This research evaluates whether English Language Learner (ELL) classmates are associated with the social skills outcomes of students with disabilities in kindergarten. Using a national large-scale sample of kindergarten students, the results show that having a greater number of ELL classmates has a positive effect on the social skills outcomes for students with disabilities.
This study constitutes the secondary analysis of data collected as part of classroom instruction in a prior practitioner inquiry study. Consequently, IRB approval, parental consent, and participant assent for the present study were obtained after the conclusion of the original study.
Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade’s worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves—and how remarkably similar the Common Core ideals are to what kids say they want and need to learn best.
This study examines the influence of high school exposure to basic science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses, high school exposure to STEM-related environment and activities, high school quantity of exposure to precollege STEM classes, and the quality of the latter for a sample of college-bound North Carolina students’ intent to major in STEM and likelihood of declaring a STEM major.
This article explores portrayals of social class in international, translated literature for children. The authors outline a framework for analyzing class in children’s literature and suggest that books with global origins may provide complex and realistic images of issues related to class.
The authors of this study examined how attitudes toward reading mediated the relationships between Korean adolescents’ reading environments and reading behaviors, using a nationally representative sample from the PISA 2009 database. Gender, home literacy resources, parents’ reading attitude, and parental support for reading were all significant predictors of Korean adolescents’ reading attitude.
Because metacognitive knowledge includes knowledge about adequate learning strategies, and an effective use of learning strategies is associated with higher levels of performance, substantial relationships can be assumed between metacognitive knowledge, strategic behavior, and performance. The discussion considers the validity of metacognition indicators (knowledge and strategy use) and practical implications of the findings.
The chapter explores the space–time configuration of youth-voice driven science practices outside of school that are part of an emergent field of study known as informal science education (ISE). Education is an emergent phenomenon grounded in a relational geography of youths’ complex space–time configurations. A focus on youths’ mobilities offers new insights into the manner youth contribute to their own learning and becoming.
Our purpose is to enrich current conceptualizations of autonomy support that remain constrained by the context of study and by the limited available descriptions of teacher enactment. Toward this end, we richly describe teachers’ provision of academically significant autonomy support within an inquiry-based science curricular context to incorporate higher quality differentiations.
This study examines the relationship between applied STEM coursetaking (i.e., ‘scientific research & engineering’ and ‘information technology’) in high school and standardized math achievement. Using longitudinal data from a nationally-representative cohort of high school students, this study tests the effect of enrolling in applied STEM courses conditional on pipeline placement in traditional academic math courses, with the former emphasizing the application of concepts taught in the latter to specific occupational settings. Fixed effects regression analyses reveal that applied STEM courses have a statistically significant, but substantively small positive effect on math test scores. Students who fall lower on the math ability pipeline (i.e., who take only below average math courses like basic math and pre-Algebra) benefit much more from applied STEM courses than do students who take more advanced courses.
This article presents findings from a research study to determine predictors of elementary-school teachers’ use of research-based instructional strategies with English Language Learners.
This study examines the empirical link between teachers’ perceptions of principal support for change and teachers’ reports of the degree of collaboration and communication with one another around literacy in Reading First schools. Multilevel analyses showed a significant and positive association between principal support for change and the degree of collaboration and communication.
This chapter examines how the three most common types of engagement found among adolescents attending high-performing high schools relate to indicators of mental and physical health.
This chapter describes an empirical study that tests the motivational and learning effects of an intervention designed to initiate and sustain interest and engagement in high school biology classrooms. Positive effects were demonstrated for conceptual understanding, vocabulary acquisition, and perceptions of the learning experiences.
This chapter highlights the fit between youth-development-oriented programming and informal science activities in out-of-school time (OST) and illustrates how science and youth development can and should co-occur. The clover model and Dimensions of Success tool are introduced as lenses for designing and assessing science program quality in OST.
This chapter describes an after-school visual and performing arts program serving middle and high school youth operated in partnership between a community-based organization and two schools in Brooklyn, New York. Data collected on the program provides evidence of participants’ identity exploration and development of positive relationships and social competencies.
The synthesis of the current literature presented in this paper provides an important starting point for identifying the knowledge that regular classroom teachers will need to develop in order to address the learning needs of their ELL students. The paper identifies Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge (DLK) as a specialized knowledge base needed by teachers and teacher educators and proposes that DLK be required in order to model for ELLs how language is used to communicate meaning and to engage them in disciplinary discourse.
While recognizing that instructional scaffolding in a whole-class context can engage students’ learning as they move through individual zone of proximal developments (ZPDs), in this chapter, we argue that instructional scaffolding also can collectively engage a class through a shared ZPD when participant structures and discourse practices provide for coparticipation and alter traditional notions of teacher support and shared responsibility. A case study of a chemistry classroom is presented to substantiate this argument and illustrate how instructional scaffolding can be used as a support for collective engagement.
