While recognizing that instructional scaffolding in a whole-class context can engage students’ learning as they move through individual zone of proximal developments (ZPDs), in this chapter, we argue that instructional scaffolding also can collectively engage a class through a shared ZPD when participant structures and discourse practices provide for coparticipation and alter traditional notions of teacher support and shared responsibility. A case study of a chemistry classroom is presented to substantiate this argument and illustrate how instructional scaffolding can be used as a support for collective engagement.
This document-based historical study focuses on history/social studies teacher education in the decades immediately preceding and following the National Education Association’s landmark report, The Social Studies in Secondary Education, which commonly is credited with establishing social studies as a school subject. The article interrogates how teacher preparation programs contributed and/or responded (or not) to this curriculum reform and to what effect.
This chapter describes a partnership with four urban districts that aimed to develop an empirically grounded theory of action for improving the quality of mathematics instruction at scale. Each year, we conducted a data collection, analysis, and feedback cycle in each district that involved documenting the district’s improvement strategies, collecting and analyzing data to assess how these strategies were being implemented, reporting the findings to the district, and making recommendations about how the strategies might be revised. We distinguish between two distinct levels
Productive adaptations at the classroom level are evidence-based curriculum adaptations that are responsive to the demands of a particular classroom context and still consistent with the core design principles and intentions of a curriculum intervention. The model of design-based implementation research (DBIR) offers insights into complexities and challenges of enacting productive curriculum adaptations. We draw from empirical research in mathematics and science classrooms to illustrate criteria for productive adaptations. From these examples, we identify resources needed to encourage and sustain practices to promote productive adaptations in classrooms.
The article describes a theory of action that led to the development of seven 1½-hour in-service workshops focused on helping teachers to teach rational numbers to students. Students from diverse SES schools were tested pre and post, and the resulting effect sizes indicate students made notable gains in their understanding and proficiency with rational numbers.
This paper examines the lesson planning process, a neglected area of study, and puts forward a perceptual or arts-based approach that focuses on the engaged experience of the teacher.
This paper presents two years of analysis of a professional development effort in an urban district in Arizona in the wake of policy requirements to track students by language proficiency level, mandate four hours of English Language Development each day, and focus on teaching grammatical structures. The professional development focused on Cognitively Guided Instruction, which centers mathematics instruction on the informal knowledge students bring with them to schooling to build meaning, sophistication, and understanding of the mathematics. Results indicate that before the policy, professional development produced more teacher experimentation than after.
This article addresses the potential impact of the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2009) Supreme Court ruling and the influence of the documentary form on democratic education. The author calls for critical media education to be a core tenet of democratic education in order to prepare citizens for the 21st century.
This article outlines the research questions that organize the two cases that are at the heart of this special issue, introduces the theoretical perspectives behind the project from which the cases are drawn, and describes the selection procedures for the data corpus from which the articles in the issue were developed. It also explains the interrelationships among the six pieces in the issue. In doing so, the article problematizes contemporary discourse about urban education and presents an argument for what might be learned from the practices of well-respected African American teachers of high school mathematics in large, nonselective urban schools.
This article focuses on a well-respected young Black male algebra teacher in an urban high school whose practice differs from that of many of his colleagues in one regular feature of classroom interaction, what the authors have come to call “speeches.” This article lays out examples of the speeches and, using themes from the literature on culturally relevant classroom management, illustrates how these themes are regularly present throughout the speeches and capture the stance this teacher takes in his interactions with students. The cultural resources that this young teacher brings to his practice challenge educational researchers to conceptualize the role of such resources in teaching and teacher educators to consider the recruitment of teachers who have such resources, as well as how to teach prospective teachers to develop and utilize such resources in their teaching.
This article offers a case study of the practice of one well-respected African American algebra teacher in an urban high school. This teacher’s practice differs from that of many of her colleagues in its departure from the pacing and order of the district curriculum guide in search of an experience of coherence and meaning for her students. The article explores her reasons for making such decisions and the beliefs and knowledge that allow her to do so; some of her beliefs and motives seem to be rooted in her own experiences as an African American student, experiences that serve as a resource in her teaching.
This article explores the work of two African American mathematics teachers, Madison Morgan and Floyd Lee, for the purposes of illuminating our collective understanding of the resources and perspectives African American teachers may access in the context of the teaching and learning of mathematics. Through the use of dimensions of students’ mathematics identity development and teachers’ socialization practices as analytic frames, we present an analysis of aspects of the two teachers’ perspectives on teaching mathematics and classroom practices and discuss considerations when approaching conducting research on interactions between African American mathematics teachers and their African American students. We conclude this article with a framework through which we might consider the work of all mathematics teachers as they engage in the work of socializing their students toward (or away from) seeing themselves as competent, capable mathematics learners.
