Informal, out-of-school education encompasses a variety of programs existing alongside the founding and growth of public schools. This chapter explores the history of the institutionalization of informal, out-of-school education, including programs offered by religious institutions, social service organizations, cultural institutions, special interest organizations, the media and universities. Access to these programs is neither uniformly offered nor guaranteed, a situation that potentially exacerbates existent inequities.
The article examines three schools and explores their governance, organization, finance, ownership, and admissions, characteristics the research literature indicates distinguish public from private schools. The authors demonstrate that there are emerging forms of school organization that are neither clearly public nor private, but of a third hybred type, or quasi-public organization.
Describes teacher certification in private schools, noting tension between private schools and state regulations. This article examines experiences with and reactions to state standards by Vermont and Michigan private schools. It discusses alternative teacher certification, alternative student assessment, and teacher professionalism as means of coping with the public-private split.
The reputation of private independent schools began improving as Americans started believing that public schools were not living up to their expectations.
The future of independent schools lies in how well they perform in the areas where they are unique.
Consideration of the characteristics that distinguish independent schools from public and other private schools.
Discusses how private schools differ from public schools, noting how private schools create meaning via cultural attributes and suggesting potential pitfalls in eschewing tradition in response to external pressures. Private schools must understand the balance between tradition and innovation to avoid losing their roots or becoming obsolete.
This paper argues that racelessness is a concept that symbolizes efforts to deconstuct historically constituted relationships between African-Americans and whites, including intrusion into the notion of academic adequacy and African-American students' enrollment in private schools. The paper discusses implications of racelessness for African-American students' school performance in private school contexts.
Results of a systematic and direct attempt to locate and study private schools in the United States are reported. Considerable effort was spent searching out non-Catholic schools not identified in other surveys. Rapid growth of these schools is discussed, as are implications for public education.
The author reviews literature on independent schools. This literature is small compared with its English counterpart, but sufficiently large, sufficiently unknown, and of enough quality and relevance to merit an examination.