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Learning >> Educational Psychology

by Jeanne Chall — 1992
An examination of recent debates on the teaching of reading from the standpoint of science, art, and ideology

by Michael Parsons — 1992
Other chapters in this volume chronicle the several versions and past history of this paradigm. In this chapter I am more interested in its future possibilities. I identify changes occurring in the environment of art education and discuss the changes they call for in our thinking. I suggest that we can no longer take for granted much about children's abilities and the goals of art education that the cognitive movement did take for granted. I suggest that the idea of cognition in the arts should be understood more radically as interpretation, and I discuss, with examples, what that would mean.

by Jessica Davis & Howard Gardner — 1992
In this chapter wc draw on the visual arts for examples, but the story we tell could be broadened to include various art forms. We begin with a description of some of the brute facts, that is, examples of the constant phenomena that constitute early artistic behavior and invite different interpretations. Next we consider the main tenets of the cognitive revolution that has transformed our conception and cnhanced our understanding of that behavior. We review the impact of this new way of thinking on aesthetics, and on the investigation of child art, as well as upon general and aesthetic education. In conclusion, revisiting the brute facts, we reconsider the precognitivist perspective in terms of the insights these recent changes in thought have yielded.

by David Hargreaves & Maurice Galton — 1992
In this chapter we attempt to maintain a balance among three sometimes conflicting, sometimes complementary points of view: those of the psychologist, the educator, and the teacher. It will become • apparent that the concerns of the first two are currently fairly disparate, but we shall argue that a bridge can be built between them by a careful and reflective consideration of the teacher's point of view.

by Daniel Walsh, Natalie Batuka, Mary Smith & Nan Colter — 1991
Describes an experienced first grade teacher's efforts to create her place in what was defined by others as the change process. Researchers observed in her classroom and conducted interviews over one school year. She viewed herself not as changing, but rather as part of a slow, continuous process.

by David Elkind — 1991
The first aim of this chapter is to highlight some of the differences between these two educational philosophies. A second aim is to contrast a few of the practical educational implications of the two philosophies. A final aim is to argue that true educational reform in this country will only come about when we have a paradigm shift away from the reigning psychometric educational psychology.

by Edward Zigler — 1991
Research and evaluation have become much more sophisticated and are better able to assess a program's multiple effects on multiple human systems. Theorists and researchers alike have realized how seriously their work and words are taken and are learning how to communicate with the media and to deliver their interpretations responsibly. They have also developed a more productive relationship with policymakers, as both science and policy have increasingly come to depend on one another. The evolution of the field of early childhood intervention illustrates the interconnection between theory, research, and policy and the problems that occur when any one of these elements is out of step with the others.

by Penelope Peterson, Christopher Clark & W. Dickson — 1990
The authors raise questions about the place and form of educational psychology in the larger conversation about the thoughtful preparation of teachers, Recent research and theory in cognition and instruction suggest alternatives to traditional concepts of the learner, the teacher, and classroom learning.

by Carole Ames — 1990
What is it about the academic motivation of students that teachers should know? Certainly, knowledge of motivation concepts, principles, and theories should be basic elements in a foundations course in educational psychology, but this is not really what educational psychology should be about. Teachers need to know how this conceptual knowledge relates to the classroom and to their instructional role in the classroom.

by Gary Render, Jenell Padilla & H. Krank — 1989
This article provides a brief overview of the Assertive Discipline classroom management approach and raises questions about its use in schools of a democratic society. Assertive Discipline is criticized as being based primarily on teachers' needs, characterized by authoritarian values and techniques, and lacking research-based evidence for claims of success by supporters.

by Gary Render, Jenell Padilla & H. Krank — 1989
A response to Canter's criticisms. The authors' goal was to seek support for the claims made by Canter and others regarding the effectiveness of Assertive Discipline, and they stand by their conclusion that the literature does not support those claims.

