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Early Childhood Education >> Early Childhood Development

Articles
by Richard Brandt — 1970
The more we know about diverse children, the more complex becomes the problem of readiness. The author reviews relevant research and proposes a number of suggestive new guidelines.

by Lawrence K. Frank — 1944
Adolescence is both a biological process and a social-cultural transition. The juvenile organism undergoes a process of growth and maturation as it moves toward adult size and functional capacity, and, more or less concurrently, the individual must pass through a transition from the status and conduct of a child to the responsibilities of the adult. The suitable adjustment of these processes, each to the other, and the appropriate direction and timing of the demands made by adults upon the developing adolescent are important factors in the ease and adequacy of growing up in our culture.

by W. Greulich — 1944
The physical changes which occur during this early period of life include both growth and development: growth, in the sense of an ihcrease in mass, volume, and external dimensions, and development, in the sense of becoming progressively more complex. These two processes, growth and development, do not proceed at the same absolute rate or at the same relative rate throughout this early period of life. There are intervals during which the body is increasing in size more rapiclly than it is growing in complexity, and there are other times at which this relationship is reversed. Some of the developmental changes which occur during adolescence are, perhaps, best appreciated when viewed in the light of some events which have preceded them.

by Nancy Bayley & Read Tuddenham — 1944
There are several reasons for studying body build--some of them at least as old as Heraclitus, others of recent development. An early interest was in relating specific types of build to tendencies toward certain physical diseases. More or less associated with this interest was the study of body types in their observed (or assessed) relationship to variations in temperament and to pathological manifestations in mental disease. More recently psychologists have studied the possible relationships between physique and various aspects of personality among normal individuals. Still another recent approach to the study of body build is in the interest of gaining more adequate estimates of nutritional status. It has become evident that, as a measure of nutrition, weight in relation to height does not take into account the wide differences which exist in skeletal build and in the proportions of the body and its extremities.

by Nathan Shock — 1944
Just as pediatricians have discovered that the young child is not simply a miniature adult, so students of human development have come to the realization that the adolescent is neither child nor adult in his physiological reactions. In the adolescent many new physiological adjustments are being made which were unnecessary in the young child and which become stabilized in the adult. Thus, adolescence may be regarded as a period of physiological learning.

by Herbert Stolz & Lois Stolz — 1944
In this chapter, therefore, we shall attempt to analyze some of the somatic conditions which may be involved in problems which adolescents face. Sometimes these are anatomical and physiological changes peculiar to the second decade of life; sometimes they are bodily conditions which have a changed significance because of the adolescent's development.

by Harold Jones — 1944
Tile term physical abilities is commonly used to designate achievement levels in various more or less specific aspects of gross motor performance. The more specific aspects may be examined through measurements of the speed of bodily movement, the strength of muscle groups, or the co-ordinative skill displayed in, for example, catching or throwing a ball.

by Harold Jones & Robert Seashore — 1944
In the preceding chapter a contrast was presented between physical abilities and fine motor abilities. Although both are expressed within systems of co-ordination which involve the body as a whole, we think of the finer motor skills as being revealed essentially through deftness and accuracy in limited movements.

by Harold Jones & Herbert Conrad — 1944
Two decades ago the study of mental development possessed an intriguing novelty which has long since passed to psyeho!ogieal problems of more recent origin. The literature on this topic has, however, continued to grow, and has now become so extensive and at many points so difficult to interpret that no merely casual interest can be expected to master it. The techniques of investigation have also undergone a growth process, as new standards and requirements have emerged. The noteworthy amount of attention which this problem still receives is evidence of its importance and of its bearing upon many aspects of psychological and educational research.

by Herbert Conrad, Frank Freeman & Harold Jones — 1944
Of considerable social and educational importance is the problem of the relationship of growth to intelligence level. The preceding chapter has furnished examples of individual mental growth within various zones of the distribution curve. For our present purpose, however, we wish to know whether, in general, a different course of growth is characteristic for children of higher and of lower intelligence.

by Newton Edwards — 1944
The adolescent today must in some way adjust to a culture that is characterized by instability, confusion, and conflict. Turn where he may or do what he will, he cannot escape the forces that are creating a novel, baffling, and, far too often, a tragic world. These forces stem, in the main, from science and invention translated into technology. Caught in the grip of a great technological revolution, our society is undergoing changes no less significant than those produced by the shift from a feudal to a capitalistic economy or by the industrial revolution in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

by Allison Davis — 1944
Socialization is the life-long process through which the human organism learns a culture, or possibly several cultures. One of the subtypes of socialization is acculturation, which is the learning of a culture different from that of one's birth group. Socialization is not simply the process of learning the specific skills of tool-using, language, and social organization, but implies as well the learning of these cultural behaviors as they are defined by a particular society. During this process of learning cultural behavior, which extends from infancy to death, the human organism likewise must learn to adjust emotionally to the impact of these social controls as presented to him by his parents, older siblings, teachers, employers, and other cultural surrogates.

