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Diversity >> Gender and Sexuality

Articles
by Sari Biklen & Diane Pollard — 1993
Gender, as a category of analysis, suggests that to understand female—or male— experience each must be analyzed in relationship to the other in order to see how each is shaped by the other. Patriarchy, for example, is a central part of women's lives even when men are not around. That is why this book, even though it is mostly about women, focuses on gender. We want to explain more about this, and about the feminist perspective on gender that each of the essays takes.

by Elisabeth Hansot — 1993
In this essay I will look at three such reform efforts: the "boy problem," identified in the Progressive era when critics charged the schools with being too "female"; a concurrent discussion of the "woman question," when critics worried that women were not being adequately prepared for their adult vocations of wife and mother; and the critique of coeducation in the 1960s and 1970s, when feminists argued that the curriculum and training of girls was intentionally or inadvertently sexist.

by Deborah Britzman — 1993
In this chapter, I argue for a deeper and more complex understanding of multicultural education by attending to the particularities of gender. I explore the damaging effects for students and for educators when the meaning of gender is reduced to the category of sex-role stereotyping and when multicultural education dissipates into an endless celebration of uniqueness.

by Janet Miller — 1993
We need to investigate the power relationships embedded in the very ways that structures and contents of disciplines get constructed. And, further, we need to examine the situated nature of these relationships—the intersections of gender, race, age, sexual preference, class, and any of the other multiple social constructions and positionings that collide within various and shifting contexts and contents of schooling and thus become part of what we now call curriculum.

by Patricia Campbell & Selma Greenberg — 1993
In this chapter we explore equity issues in educational research methods. We cover these issues and examine how a view of females and males as "opposite" challenges the legitimacy of using "difference-based research" in studies of gender. We also consider ways that equity concerns are being addressed through the rethinking of the uses of traditional methods as well as the development of new methods.

by Diane Pollard — 1993
This chapter is divided into two sections. In the first, I will discuss the evidence concerning the extent of gender differences in academic achievement. In the second section, I will review two perspectives on enhancing academic achievement among women. Many writers have considered separately the relationships between achievement and race, achievement and ethnicity, achievement and social class, and achievement and gender. Such formulations tend to emphasize one sociodemographic characteristic at the expense of others.

by Joan Burstyn — 1993
In relation to gender discrimination, studies of the use of computers by girls and boys in the United States suggest that less frequent use of them by girls may be linked to gender socialization. The fact that girls and boys are likely to be differentially impacted by the introduction of computer technology was pointed out by scholars several years ago. Socialization is one of several influences that affect the impact on girls and boys not only of computers but of other technologies as well. In this chapter, I will discuss the implications of changes over the last fifty years brought about by several technologies.

by Michelle Fine & Pat MacPherson — 1993
We found that women of all ages, according to this literature, are allegedly scripted to be "good women," and that they have, in compliance, smothered their passions, appetites, and outrage. When sexually harassed, they tell "his stories." To please the lingering internalized "him," they suffer in body image and indulge in eating disorders, s And to satisfy social demands for "attractiveness," women with and without disabilities transform and mutilate their bodies.

by Sari Biklen — 1993
In this chapter I refer both to mothers and parents, as the teachers did, but always mean mothers. When teachers refer to parents and not mothers, they attempt to avoid the gender issues which connect them. The gendered positions of both mothers and teachers always lurk as the subtext to each encounter.

by Elois Scott & Heather McCollum — 1993
In the first section of this chapter we explore current research on variations in teaching practice that result in inequities between girls and boys and between minority and non-minority groups and we examine the consequences of these inequities. In the second section we review the research on changing institutional behavior and we tie what is known from research about institutional change to how we can change teachers' behavior to bring about better practice. In the third section we use the research on effective teaching to suggest strategies for teachers that will facilitate a more equitable classroom environment for all students. Finally, we draw upon a recent report of the National Coalition on Women and Girls in Education that shows how reaching the National Education Goals for the year 2000 is contingent upon making sure that the educational needs of girls and women are met.

