The article discusses a brain-mind-cycle theory of critical reflection, learning, and wholetheme education. Application of the theory is illustrated with data from an experimental wholetheme teacher education program.
In this chapter, we present a selective review of articles related to
motivational themes published in American Psychologist (AP) from its inception
in 1946 to the present decade. Our goal is to better understand
educational conceptions of student motivation in classrooms by studying
related conceptions in society in general and psychology in particular
throughout the decades.
After developing a typology to classify approaches to multiculturalism in psychology, the author applies it to education and then turns to consideration of racial identity theory and its implications for educational theory and practice.
The authors dispel a host of myths regarding the role of genes in determining behavior and the modifiability of behavior and consider the implications for the work of educators and psychologists.
Can technology really facilitate self-directed, mindful learning in students? The authors address this and related questions through an analysis of recent theory and methodological developments in educational technology and psychology.
Two approaches for representing the structure of classroom arguments are compared and constrasted in this study--the argument network, and the causal network. This new form of basic research in classroom discourse opens a window for teachers and instructional designers who wish to improve students' reasoning ability.
The questions, topics, and methods of interest to contemporary educational psychologists.
As high school students conducted a year-long participatory research project on motivation for literacy learning with their teachers, two university researchers studied the processes and outcomes of their project
Much of the storm and stress that characterize the
teenage years is cat, sed by a mismatch between the genetically primed
behavior of adolescents and the societal demands imposed upon them by
the present stage of sociocultural evolution. The two most obvious solutionsto
change the genetic programming or to return to a social system
that would accommodate the full expression of adolescent drives
are not feasible at the moment, but a third possibility exists that might
reduce some of the conflict. Discovering what adolescents enjoy doing
that is consistent with their genetic programming and also with social
requirements, and making opportunities available for such activities
while reducing or modifying those that satisfy only one or neither of
these requirements--may be helpful. A great deal of the stress of the
teenage years will be eliminated if we allowed the natural resilience of
adolescents to assert itself in activities that make their lives enjoyable
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: (1) to present an overview
of the complex experiences of adolescents that impact the achievement
of developmental tasks; (2) to examine their impact on the processes of
identity formation in adolescence.
In the following pages, we will argue that understanding the selective
processes through which young people now enter the labor market
requires two kinds of information. First, we must describe the
opportunities to work that are available to these young people as they
move through high school and postsecondary education. Second, we
must discover how, given their opportunities, they act to form their
own occupational trajectories or job histories.
There are three kinds of problems for character educators which
provide the framework for this discussion.
First, there is the problem of definition: What is the difference
between what a psychiatrist and an educator might say? Second, there is the problem of understanding. What is needed to
develop moral agency in children places huge demands on teachers'
understanding. Third, there is a problem of social context. Living in a culture in
which we reach for explanations that do not respect moral autonomy,
we believe in the therapeutic or the clinical as solutions for our weaknesses.
This provides teachers, principals, parents, and the children
themselves with ways to circumvent moral responsibility for their
actions. So we need a clear idea of what the social and institutional
context of schools should look like for the development of character,
especially for those children labeled ADHD.
An examination of theories of child rearing espoused by the Christian Right from the perspective of modern psychology.
Education's main purpose should be to achieve understanding, but such understanding is hard to achieve because educators have little knowledge of how to teach for it and students harbor intellectual habits that inhibit performances of understanding. This article emphasizes that students' access to disciplinary tools is crucial in quality education.
Given this rationale for the existence of the present chapter, we
shall examine the Taxonomy from several psychological perspectives
on learning, including those extant at the time the Taxonomy was
aborning and those that emerged in succeeding decades up to the
present reign of cognitive science. In doing so, we will focus on features of the Taxonomy that appear to presuppose one or another
theoretical proposition about human learning or thinking.