Calls to increase the number of minority teachers in U.S. schools are plentiful, yet the basis for these calls is underspecified and undertheorized. In an effort to better understand the role of race and context in teacher–student interactions, this article considers the African American mathematics teacher as both historical figure and conceptual construct. The authors discuss the importance of examining the role, responsibilities, and work of African American teachers in an academic domain-specific context, namely mathematics. After a brief overview of what the literature reports African American teachers in general bring to their practice, the authors examine and discuss intersections of intertwining historical timelines for the purposes of raising questions about the role and responsibilities of African American mathematics teachers across time. The article concludes with a challenge for researchers to interrogate, challenge, critique, and build on conceptualizations of the African American mathematics teacher as an entity that represents a unique confluence of experiences, perspectives, dispositions, and knowledge domains critical to the education of all students.
In this commentary, we discuss the lessons we learned from case studies of two African American mathematics teachers, thereby endorsing the claim made by the contributors to this special issue that the insights they gained are not restricted to mathematics teaching in nonselective urban schools but can also inform the field more generally. We then focus on differences in the two teachers’ goals for students’ mathematical learning and clarify that they were consequential and constrained the types of purposes that the teachers could convey to their students for engaging in mathematical activity. We go on to argue that high expectations for all students’ learning are not by themselves sufficient for their development of mathematical proficiency and discuss the importance of supporting teachers’ development of specific instructional practices that enable their students to meet those expectations. Finally, we suggest that it is critical to situate the ways in which teachers draw on their cultural resources with respect to the school and district settings in which they work and in which they refine and elaborate their instructional practices.
This article examines the effects of individual- and institutional-level factors across secondary and postsecondary contexts on students’ likelihood of majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in college.
In mathematics education and beyond, various “cultural” arguments have been used to explain teachers’ resistance to change, yet these meanings of culture are often conflated. This article uses three distinct conceptions of culture—individual, interactional, and collective—to analyze the practice of one experienced mathematics teacher.
It is important that content specialists have induction programs that are tailored to their needs, given that content knowledge is important during instruction. Unfortunately, most content specialists (including science teachers) don't experience content-focused induction programs. In an effort to illuminate the need for this type of induction program, this chapter provides an overview of the programs and research that the author has conducted with beginning secondary teachers.
This study examines the perspectives of 8 exemplary African American elementary teachers toward science homework.
We document that caring elementary school teachers spark Hispanic student self-perception of math ability, which in turn increases Hispanic student performance on the California Standards Test for Mathematics. Caring especially impacts math performance among Spanish-dominant English learners, who constitute the fastest growing segment of California’s K–12 student population.
This article addresses ongoing political and epistemological tensions within the field of curriculum studies through the development of a conceptual framework the author calls “curricular standpoint,” a framework that itself is an extension critical of feminists’ standpoint theory.
This chapter seeks to draw needed attention to some of
music’s social and political meanings by way of illustrating how it contributes to the shaping of people’s perceptions and understandings of their world.
This chapter argues for the critical engagement of the music education
profession to amplify positive change. This is a pragmatic view of technological
change (Hickman, 2001; Waddington, 2010) that emphasizes
agency within the interplay of wants, needs, values, and practices as people
change and are changed by technological innovation.
The rationale for an education in and through music that this chapter
provides is centered on place, arguing that it can offer a rupture in persistently
reproductive patterns within education. It does so by considering
place as an influential construct in the development of our capacities for
This chapter frames issues of adult music learning within a lifespan perspective. A lifespan perspective
does not segment adult music education into a specialized practice
of highly differentiated strategies from those of childhood; rather, it
envisions seamless relationships among music learning in educational
settings, people’s self-initiated lifelong music experiences outside such
settings, and the assurance of richly diverse and developmentally appropriate opportunities for continued music learning through adulthood.
The key issues that challenge collegiate music education programs reviewed in this chapter include changing demographics and tastes in music; transformation of the music industry; new technologies that alter the way people interact, access information, and engage musically;
cultural and financial changes in higher education; changing
expectations for primary and secondary schools; and nonschool providers of music education services.
This chapter aims to introduce a critical reflection on the field of music
education in higher education, using the Bologna Declaration and the
European context as a backdrop.
In this chapter, I share my thoughts regarding the future role of popular
music in music education at a moment when there seems to be greater
receptiveness to this idea than ever before.
It is the goal and the purpose on which the utopia is based that merit
attention. As such, in this chapter, I engage in what Gilroy (in Shelby & Gilroy, 2008) referred to as a “utopian exercise” in order to think
through our3 “romance with” (p. 134) music as “part of the core curriculum” and as “balanced, comprehensive, and sequential” (National Association for Music Education [NAfME], 2011b).
This chapter takes into account and discusses innovative learning in the
21st digital and communicative century based on life-world-phenomenology
and Hannah Arendt’s view of democracy. From this point of view, we
address and discuss how democratic practices can offer innovative musical
learning in relation to what is taking place in research and educational
projects in Sweden and the Nordic countries.
In this chapter, I will argue that (1) mediation is one of the most important aspects of digital artistry and that (2) the pedagogical implications of recognizing this are significant concerns to music educators (see also Väkevä, 2006, 2009, 2010).