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Policy >> Standards

Articles
by Maxine Greene — 1989
Taking plurality, multiplicity, and community into account in establishing standards

by Chester Finn Jr. — 1989
An argument is presented for a common core of basics for all students. In addition, national standards are considered within the contexts of a pluralistic society and societal goals. Costs and benefits of adopting national standards are examined in light of the experiences of other countries with centralized educational policies.

by Samuel Bacharach & Sharon Conley — 1987
This paper explores from an organizational theory point of view issues related to standards for entry into teaching, differential staffing models, and school management. The focus is on the central issue of control versus autonomy in the organizational structure of schools.

by Bruce Kimball — 1986
The author questions whether the tension between what is "liberal" and what is "useful" is one of the oldest problems in education.

by John Fischer — 1973

by David Abramson — 1972
Study compared subject requirements for college admission with those for ongoing study in the corresponding subjects reflected in the college liberal arts program''; author concludes that colleges have arbitrarily determined high school curriculum, and urges reform.

by Christopher Lucas — 1972
This article discusses the necessity for upgrading the quality of teacher preparation.

by Sidney Marland — 1972
To obtain an accurate picture of education in this country, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, suggests we use all available technology and work systematically. The outcome, he feels, would be new methods, materials, and techniques, and new ways to motivate young people and define objectives.

by Vito Perrone & Warren Strandberg — 1972
With the decline of public confidence in our schools has come a plethora of devastating critiques. Serious discussion of alternatives such as voucher plans, free schools, and de-schooling has grown enormously. A decade of promise in which billions of dollars were expended for education has born limited fruit for Americans. Too many schools have failed, not only to assist children in their learning of basic skills, but also to provide a vision of a humane and sensitive life.

by Robert Nash & Russell Agne — 1972
Instead of acquiring basic skills, an appreciation of learning, and developing citizens who can evaluate and communicate with their environment, the author feels accountability is promoting the technocratic value system.

by Ernest House — 1972
The author discusses teachers' and school board opinions of being evaluated and their initial hostile reaction to the process. At the termination of the evaluation, most teachers and boards come to realize its value.

by Bruce Joyce, Marsha Weil & Rhoada Wald — 1972
The practices and technologies of educating can be described in terms of models for solving curricular and instructional problems. These models constitute the technology of education and from them training programs for teachers, curriculum-makers and materials-procedures can be selected.

by Ronald Hyman — 1972
A criticism of the Tyler approach to learning which states that one must set up goals and rigidly work toward them. The author feels setting objectives restricts the curriculum; predetermined behavior should be the only acceptable kind; ends should arise from teaching activity.

by A. Larkins & James Shaver — 1972
The research design commonly used by educational researchers is not inappropriate for evaluative research. But narrow or rigid adherence to traditional experimental design can lead to inadequate curricular evaluation.

by Frank Jennigns — 1972

by Lawrence Cremin — 1971
In its very nature, the term “curriculum” carries a variety of connotations, such as coherence, sequence, and articulation, for a course of any kind has a beginning, a middle, and an end. But interest in these values long antedates the term itself, going back to at least the time of Sophists and perhaps even earlier.

by Ralph Goldman, William Weber & Harold Noah — 1971
Two fairly speculative models presented in this paper illustrate some less restrictive techniques of economic model-building. The first model is the micro-economic type. It suggests that if a school district wishes to maximize student learning, there may exist an optimal teacher salary-level it should pay, given the student ability to learn, the distribution of abilities in the population of teachers currently "in-the-market," and certain other conditions of supply and demand. The second model is macro-socioeconomic, and suggests possible relationships among higher education curriculum, economic and technological change, and social change.

by Sidney Forman — 1971
Criteria for teacher accreditation are discussed.

by George Eastman — 1970
Our technological society demands new legislation to restrain people and groups from causing injury to others.

by R. Whitfield & J. Kerr — 1970
The author states that we need to evaluate most carefully our assumptions about when to introduce particular topics and how concepts and information can be most effectively presented. We have only arrived at the beginning of understanding, and our approach to reforming the secondary school curriculum must become more scientific.

by Charles Calitri — 1970
The author suggests that the most successful Educational Opportunity Programs are not those that are remedial in concept but those that concentrate on developing individual self-understanding and self-expression and relate content of subject matter to the realities of life.

by Roderic Hodgins — 1970
A major effort by a well-known university to improve the reading skills of its students is described.

by Adeline Gomberg — 1970
The author sketches here the story of a Philadelphia experiment in which workshops were organized for teaching the parents of Head Start pupils how to teach their children to learn.