In this chapter, let us briefly look at
the past, present, and future of the Taxonomy. We will seek to learn
from the past, using the Taxonomy as a case study of a heuristic
framework. By reviewing the process of developing and disseminating
it, we can reveal what might contribute to a heuristic's success and
what generalizations we can draw from this experience. Sinclair also
inquired about "the scientific process" of building taxonomies. So,
looking at research right up to the present, we can ask "Regarding its
'scientific validity,' what is the best interpretation of these data"?
Lastly, in terms of the future, we can ask "Where, if anyplace, do we
go from here"?
This article explains how to encourage students to respond to art rather than talk at them about what they should know.
The article presents Howard Gardner's response to the three preceding commentaries on his book, "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice." After commenting on some of their specific remarks, the article concludes with a more general discussion of the relationship between psychological theory and educational practice.
This commentary indicates that Gardner's "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice" represents an attempt to incorporate many perspectives and previously published essays in the educational implications of multiple intelligences theory. This article suggests that the book focuses less on schools and more on further development of the theory and possible uses and applications.
This commentary on Gardner's "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice" suggests that Gardner has made major contributions to discussions of the mind and educational goals. This article identifies issues arising from Project Zero's efforts to conceptualize and assess varieties of human intelligence and to follow implications of its work in the schools.
Adolescents have no prepared, appreciated, approved place in society, so they tackle identity formation and development of self-worth and self-efficacy on their own. Society must change its view that youth are troubled or harmful and instead provide opportunities for meaningful roles for adolescents, particularly those without many years of formal education.
A discussion of the effects of the mass media, particularly the influence of violence and sex, on adolescents.
This annotated bibliography includes publications on adolescent issues such as school-community collaboration, pregnancy prevention, decision making, health promotion, injury prevention, music, violence prevention, health care, African-American adolescents, sexuality education, futures planning, policy, and health service delivery.
With America's eroding social support, transitioning from childhood to adulthood is difficult. Adolescents need help in forming healthy lifestyles to positively affect their futures. This article recommends a developmental approach to providing life skills training, explaining the necessary conjunction of life sciences curricula, life skills training, and social support.
An examination of recent debates on the teaching of reading from the standpoint of science, art, and ideology
Other chapters in this volume chronicle the several versions and
past history of this paradigm. In this chapter I am more interested in
its future possibilities. I identify changes occurring in the environment
of art education and discuss the changes they call for in our thinking.
I suggest that we can no longer take for granted much about children's
abilities and the goals of art education that the cognitive movement did
take for granted. I suggest that the idea of cognition in the arts should
be understood more radically as interpretation, and I discuss, with
examples, what that would mean.
In this chapter wc draw on the visual arts for examples, but the
story we tell could be broadened to include various art forms. We
begin with a description of some of the brute facts, that is, examples of
the constant phenomena that constitute early artistic behavior and
invite different interpretations. Next we consider the main tenets of
the cognitive revolution that has transformed our conception and
cnhanced our understanding of that behavior. We review the impact of
this new way of thinking on aesthetics, and on the investigation of
child art, as well as upon general and aesthetic education. In
conclusion, revisiting the brute facts, we reconsider the precognitivist
perspective in terms of the insights these recent changes in thought
In this chapter we attempt to maintain a balance among three sometimes conflicting, sometimes complementary points of view:
those of the psychologist, the educator, and the teacher. It will become
apparent that the concerns of the first two are currently fairly
disparate, but we shall argue that a bridge can be built between them
by a careful and reflective consideration of the teacher's point of view.
Describes an experienced first grade teacher's efforts to create her place in what was defined by others as the change process. Researchers observed in her classroom and conducted interviews over one school year. She viewed herself not as changing, but rather as part of a slow, continuous process.
The first aim of this chapter is to highlight some of the differences
between these two educational philosophies, A second aim is to
contrast a few of the practical educational implications of the two
philosophies. A final aim is to argue that true educational reform in
this country will only come about when we have a paradigm shift
away from the reigning psychometric educational psychology.