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Teacher Education >> Professional Development

by Judith Schwartz — 1984
The Scarsdale Teachers Institute is an inservice program for faculty run by teachers. This article describes the goverance, collaboration, content, and evaluation of a different type of school improvement.

by H. Robinson & Kathleen Schatzberg — 1984
In this chapter, we outline a number of specific strategies that can be effectively used by secondary teachers while teaching the content of their subject areas. Since theoretical understanding is fundamental to the judicious use of these teaching approaches, we endeavor to show how theory and research in psychology, linguistics, and education support the strategies we propose.

by Norman Sprinthall & Lois Thies-Sprinthall — 1983
In this chapter, we will outline a series of recent theoretical advances that may form a promising theoretical framework for addressing the problem of teacher development from the perspective of the teacher as an adult learner. We will briefly review and critique previous conceptual frameworks. This will be followed by a brief review of recent theory and research that supports the growing importance of a cognitive-developmental viewpoint. Current theory and implications for teacher development programs will form the conclusion of the chapter.

by John Goodlad — 1983
In this chapter, I first examine the strength of this hypothesis, concluding that it can be defended only on heuristic grounds. That is, it is unproved but valuable for research. However, since proof is so elusive, especially in matters of education, and the need for educational improvement so pressing, we cannot afford to stand idle waiting for the slow accumulation of knowledge. Consequently, if strong arguments for the hypothesis can be put forward—stronger, let us say, than for extant alternatives—then we would be well advised to consider its implications for staff development. This I also attempt to do.

by Phillip Schlechty & Betty Lou Whitford — 1983
The purpose of this chapter is to illuminate some of those system-level events and larger social structures that appear to have critical effects on the way staff development and other forms of continuing education are conducted in schools.

by Kenneth Howey & Joseph Vaughn — 1983
Incidental to those changes but crucial to the expansion of staff development activities was the practice of tying both salary increments and, in more recent years, various forms of continuing certification to the completion of post-bachelor credits, usually in the form of graduate work. Another common pattern was for teachers to pursue in-service work in a district program that had received state department of education approval as an alternative or complement to graduate courses. Finally, the influence of teachers' organizations in demanding and gaining a voice through collective bargaining in the design and implementation of in-service activities has brought new emphasis to this activity.

by Judith Lanier — 1983
The first section of the chapter describes a particular staff development program and the contextual factors that tend to make the case in point unique. The second section of the chapter addresses the difficulties and problems that were encountered in the development and operation of the program and attempts to distinguish constructive from nonconstructive problems. The third and last section discusses what was learned from the experiences and compares and contrasts these learnings with some of the existing staff development literature.

by Thomas Romberg & Gary Price — 1983
We first attempt to shed light on the differing perspectives about a curriculum. Second, we will characterize curriculum innovation in terms of its effect on school life. In particular, we want to draw attention to the need to consider the culture of schools. Third, we will discuss sources of information on the diffusion of innovations, and present various theoretical models of the change process. From that discussion, we will identify some of the problems of implementing change, including those factors that make educational innovation so difficult. Fourth, based on this knowledge of planned educational change, we will offer a set of recommendations concerning the staff development needs for curriculum implementation. Finally, we will present an example from a school district that has developed a curriculum monitoring procedure that meets our recommendations.

by R. Linden Courter & Beatrice Ward — 1983
The phenomenon of change for school improvement has a direct relationship to staff development, which is what we wish to address in this chapter. First, an attempt will be made to outline the various elements that must be considered to achieve the desired staff development. Then an actual change process as it was carried out in a large urban school district will be presented for consideration.

by William Tikunoff & John Mergendoller — 1983
Our concern throughout this chapter is with developing an understanding of how engagement in the conduct of research provides rich, valuable professional growth experiences for teachers.

by Gary Griffin — 1983
This chapter advances a set of related propositions regarding the elements of staff development programs that are believed to be essential considerations for planning, implementing, and inquiring about staff development. The principal argument is that consideration of these principles and elements as conceptually related, thereby forming a whole, will promote both comprehensiveness and clarity for those people who do the work of staff development and for those people who try to understand better that work and its effects.

