in education, the vast majority of whom go on to work as K-12 teachers, receive significantly higher grades than students in every other academic discipline. The most probable explanation is that the high grades in education classes are the result of low grading standards. This commentary discusses how the overwhelmingly favorable grades that are awarded to education students are likely to affect the composition of the teaching workforce in K-12 schools.
Educators must become data literate to meet the increasing demands for the use of data-driven decision making in teaching and administrative roles. Schools of education can and must play a key role in improving the human capacity to use data. This Commentary explores the systemic nature of the issue and provides considerations about how to move the field forward.