by Nan Stein — 1993
In this chapter I will define and describe sexual harassment in schools as it occurs between students and between staff and students. I will demonstrate that sexual harassment is a rampant yet largely unrecognized problem with deleterious effects on its subjects/victims. (The words "subject/victim" will be used in tandem when referring to the subject or recipient of unwanted attention: "subject" to indicate that anyone can be a subject of such attention, and "victim" because it is a legal notion, albeit often with paralyzing psychosocial consequences.) I will chronicle the reckless indifference manifested by school administrators toward this problem in schools, and I will then conclude with proposals for action and intervention at various levels.

by Meg Campbell & Diana Lam — 1993
This chapter reflects our experience as educators in the Boston Public Schools and most recently in the Chelsea (Massachusetts) Public Schools. We believe that our experience, imagination, and knowledge, as well as other women's, not only matter but illuminate our way. We think of Alice standing before the looking glass, and like her, we step through and across the divide into another world of possibility. The fact that our world is the world of urban public education does not matter in the final analysis. The way we see—the eyes we bring, the curiosity and the willingness to take all of ourselves as females through the glass with us—defines our perspective. How we see and the lenses we enlist—from magnifying to bifocal to telescopic--to expand our vision are what count.

by Christine Sleeter — 1993
In education as well as other social institutions, concerns of women often are represented as competing with concerns of racial minority groups and sometimes of low-income people. This chapter challenges that representation. Half of racial minority group members and low-income people are women. However, by treating race, social class, and gender as separate issues signifying discrete groups, white economically privileged women tend to benefit, and oppressed groups remain fragmented, competing against each other for scarce resources.

by Maxine Greene — 1993
Gender, we now realize, must be understood as a social construct or a cultural construct, referring to the meanings attached to the biological division of the sexes. More simply, gender identifies the implications of what it means in different contexts to be born a girl or a boy. It has to do with the mannerisms taught or adopted, and the expectations internalized, the modes of perceiving others and being perceived.

by Virginia Casper, Steven Schulz & Elaine Wickens — 1992

by Polly Kaufman — 1991
This article examines Boston's school desegregation from 1962 to 1972, focusing on African-American women who demanded quality education for their children. This article discusses the constituency that supported a 1972 suit by Boston's National Association for the Advancement of Colored People claiming that Boston public schools denied equal education to African-American children.

by Richard Hawley — 1991
Defends the value of boys' schools, noting lack of objective data to support a negative appraisal of them. There is an inherent maleness that cannot be alienated from boys and men without a fundamental loss of their humanity. Schools must take the responsibility for conveying how to become a man.

by Michael Cary — 1991
Describes Deerfield Academy's recent process of changing from a single-sex to a coeducational school. Though some students and teachers resisted the change, most adapted well and enjoyed the new atmosphere. The school community believes that Deerfield should not settle for anything less than a full coeducational status.

by Helen Regan — 1990
A high school administrator adopts a feminist approach to administration.

by Glorianne Leck — 1990
The author asserts that gender relations, particularly the relations of domination and subjugation characteristic of patriarchy, condition our ways of knowing, of teaching, of learning, and even of understanding gender itself.

by CARL GRANT & Christine Sleeter — 1988
This article discusses findings from a seven-year longitudinal study of 24 junior high students. The study examined ways in which student beliefs about the future were affected by school, family, the economy, and peers. The effects of race, gender, and class on student dreams were also examined.

by Elise Boulding — 1987
We will examine how socialization and enculturation take place for women and men within each of the three types of communities at this moment of history. Structures handed down from past traditions fit poorly the developmental needs of women and men in these rapidly changing times. By looking first at the historical reality and the straitjacket of stereotypes which has constrained that reality, we get a better sense of the ongoing nature of the struggle in which women and men now find themselves. It is new, but it is also very old. What is new is the more active interplay of household, occupation, and civic areas for both sexes. There are no historical precedents for this, so the resocialization has to take place without adequate role models.