by Stuart Rankin — 1983
We in the schools are often asked to react to research, scholarship, and theory about education. Such is my assignment for this yearbook—to consider the utility of the ideas in the preceding chapters for school improvement involving staff development. What does all this mean for people in schools? First, a review is given to the ideas presented by others on staff development; these reactions deal largely with the participants, the content, and the processes. Second, some concerns about staff development are identified that are important for school people, and a guide for school improvement is presented that fits with the ideas on staff development in earlier chapters and with the concerns of practitioners.

by William Jenkins — 1977
The past twenty years have seen repeated attempts to improve the preservice and in-service education of teachers of the English language arts. Emphases have changed with the nation's social and cultural concerns, but the education of the teacher, like his classroom teaching, remains almost as it has been.

by Ronald Hyman — 1976
Socrates understands what his strategy is, knows its various parts, and has a keen insight about teaching it to others. Hence, he proceeds one "step" at a time in his demonstration and points out the essence of his "step by step" procedure before and after each step. By this demonstration for Meno, Socrates shows his mastery of teaching on two levels, teaching and teaching how to teach. On each level he uses a different strategy. An explication of these different strategies follows in this chapter.

by Bruce Joyce, Marsha Weil & Rhoada Wald — 1972
The practices and technologies of educating can be described in terms of models for solving curricular and instructional problems. These models constitute the technology of education and from them training programs for teachers, curriculum-makers and materials-procedures can be selected.

by Ronald Hyman — 1972
A criticism of the Tyler approach to learning which states that one must set up goals and rigidly work toward them. The author feels setting objectives restricts the curriculum; predetermined behavior should be the only acceptable kind; ends should arise from teaching activity.

by Mary Austin — 1968
The past decade has witnessed extensive inquiries into the education of teachers, including those in the field of reading. Along with these probings have come recommendations for important changes in teacher preparation. Nation-wide, there have been several conditions which have provided the impetus for re-evaluation and innovation in the professional training of reading personnel.

by G. Lester Anderson — 1962
In this introductory chapter, three facets of professional service and education for it will be discussed. First, an attempt will be made to give some idea of the dimensions of professional service- that is, how many persons at work may be said to be rendering a professional service. The quantitative dimensions of professional work should give some indication of the dimensions of professional education. The second section of this chapter deals more explicitly with the amount of professional education carried on in the United States, the character of the institutions which provide this type of education, and an approximation of the proportion of higher education which is education for the professions. Finally, a more explicit introduction to the remainder of this yearbook is presented by naming and briefly developing fifteen continuing as well as current problems of professional education-problems which all areas of education for the professions seem to share more or less in common.

by Howard Becker — 1962
The question, "What is a profession?" is an old one. Many definitions have been proposed by students of the professions. Still other definitions are implicit in everyday speech. Members of the accepted professions, interested laymen, and social scientists each use the word in their own way. Those interested in the question tend to disagree over fine points, and no agreement has been reached as to what the term specifies.

by John Brubacher — 1962
In spite of its Latin derivation, the word "profession" has come into relatively recent use. In the early eighteenth century, the essayist Addison is known to have referred to the "three professions of divinity, law, and physic." Bacon's use of the term shows it had some currency in the century before that. Perhaps the earliest known mention of the word "profession" occurs in the sixteenth century. Seeking for use of the word "profession" prior to the sixteenth century reveals the surprising fact that, though Latin in origin, no corresponding term appears in the language of the Romans-or of the Greeks, for that matter.

by William Brickman — 1962
One of the more satisfying trends in recent educational literature is the increasing study of foreign educational systems and developments. This chapter is an attempt to study one problem: education for selected professions in several foreign countries.

by George Miller — 1962
At the commencement exercises of the College of Philadelphia in May 1765, Dr. John Morgan, recently returned from a period of study at the University of Edinburgh, expressed a hope that "this medical institution, the first of its kind in America ... may ... by its example ... spread the light of knowledge through the whole American continent, wherever inhabited."

