In this chapter, we outline a number of specific strategies that can be effectively used by secondary teachers while teaching the content of
their subject areas. Since theoretical understanding is fundamental to
the judicious use of these teaching approaches, we endeavor to show
how theory and research in psychology, linguistics, and education
support the strategies we propose.
In this chapter, we will outline a series of
recent theoretical advances that may form a promising theoretical
framework for addressing the problem of teacher development from
the perspective of the teacher as an adult learner. We will briefly
review and critique previous conceptual frameworks. This will be
followed by a brief review of recent theory and research that supports
the growing importance of a cognitive-developmental viewpoint.
Current theory and implications for teacher development programs
will form the conclusion of the chapter.
In this chapter, I first examine the strength of this hypothesis,
concluding that it can be defended only on heuristic grounds. That is,
it is unproved but valuable for research. However, since proof is so
elusive, especially in matters of education, and the need for educational
improvement so pressing, we cannot afford to stand idle waiting for
the slow accumulation of knowledge. Consequently, if strong arguments
for the hypothesis can be put forward—stronger, let us say, than
for extant alternatives—then we would be well advised to consider its
implications for staff development. This I also attempt to do.
The purpose of this chapter is to illuminate some of those system-level
events and larger social structures that appear to have critical
effects on the way staff development and other forms of continuing
education are conducted in schools.
Incidental to those changes but crucial to the expansion of staff
development activities was the practice of tying both salary increments
and, in more recent years, various forms of continuing certification to
the completion of post-bachelor credits, usually in the form of graduate
work. Another common pattern was for teachers to pursue in-service
work in a district program that had received state department of
education approval as an alternative or complement to graduate
courses. Finally, the influence of teachers' organizations in demanding
and gaining a voice through collective bargaining in the design and
implementation of in-service activities has brought new emphasis to
The first section of the chapter describes a particular staff
development program and the contextual factors that tend to make the
case in point unique. The second section of the chapter addresses the
difficulties and problems that were encountered in the development
and operation of the program and attempts to distinguish constructive
from nonconstructive problems. The third and last section discusses
what was learned from the experiences and compares and contrasts
these learnings with some of the existing staff development literature.
We first attempt to shed light on the differing
perspectives about a curriculum. Second, we will characterize curriculum
innovation in terms of its effect on school life. In particular, we
want to draw attention to the need to consider the culture of schools.
Third, we will discuss sources of information on the diffusion of
innovations, and present various theoretical models of the change
process. From that discussion, we will identify some of the problems
of implementing change, including those factors that make educational
innovation so difficult. Fourth, based on this knowledge of planned
educational change, we will offer a set of recommendations concerning
the staff development needs for curriculum implementation. Finally,
we will present an example from a school district that has developed a
curriculum monitoring procedure that meets our recommendations.
The phenomenon of change for
school improvement has a direct relationship to staff development, which is what we wish to address in this
chapter. First, an attempt will be made to outline the various elements
that must be considered to achieve the desired staff development. Then
an actual change process as it was carried out in a large urban school
district will be presented for consideration.
Our concern throughout this chapter
is with developing an understanding of how engagement in the
conduct of research provides rich, valuable professional growth experiences
This chapter advances a set of related propositions regarding the
elements of staff development programs that are believed to be
essential considerations for planning, implementing, and inquiring
about staff development. The principal argument is that consideration
of these principles and elements as conceptually related, thereby
forming a whole, will promote both comprehensiveness and clarity for
those people who do the work of staff development and for those
people who try to understand better that work and its effects.
We in the schools are often asked to react to research,
scholarship, and theory about education. Such is my assignment for
this yearbook—to consider the utility of the ideas in the preceding
chapters for school improvement involving staff development. What
does all this mean for people in schools?
First, a review is given to the ideas presented by others on staff
development; these reactions deal largely with the participants, the
content, and the processes. Second, some concerns about staff development
are identified that are important for school people, and a guide
for school improvement is presented that fits with the ideas on staff
development in earlier chapters and with the concerns of practitioners.
The past twenty years have seen repeated attempts to improve
the preservice and in-service education of teachers of the English
language arts. Emphases have changed with the nation's social and
cultural concerns, but the education of the teacher, like his classroom
teaching, remains almost as it has been.
Socrates understands what his strategy is, knows its various parts,
and has a keen insight about teaching it to others. Hence, he proceeds
one "step" at a time in his demonstration and points out the essence of
his "step by step" procedure before and after each step. By this
demonstration for Meno, Socrates shows his mastery of teaching on
two levels, teaching and teaching how to teach. On each level he uses a
different strategy. An explication of these different strategies follows
in this chapter.
The practices and technologies of educating can be described in terms of models for solving curricular and instructional problems. These models constitute the technology of education and from them training programs for teachers, curriculum-makers and materials-procedures can be selected.
A criticism of the Tyler approach to learning which states that one must set up goals and rigidly work toward them. The author feels setting objectives restricts the curriculum; predetermined behavior should be the only acceptable kind; ends should arise from teaching activity.
The past decade has witnessed extensive inquiries into the education
of teachers, including those in the field of reading. Along
with these probings have come recommendations for important
changes in teacher preparation. Nation-wide, there have been several
conditions which have provided the impetus for re-evaluation and
innovation in the professional training of reading personnel.