by Carolyn Tryon — 1944
We have a tendency to disregard or to minimize the educational significance of the child's experiences in his peer group. During the preschool period children begin to seek the company of their own kind and as the years go by more and more of their spare time, and even time that is presumed to be dedicated to adult-planned activities, is given over to playing with, visiting with, being with, fooling around with their age-mates.

by Lawrence K. Frank — 1944
As pointed out in other chapters of this yearbook, the boy and girl during the second decade of life face certain life tasks as unescapable aspects of their biological maturation and of their induction into adult living. In this process they are exposed to the influence of many cultural agencies. The principal medium through which culture operates is, in earlier childhood, the family.

by Harold Carter — 1944
One of the significant aspects of the adolescent period is the emergence and development of vocational interests. It is characteristic of children that they give little thought to the serious problem of earning a living and, in fact, have little orientation to the world of work. It is equally characteristic of adults that they of necessity know something about at least one serious occupation. The transition is accompanied by complex changes in social personality, in group status, and in feelings toward self.

by John Anderson — 1939
Before discussing the relationship of the subject matter of the school curriculum to developmental level, it is necessary that we know something of the course of development in the child. In recent years many centers for child study and many individuals have been so active in collecting data that much more information is available now than a decade or two ago. It is the purpose of this section of the Yearbook to present in broad outline the growth and development of the child from birth to adult life. This general material will serve as a back- ground for the more specific discussions that follow.

by Arthur Jersild — 1939
This chapter is the first of three that deal with education in relation to the care of the body and the promotion of physical habits and skills. This treatment of the general subject of physical education is followed by Chapter III on health education and by Chapter IV on the establishment of routine habits in connection with eating, sleeping, elimination, and dressing in early childhood. These last named activities are treated separately by reason of the prominent place each occupies in the child's early training.

by Ruth Strang — 1939
Experimental data regarding children's ability to acquire health information, to form health habits, and to build favorable attitudes toward health at various levels of maturity are meager. Most of the available evidence is at least once removed from direct experimental results. Prevailing practices suggest, but they do not give authenticity to, a wide range of placement of health subject matter.

by Arthur Jersild & Frances Dwyer — 1939
The primitive drive to obtain nourishment is perhaps the strongest and most dependable of all drives in living beings, and for this reason, if for no other, the establishment of wholesome feeding activities should be the most 'natural' and the easiest feature of the training of children. Actually, however, feeding activities are fraught, in modern life, with many ' problems,' and have been overlaid by rules, formulas, and cults more numerous and complicated than the taboos of primitive people. In no other area of the child's education would it be more helpful if facts were available for outlining a scheme by which the child's habits, and even his diet, could be based to a maximal degree upon nature and to a minimal degree upon arbitrary rules and special training.

by Fowler Brooks & Paul Fay — 1939
When should instruction in the practical arts be introduced? Do developmental data indicate any optimal sequence of units? In this chapter, we shall consider these questions, first, in relation to the industrial arts and, second, in relation to home economics.

by Arthur Jersild — 1939
The development of musical appreciation and performance follows, in broad outline, the trends that can be observed in other aspects of development. General awareness and responsiveness precede finer appreciation and discrimination. Gross muscular response precedes the capacity for finer coordinations.

by Arthur Jersild — 1939
The discussion that follows deals with the radio and motion pictures both from the classroom and from the out-of-school angles. In most cases, children devote considerably more time to radio programs at home, and to motion pictures exhibited in commercial theaters, than to programs or films introduced into the classroom.

by Norman Meier — 1939
The child's artistic development from the nursery school through the senior-high-school level may roughly be divided into three periods, each including about four years (24). The first includes the years from nursery school through Grade III; the second, Grades IV through VIII; and the third, Grades IX through XII. Although available evidence supports this division for practical purposes, it admittedly is rough and tentative, based more upon cross-sectional studies of different children at different age levels than upon longitudinal studies of sequences in the development of the same group of representative children year after year. It should be kept in mind that the child who is artistically competent may not, and usually will not, conform to the developmental pace of the typical child.

by William Gray — 1939
In harmony with the major assumptions underlying this Yearbook, curricula in reading should be based on facts concerning the growth and development of children and concerning their abilities, interests, and needs at each level of advancement. Support for this view is found in the results of research that reveal significant correspondence between a child's level of development and the success accompanying the use of certain types of subject matter and teaching procedures. Other facts, such as the time when various types of experience will be individually most satisfying and socially most fruitful, should also be considered.