by James Fenner — 1970
The author is concerned about the fundamental irrelevance of the high school curriculum for young people needing to know how to make sense of the real world, how to find their way through its labyrinths, how to effect controls. Acknowledging the value of traditional studies for those who are interested, he proposes a series of elective courses aimed at relating the school to out-of-school interests.

by Galen Saylor — 1970
Although National Assessment is now well under way, seemingly all opposition has melted, and the bandwagon effect of getting "on board" is evident, it may, nonetheless, still be appropriate for the uncommitted to consider the contributions this project may make to educational evaluation and its shortcomings.

by William Tuttle, Jr. — 1970
The American Council on Education in its role as a spokesman for higher education is discussed.

by Frances Spain — 1943
School-library standards are only a section of the larger field, educational standards, and are part and parcel of the whole question of standardization. Any discussion of standards for school libraries should begin with a brief consideration of the two kinds of standards, quantitative and qualitative, and the recently devised substitute for standards, the evaluative criteria. Historically and practically, quantitative standards prepare the way for qualitative ones, and both precede the application of the criteria.

by William Alexander — 1941
Acceptance by state education departments of some responsibility for providing leadership service has been an outstanding trend in recent state school administration. This study seeks to explore and describe this trend, and to analyze and evaluate certain state department programs which reflect somewhat different interpretations of the leadership function.

by Susan Strauss & Youb Kim — 2011
Our commentary focuses on the issue of academic integrity and plagiarism for English language learners in U.S. universities. Sensitized by our own experiences of having recently participated in a hearing on plagiarism in a second language learning (L2) context at a local college, we examined existing definitions on academic integrity and plagiarism in U.S. universities. Our thinking is guided by language scholars who argued that the prevalent views of scholarship in U.S. universities and higher institutions in other western societies are inherently ethnocentric. While universities throughout the country are enthusiastically recruiting students from around the world, as part of the nationwide trend toward globalization, we believe U.S. universities need to develop an academic culture that encourages critical examination of our own beliefs and perspectives about what we need to do to help international students in U.S. universities understand authorship, ownership, and scholarship. Otherwise, our attempts at globalization will suffer. We hope our commentary contributes to the building of a culture of critical examination of the heretofore taken-for-granted beliefs and perspectives on teaching, especially in contexts of L2 teaching and learning.

by Julie Pennington, Kathryn Obenchain, Aimee Papola & Leia Kmitta — 2012
The Common Core State Standards are poised to guide U.S. educational practice and assessment for the coming years. This commentary examines the framing of the argument for the new standards by the constructors of the CCSS and how the alignment of resources during the implementation phase is tightly ensconced within the organizations who drafted the standards.

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Resources
  • Educational Review
    Educational Review publishes general articles and accounts of research of interest to teachers, to lecturers, to research workers in education and educational psychology, and to students of education.
  • Standard Setting as a Strategy for Upgrading High School Mathematics and Science
  • Educational Researcher
    Published by the American Educational Research Association, the Educational Researcher features section publishes manuscripts that report, synthesize, review, or analyze scholarly inquiry, especially manuscripts that focus on the interpretation, implication, or significance of R&D work in education, and manuscripts that examine developments important to the R&D field.
  • Standards, Testing, and Curriculum Control
  • Teacher Education Quarterly
    Most issues of Teacher Education Quarterly contain both thematic articles that have been solicited by or on behalf of the editor and Editorial Board and refereed articles chosen from among manuscripts submitted to the journal from the field.
  • Hard Lessons
    Diane Ravitch argues for a return to academic rigor in our nation's public schools
  • Elementary School Journal
    The Elementary School Journal publishes original studies, reviews of research, and conceptual analyses for researchers and practitioners interested in elementary schooling.
  • School-based Standard Testing
    School-based standard testing continues to evolve, yet in some ways it remains surprisingly close to its roots in the first two decades of the twentieth century
  • FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education
    FORUM has for almost forty years been the pre-eminent focal point in the United Kingdom for topical and informed analysis - very often highly forthright and critical - of all aspects of government policy as it influences the education of children from primary through to higher education.
  • Title I and State Educational Policy: High Standards For All Students
    This paper uses data collected from intensive case studies of 12 states and 24 districts and from other documents to examine the extent to which states have developed and implemented policies that meet Title I criteria, and how states and localities use these policies to leverage instructional change in low-achieving schools.
  • Journal of Education
    The Journal of Education addresses students and educators with regard to pertinent issues in contemporary education.
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