by Lee Canter — 1989
The response by Canter criticizes Render, et. al. for offering opinions rather than evidence and for superficial examination of the literature regarding Assertive Discipline's effectiveness. The rejoinder addresses the question of the adequacy of research-based literature to support claims for the effectiveness of Assertive Discipline.

by Patrick Lee — 1989
Two antithetical views of the sense-making potential of young children are explored: the Piagetian egocentric view and the sociocentric view. The article suggests that empirical research demonstrates socially construed perspective-taking tasks do not show the young child to be egocentric, but sociocentric.

by Hazard Adams — 1988
The subject assigned, education and knowledge, is so vast that I trust the reader will allow me at the outset to venture some broad historical generalizations. ! begin by inquiring into what people in western society over time have thought knowledge, or at least important knowledge, to be about. My presumption will be that education has always been regarded, in part, as the transmission of important knowledge. But the notion of what knowledge is important has changed over the ages.

by Lauren Sosniak — 1987
Studies regarding the development of talent and unusually successful learning indicate that a "qualitative transformation" frequently occurs in which these individuals grow in their understanding of learning, recognizing the importance of commitment to learning through mutual encouragement and support.

by Janice Patterson & Marshall Smith — 1986
"Properly designed, [computers] can allow students to formulate hypotheses, test them, analyze results, and refine their conceptions. Moreover, they can provide the student with a record of the course of his or her investigations, permitting greater self-awareness of thinking and learning." There are, however, many barriers to realizing this potential, among them a lack of consensus on the definition of higher-order thinking and an incomplete understanding about the use of technology to promote it. We explore both issues in this chapter.

by Ellen Berscheid — 1985
It is not the purpose of this chapter to review what is known of the role other people play in determining what an individual does or does not know, or even to document the assertion that most modes of knowing are, either directly or indirectly and to a greater or lesser extent, "interpersonal." Rather, the aims here are more limited and only three in number. The first aim simply is to highlight the importance to each individual, whether child or adult, of "knowing" the people who populate his or her world, for this is a prerequisite for interacting effectively with them. The second aim is to discuss briefly the fact that much of this knowledge, or "social intelligence," and most of these interaction skills, or "social competence," are obtained within the individual's actual ongoing personal relationships rather than through formal instruction. Third, since the formal educational system provides both the opportunities for, and the context of, many of the interpersonal relationships from which social intelligence and social competence are learned (if they are learned at all), I shall discuss the proposition that decisions about how best to impart impersonal knowledge and skills—decisions that may include curricula, class size and composition, teacher-training, computerized instruction, reward structure, and so on—all inevitably influence, in ways both known and currently unknown, the development of social intelligence and competence.

by Jerome Bruner — 1985
Let me begin by setting out my argument as baldly as possible and then go on to examine its basis and its consequences. It is this. There are two irreducible modes of cognitive functioning—or more simply, two modes of thought—each meriting the status of a "natural kind." Each provides a way of ordering experience, of constructing reality, and the two (though amenable to complementary use) are irreducible to one another. Each also provides ways of organizing representation in memory and of filtering the perceptual world. Efforts to reduce one mode to the other or to ignore one at the expense of the other inevitably fail to capture the rich ways in which people "know" and describe events around them.

by Nel Noddings — 1985
I will discuss three domains of mathematical activity: the domain of informal, naive, or concrete experience; the domain of formal procedures (Benjamin Peirce's mathematics); and the metadomain in which we critique and discuss the domain of formal procedures. My main point will be that "doing mathematics" involves work in several modes of knowing across all three domains of activity.

by Robert Sternberg & David Caruso — 1985
In this chapter, we seek to (a) define what practical knowledge is, (b) discuss how practical knowledge is represented mentally, (c) discuss its interrelations with other forms of knowledge and with other psychological constructs, (d) show how practical knowledge is acquired, (e) discuss the ways in which practical knowledge can be applied, and (f) summarize the main points we have to share regarding practical knowledge.