by John Anderson — 1939
The amount of research on the development of spoken language is so great that it is impossible within a brief space to give an adequate or detailed summary of it. There are at least twenty-five major summaries or bibliographies, each of which integrates the results of a large number of specific studies. The most recent and complete of these is that by McCarthy in the Murchison Handbook (27). Although it does not pretend to cover all studies, it lists 236 in its bibliography. The following summary, then, is exceedingly compact and can make reference to only a few studies.

by Leo Brueckner — 1939
The basis of an instructional program in language and composition should be a well-established body of information about the uses of oral and written speech at various stages of development. At the present time there is no general agreement as to what should be taught at the different grade levels, because there is a lack of dependable objective data about the ways in which children at each stage use composition. There is also no agreement about the items they should learn, the grade placement of these items, and the standards of composition children should be expected to achieve at the various levels.

by Ernest Horn & Paul McKee — 1939
In considering the problem of instruction in spelling in relation to child development, it is important to realize that growth in vocabulary is closely related to the acquisition of experiences. A new experience for the child usually supplies him with new words by means of which he can talk, read, write, and think with some degree of understanding. This means that the child's development in writing vocabulary is greatly influenced by the number, variety, and quality of his experiences. Consequently, there is good reason to believe that instruction in spelling thrives best in the setting of a rich curriculum that includes, among many things, a sound program in written composition as such and ample opportunity for the use of sensible types of writing activities in connection with all school work.

by Frank Freeman — 1939
All the studies, both of handwriting itself and of motor skill in general, show beyond question that there are marked changes as the child grows older. It is not possible to distinguish between the change due to maturation and that due to practice in general activity or in the specific act of handwriting; but whatever the source of the change, it must be given due weight in organizing instruction in writing.

by Fowler Brooks & C. O. Arndt — 1939
What is the best time to begin the study of a foreign language? Can younger children learn it more readily, as readily, or less readily than older children? As Bagster-Collins (2) shows, historically, foreign languages have been introduced at one time or another in all grades from the elementary school to the college. Which of these levels is the best? To answer such questions as these, it is necessary to consider several basic problems that are discussed here under the following categories: 2 (a) factors affecting student achievement in foreign language study (under II, following); (b) five objectives proposed by the Modern Language. Study (under III); (c) experimental evidence on the optimal time for beginning study of a foreign language (under IV and V) ; a and (d) research needed to give more conclusive evidence as to the time to initiate foreign language study (under VI). A brief summary (under VII) concludes the chapter.

by Leo Brueckner — 1939
In the modern curriculum, arithmetic has much broader functions than were commonly recognized in the traditional school. Present thinking emphasizes four major functions of arithmetic: (a) the computational function, which deals with the development of essential computational skills; (b) the informational function, which deals with the development of an understanding of the history, evolution, and present status of institutions, such as banks, insurance, and taxation, that have been created by society to deal with social uses of number; (c) the sociological function, which deals with the development of an awareness of the problems faced by these institutions and of the means, current and proposed, for solving those problems; and (d) the psychological function, which deals with the development of the power to do quantitative thinking and of an appreciation of the value and significance of quantitative data and methods in dealing with the affairs of life

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Resources
  • Maximizing Learning in Early Childhood Multiage Classrooms: Child, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions
    The multiage classroom is not a new concept. In fact, the concept of multiage grouping dates back to the one-room schoolhouse of the 19th century. Most educators believe that multiage grouping allows them to develop a more developmentally appropriate program. It is considered as a “natural community of learners”.
  • Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development
    Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, aims to broaden the international debate about the best provision for young children by representing a wide range of perspectives from different countries, different disciplines and different research methodologies.
  • Reading Rockets
    Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that looks at how young kids learn to read, why so many struggle, and how caring adults can help them.
  • Tot Thought
    Bruner reviews The Scientist in the Crib and The Myth of the First Three Years
  • Educational Psychology in Practice
    The defining feature of Educational Psychology in Practice is that it aims to publish refereed articles representing theory, research and practice which is of relevance to practising educational psychologists in the UK and beyond.
  • The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center
    The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center is one of the nation's oldest multidisciplinary centers for the study of young children and their families. Research and education activities focus on child development and health, especially factors that may put children at risk for developmental problems.
  • The Influence of Anxiety
  • Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood
    Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood is a new online, fully-refereed, free-access, international research journal.
  • The Society for Research in Child Development
    The purposes of the Society are to promote multidisciplinary research in the field of human development and to foster the exchange of information among scientists.
  • Child Development
    Since its inception in 1930, Child Development has been devoted to original contributions on topics in child development from the fetal period through adolescence. It is a vital source of information not only for researchers and theoreticians, but for child psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers, specialists in early childhood education, educational psychologists, special education teachers, and other researchers in the field.
  • Society for Research in Child Development
    SRCD is a multidisciplinary, not-for-profit, professional association with an international membership of approximately 5,000 researchers, practitioners, and human development professionals
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