In this introductory chapter, three facets of professional service and education for it will be discussed. First, an attempt will be made to give some idea of the dimensions of professional service- that is, how many persons at work may be said to be rendering a professional service. The quantitative dimensions of professional work should give some indication of the dimensions of professional education. The second section of this chapter deals more explicitly with the amount of professional education carried on in the United States, the character of the institutions which provide this type of education, and an approximation of the proportion of higher education which is education for the professions. Finally, a more explicit introduction to the remainder of this yearbook is presented by naming and briefly developing fifteen continuing as well as current problems of professional education-problems which all areas of education for the professions seem to share more or less in common.
The question, "What is a profession?" is an old one. Many definitions have been proposed by students of the professions. Still other definitions are implicit in everyday speech. Members of the accepted professions, interested laymen, and social scientists each use the word in their own way. Those interested in the question tend to disagree over fine points, and no agreement has been reached
as to what the term specifies.
In spite of its Latin derivation, the word "profession" has come into relatively recent use. In the early eighteenth century, the essayist Addison is known to have referred to the "three professions of divinity, law, and physic." Bacon's use of the term shows it had some currency in the century before that. Perhaps the earliest known mention of the word "profession" occurs in the sixteenth century. Seeking for use of the word "profession" prior to the sixteenth century reveals the surprising fact that, though Latin in origin, no corresponding term appears in the language of the Romans-or of the Greeks, for that matter.
One of the more satisfying trends in recent educational literature is the increasing study of foreign educational systems and developments. This chapter is an attempt to study one problem: education for selected professions in several foreign countries.
At the commencement exercises of the College of Philadelphia in May 1765, Dr. John Morgan, recently returned from a period of study at the University of Edinburgh, expressed a hope that "this medical institution, the first of its kind in America ... may ... by its example ... spread the light of knowledge through the whole American continent, wherever inhabited."
Engineering education, with a definite identity as such, appears to have emerged first in France with the founding of the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in the middle of the eighteenth century. Before that time, engineers had prepared 1 for the practice of their art, which included mainly the building of roads, bridges, and water- ways, by unorganized study, and by apprenticeship. Engineering was largely practical; it had little relation to theory or to science. The Ecole Polytechnique, a renowned center of scientific teaching, was established at about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and this institution became a model for scientific and engineering schools which began to be established in the United States in rapidly growing numbers, particularly after the middle of the century. Like the French prototype, many of these were separate from universities, and most of them had a stage of preparatory scientific studies in chemistry, physics, mathematics, and descriptive geometry, which was followed by a practical stage of specialized engineering applications. There were but two recognized kinds of engineering, military and civil.
Teaching has long been numbered among the professional occupations. In some historical periods, the teacher was honored as a ''learned man" and accorded an appropriate status, although this may have been due less to his pedagogical activities than to his identification with some other respected occupation, such as rhetorician, philosopher, or theologian. In more recent times in the United States, as John Brubacher has pointed out in chapter iii, teaching has developed the characteristic features of a profession very slowly and is still in the process of achieving equal status with other professions.
From the time that man became aware of the advantages of specialization of labor, there have been opportunities for a business career. The exchange of goods and services between the specialists who shaped the commodities was soon augmented by specialists who increased the exchange value without any physical change in the product. These were the people who transported the products to better markets, stored surplus goods awaiting periods of scarcity, and facilitated the exchange process through the development of money and credit.
Part of the confusion in assigning a professional function to the graduate program stems from the many definitions relating to the idea or concept of profession in our society. In addition to the variety of dictionary meanings, the term carries also prestige and status and "closed corporation" symbolism that in some way is felt to conflict with the presumed freedom arid openness of academic values. Becker, in the second chapter of this volume, deals with this issue in the framework of sociological thought. Suffice it to say that graduate education cannot escape the many pressures placed upon it by countless groups jn our society for intensive training in an increasing number of specialized subjects.
The student, seen as an individual or as a group member, has in recent years been re-established as an important segment in the educational realm. The reawakened cognizance of the student, an emphasis following the last World War, has gone through a transition from centering in "Who should go to college?" to "Who should go where and for what?" Some writers have noted a trend toward greater concern and understanding through extended use of improved psychological measurement.
Undoubtedly the most powerful forces molding professional education are those of history and tradition. A summary of this history has been presented by Brubacher in chapter ii. If one were not to use the dignified words "history" and "tradition," he might use the words "past practices." One may well inquire why many things are as they are. Why, for example, is engineering education basically undergraduate while education for social work, at least the recognized variety, is graduate? Or, why does the basic study for law culminate with a baccalaureate degree, social work with a master's degree, and dentistry with a doctorate? There are, of course, historical justifications for past practices which continue as present practices. But many such practices are often only the result of inertia.
The co-optation of the professional schools by the university, it was pointed out in chapter i, has almost been completed. In addition to incorporating independent professional institutions, the university has spawned a large number of specialized schools and colleges for education in what might be called the junior professions. Thus, schools of education, business administration, social work, criminology, and still others are striving for status and greater autonomy in the modem university.
Consideration of the ideal education for the professional man 1 should begin with some recognition of the meaning of the term profession. Those who have studied the matter most thoroughly have been unable to arrive at a decisive and generally acceptable definition of the essential characteristics of a profession. In chapter ii, however, Becker has reviewed the classic statements on this matter. In his view, the application of the criteria of "professional status" to the occupations for which institutions of higher education provide the necessary preparatory instruction discloses that some meet the standards in considerable measure while others do so to a more limited degree.
Nearly everybody works and plays with children at some time
in his adult life. The young of the species seem to be everywhere,
and as time goes on they enter into more and more adult activities.
Parents and policemen, teachers and preachers must all deal with children
and participate in rearing them. Yet, until recently, there have
been few formal opportunities for adolescents or young adults to
learn what children are like and how they may be dealt with constructively.