by Dwayne Huebner — 1985
By phrasing the relationship between religion and education in new and different ways, the editors of this yearbook contribute to the more difficult dialogue. Suggesting relationships between knowing and spirituality does not raise new questions historically, but brings into the educational community possibilities for new dialogue with those within religious traditions. Concern for the spiritual provides other perspectives for considering issues of values, the comparative objective study of religion, and even the place of prayer and meditation in education.

by F. Connelly & D. Clandinin — 1985
Our method of introducing the connection between modes of knowing and teaching and learning is to begin the paper with the aesthetics of our assigned task. This permits us to set forth our own point of view amidst the context of modes of knowing given in this volume. The distinction between theory and practice permeates our discussion and is used to make three further distinctions: (a) between conceptual modes of knowing as theory (for example, aesthetics) and teaching and learning (for example, an art class) as practice; (b) between conceptual modes of knowing as theory (for example, aesthetics) and the events (for example, art) to which they refer as practice; and (c) between experiential classroom modes of knowing as theory (for example, image of the classroom as home) and teaching and learning (for example, the gingerbread boys episode) as practice.

by Norman Sprinthall & Lois Thies-Sprinthall — 1983
In this chapter, we will outline a series of recent theoretical advances that may form a promising theoretical framework for addressing the problem of teacher development from the perspective of the teacher as an adult learner. We will briefly review and critique previous conceptual frameworks. This will be followed by a brief review of recent theory and research that supports the growing importance of a cognitive-developmental viewpoint. Current theory and implications for teacher development programs will form the conclusion of the chapter.

by Thomas Good & Deborah Stipek — 1983
Because problems posed by student diversity have been discussed in the educational literature for many decades, we begin with a brief and selective review of the history of educators' efforts to deal with those problems. We turn later to more recent research on two dimensions of individual differences—ability and cognitive style—chosen to illustrate among other things, the impossibility of finding one best solution to student variability, even within a specific dimension.

by John Broughton, Bonnie Leadbeater & Eric Amsel — 1981
On November 14, 1980, the Developmental Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, held a memorial conference in Thorndike Hall to mark the death of Jean Piaget on September 17, 1980. Sixteen scholars from the fields of psychology, philosophy, and education presented brief reflections on Piaget’s work to an audience of about sixty people.

by Wilga Rivers — 1980
Parents and teachers alike are struck by the ease with which small children acquire language—the language or languages of their parents, their grandparents, or their playmates. They compare this with the often painfully slow and discouraging acquisition of a second or third language by teenagers and adults and wonder how one can replicate natural language learning in school situations. They want to see school learners using the language with some spontaneity and confidence and this also is seen as a desirable goal by the learners themselves. But how to achieve this goal in a reasonable amount of time, before discouragement sets in, has been, and continues to be, a major preoccupation of language teachers who care about motivation and the students' satisfaction in learning.

by Mauritz Johnson — 1980
The committee is hopeful that this yearbook will serve a sort of "economical" function, that all who deal in some way with the adolescent age group will view all of its content as having significance to them, not just selected chapters that pertain most directly to their particular professional concerns.

by Gordon Vars — 1980
Young people between the ages of ten and fourteen go through some of the most dramatic life changes that they will ever experience. It is during these years that puberty transforms the child into a young adult, and achievement of the biological capacity to reproduce has profound repercussions on all other aspects of development- intellectual, moral, social, and emotional. Yet this period is one of the least understood and most understudied in the entire span of human life.

by Joan Lipsitz — 1980
What are the claims that early adolescence makes upon society? This yearbook attempts to answer that question from a variety ot perspectives. This chapter provides an overview of the renewed dialogue about pre- and early adolescence in America.

by John Hill — 1980
In what follows it should be noted that our knowing little about the intersection of parental and early adolescent development is part of a larger context of ignorance. Research on any aspect of early adolescence is rare. Research on the family and the early adolescent is even more so. And, with the possible exception of social stratification studies, the research that does exist is not sensitive to variations in family composition or context. The word "family" as used in this chapter necessarily reflects the existing literature and can be taken to refer to biologically related, intact mother-father-child triads living in the same household.

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