This document-based historical study focuses on history/social studies teacher education in the decades immediately preceding and following the National Education Association’s landmark report, The Social Studies in Secondary Education, which commonly is credited with establishing social studies as a school subject. The article interrogates how teacher preparation programs contributed and/or responded (or not) to this curriculum reform and to what effect.
This chapter describes a partnership with four urban districts that aimed to develop an empirically grounded theory of action for improving the quality of mathematics instruction at scale. Each year, we conducted a data collection, analysis, and feedback cycle in each district that involved documenting the district’s improvement strategies, collecting and analyzing data to assess how these strategies were being implemented, reporting the findings to the district, and making recommendations about how the strategies might be revised. We distinguish between two distinct levels
Productive adaptations at the classroom level are evidence-based curriculum adaptations that are responsive to the demands of a particular classroom context and still consistent with the core design principles and intentions of a curriculum intervention. The model of design-based implementation research (DBIR) offers insights into complexities and challenges of enacting productive curriculum adaptations. We draw from empirical research in mathematics and science classrooms to illustrate criteria for productive adaptations. From these examples, we identify resources needed to encourage and sustain practices to promote productive adaptations in classrooms.
The article describes a theory of action that led to the development of seven 1˝-hour in-service workshops focused on helping teachers to teach rational numbers to students. Students from diverse SES schools were tested pre and post, and the resulting effect sizes indicate students made notable gains in their understanding and proficiency with rational numbers.
This paper examines the lesson planning process, a neglected area of study, and puts forward a perceptual or arts-based approach that focuses on the engaged experience of the teacher.
This paper presents two years of analysis of a professional development effort in an urban district in Arizona in the wake of policy requirements to track students by language proficiency level, mandate four hours of English Language Development each day, and focus on teaching grammatical structures. The professional development focused on Cognitively Guided Instruction, which centers mathematics instruction on the informal knowledge students bring with them to schooling to build meaning, sophistication, and understanding of the mathematics. Results indicate that before the policy, professional development produced more teacher experimentation than after.
This article addresses the potential impact of the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2009) Supreme Court ruling and the influence of the documentary form on democratic education. The author calls for critical media education to be a core tenet of democratic education in order to prepare citizens for the 21st century.
This article outlines the research questions that organize the two cases that are at the heart of this special issue, introduces the theoretical perspectives behind the project from which the cases are drawn, and describes the selection procedures for the data corpus from which the articles in the issue were developed. It also explains the interrelationships among the six pieces in the issue. In doing so, the article problematizes contemporary discourse about urban education and presents an argument for what might be learned from the practices of well-respected African American teachers of high school mathematics in large, nonselective urban schools.
This article focuses on a well-respected young Black male algebra teacher in an urban high school whose practice differs from that of many of his colleagues in one regular feature of classroom interaction, what the authors have come to call “speeches.” This article lays out examples of the speeches and, using themes from the literature on culturally relevant classroom management, illustrates how these themes are regularly present throughout the speeches and capture the stance this teacher takes in his interactions with students. The cultural resources that this young teacher brings to his practice challenge educational researchers to conceptualize the role of such resources in teaching and teacher educators to consider the recruitment of teachers who have such resources, as well as how to teach prospective teachers to develop and utilize such resources in their teaching.
This article offers a case study of the practice of one well-respected African American algebra teacher in an urban high school. This teacher’s practice differs from that of many of her colleagues in its departure from the pacing and order of the district curriculum guide in search of an experience of coherence and meaning for her students. The article explores her reasons for making such decisions and the beliefs and knowledge that allow her to do so; some of her beliefs and motives seem to be rooted in her own experiences as an African American student, experiences that serve as a resource in her teaching.
This article explores the work of two African American mathematics teachers, Madison Morgan and Floyd Lee, for the purposes of illuminating our collective understanding of the resources and perspectives African American teachers may access in the context of the teaching and learning of mathematics. Through the use of dimensions of students’ mathematics identity development and teachers’ socialization practices as analytic frames, we present an analysis of aspects of the two teachers’ perspectives on teaching mathematics and classroom practices and discuss considerations when approaching conducting research on interactions between African American mathematics teachers and their African American students. We conclude this article with a framework through which we might consider the work of all mathematics teachers as they engage in the work of socializing their students toward (or away from) seeing themselves as competent, capable mathematics learners.
Calls to increase the number of minority teachers in U.S. schools are plentiful, yet the basis for these calls is underspecified and undertheorized. In an effort to better understand the role of race and context in teacher–student interactions, this article considers the African American mathematics teacher as both historical figure and conceptual construct. The authors discuss the importance of examining the role, responsibilities, and work of African American teachers in an academic domain-specific context, namely mathematics. After a brief overview of what the literature reports African American teachers in general bring to their practice, the authors examine and discuss intersections of intertwining historical timelines for the purposes of raising questions about the role and responsibilities of African American mathematics teachers across time. The article concludes with a challenge for researchers to interrogate, challenge, critique, and build on conceptualizations of the African American mathematics teacher as an entity that represents a unique confluence of experiences, perspectives, dispositions, and knowledge domains critical to the education of all students.