by B. Richard Teare, Jr. — 1962
Engineering education, with a definite identity as such, appears to have emerged first in France with the founding of the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in the middle of the eighteenth century. Before that time, engineers had prepared 1 for the practice of their art, which included mainly the building of roads, bridges, and water- ways, by unorganized study, and by apprenticeship. Engineering was largely practical; it had little relation to theory or to science. The Ecole Polytechnique, a renowned center of scientific teaching, was established at about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and this institution became a model for scientific and engineering schools which began to be established in the United States in rapidly growing numbers, particularly after the middle of the century. Like the French prototype, many of these were separate from universities, and most of them had a stage of preparatory scientific studies in chemistry, physics, mathematics, and descriptive geometry, which was followed by a practical stage of specialized engineering applications. There were but two recognized kinds of engineering, military and civil.

by Archibald Anderson — 1962
Teaching has long been numbered among the professional occupations. In some historical periods, the teacher was honored as a ''learned man" and accorded an appropriate status, although this may have been due less to his pedagogical activities than to his identification with some other respected occupation, such as rhetorician, philosopher, or theologian. In more recent times in the United States, as John Brubacher has pointed out in chapter iii, teaching has developed the characteristic features of a profession very slowly and is still in the process of achieving equal status with other professions.

by Richard Kozelka — 1962
From the time that man became aware of the advantages of specialization of labor, there have been opportunities for a business career. The exchange of goods and services between the specialists who shaped the commodities was soon augmented by specialists who increased the exchange value without any physical change in the product. These were the people who transported the products to better markets, stored surplus goods awaiting periods of scarcity, and facilitated the exchange process through the development of money and credit.

by John Darley — 1962
Part of the confusion in assigning a professional function to the graduate program stems from the many definitions relating to the idea or concept of profession in our society. In addition to the variety of dictionary meanings, the term carries also prestige and status and "closed corporation" symbolism that in some way is felt to conflict with the presumed freedom arid openness of academic values. Becker, in the second chapter of this volume, deals with this issue in the framework of sociological thought. Suffice it to say that graduate education cannot escape the many pressures placed upon it by countless groups jn our society for intensive training in an increasing number of specialized subjects.

by Paul Heist — 1962
The student, seen as an individual or as a group member, has in recent years been re-established as an important segment in the educational realm. The reawakened cognizance of the student, an emphasis following the last World War, has gone through a transition from centering in "Who should go to college?" to "Who should go where and for what?" Some writers have noted a trend toward greater concern and understanding through extended use of improved psychological measurement.

by G. Lester Anderson & Merton Ertell — 1962
Undoubtedly the most powerful forces molding professional education are those of history and tradition. A summary of this history has been presented by Brubacher in chapter ii. If one were not to use the dignified words "history" and "tradition," he might use the words "past practices." One may well inquire why many things are as they are. Why, for example, is engineering education basically undergraduate while education for social work, at least the recognized variety, is graduate? Or, why does the basic study for law culminate with a baccalaureate degree, social work with a master's degree, and dentistry with a doctorate? There are, of course, historical justifications for past practices which continue as present practices. But many such practices are often only the result of inertia.

by T. R. McConnell, G. Lester Anderson & Pauline Hunter — 1962
The co-optation of the professional schools by the university, it was pointed out in chapter i, has almost been completed. In addition to incorporating independent professional institutions, the university has spawned a large number of specialized schools and colleges for education in what might be called the junior professions. Thus, schools of education, business administration, social work, criminology, and still others are striving for status and greater autonomy in the modem university.

by Earl McGrath — 1962
Consideration of the ideal education for the professional man 1 should begin with some recognition of the meaning of the term profession. Those who have studied the matter most thoroughly have been unable to arrive at a decisive and generally acceptable definition of the essential characteristics of a profession. In chapter ii, however, Becker has reviewed the classic statements on this matter. In his view, the application of the criteria of "professional status" to the occupations for which institutions of higher education provide the necessary preparatory instruction discloses that some meet the standards in considerable measure while others do so to a more limited degree.

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    Published by the American Educational Research Association, the Educational Researcher features section publishes manuscripts that report, synthesize, review, or analyze scholarly inquiry, especially manuscripts that focus on the interpretation, implication, or significance of R&D work in education, and manuscripts that examine developments important to the R&D field.
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