by Geoffrey Tabakin & Kathleen Densmore — 1986
This article presents an overview of theories of teacher professionalization, a discussion of feminist theories and the definition of gender analysis, and an argument for the appropriateness of gender analysis of teacher professionalization.

by Nel Noddings — 1985
The author examines three approaches that show some appreciation for the feminine and thus are attractive to those who would include feminine attributes in their description of educated persons. The objective is to locate and discuss two kinds of error: moves that inadvertently lead the searcher into a trap very like the one he or she is trying to escape and compensatory moves that are incompatible with the guiding purpose.

by Michael Apple — 1985
The fact that most elementary school teachers are female provides a key to understanding why there are often attempts by state bureaucrats, industry, and academics to control the curricular and teaching practices in classrooms. It also explains why these externally derived controls are often transformed by teachers once they are in their classrooms.

by Harvey Siegel — 1983
Jane Roland Martin's charge that a male cognitive perspective dominates educational philosophy is assessed. Martin's views on the ideal educated person (in writings of R. S. Peters and others), gender bias in the intellectual disciplines, the rationality learning theory, and self-alienation of educated women are analyzed.

by Michael Apple — 1983
The connections between class and gender must be recognized if attempts to rationalize and proletarianize teaching are to be understood. Behaviorally-specified curriculum, prepackaged programs, and repeated testing and accountability measures represent attempts by state governments and by male administrators to wrest control of instruction from a largely female corps of teachers.

by Peter Bertocci — 1982
A call for sex education that impacts values along with sexual information.

by Philip Dreyer — 1975
Marriage has always represented a point of intersection between the needs of society to maintain itself and the needs of individuals to fulfill themselves. Marriage is unique in that it is the only interpersonal relationship which attempts to satisfy both the socialeconomic requirements of groups and the personal-emotional needs of individuals over the course of the life span.

by Helen Astin — 1975
This chapter describes and analyzes two areas of inquiry. First, recent research on women is described and trends in this research are outlined. An analysis of this kind illustrates in part some of the issues and concerns in the study of women as an area of scientific and scholarly inquiry.

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Book Reviews
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Resources
  • Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools
    An examination of the human rights abuses suffered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students at the hands of their peers
  • Gender and Education
    Gender and Education is an international forum for discussion of multidisciplinary educational research and ideas that focus on gender as a category of analysis.
  • Mid-Atlantic Equity Center
    The Mid-Atlantic Equity Center, part of the Mid-Atlantic Equity Consortium, Inc., is funded by the U.S. Department of Education under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It is one of ten federally-funded Equity Assistance Centers (formerly called "Desegregation Assistance Centers") across the country that provide technical assistance and training services to school districts. The Center specializes in three program areas: race, gender, and national origin equity.
  • Making Adolescence at the Turn of the Century: Discourse and the Exclusion of Girls
    Adolescence was a social fact produced through a set of both educational and material practices that functioned as a technology to regulate the lives of young people, as well as reinforce dominant social norms at a time of great transition and uncertainty.
  • Advancing Women in Leadership
    Advancing Women in Leadership represents the first on-line professional, refereed journal for women in leadership.
  • The War Against Boys
    This we think we know: American schools favor boys and grind down girls. The truth is the very opposite. By virtually every measure, girls are thriving in school; it is boys who are the second sex.
  • Educational Researcher
    Published by the American Educational Research Association, the Educational Researcher features section publishes manuscripts that report, synthesize, review, or analyze scholarly inquiry, especially manuscripts that focus on the interpretation, implication, or significance of R&D work in education, and manuscripts that examine developments important to the R&D field.
  • Not Your Father's High School Club
    This is not your mother and father's high school club, gay-straight alliances (GSAs)...
  • Elementary School Journal
    The Elementary School Journal publishes original studies, reviews of research, and conceptual analyses for researchers and practitioners interested in elementary schooling.
  • Technology in K-12 Public Schools: What Are the Equity Issues?
  • Journal of Educational Research
    The Journal of Educational Research publishes manuscripts that describe or synthesize research of direct relevance to educational practice in elementary and secondary schools.
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