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Diversity >> Special Needs

by Robert Osgood — 1999
This article examines the origins of the development of a separate professional identity as special educators for teachers of children with disabilities in the United States.

by Douglas Biklen, Dianne Ferguson & Alison Ford — 1989
From the outset we realized that this yearbook would touch on more than special education. Of course, the yearbook would necessarily report on some of the most controversial, burning issues of the day related to the education of students with disabilities. But if the book was to serve the members of the National Society for the Study of Education and its reading audience, mainly educators but not principally special educators, it should explore the relationship of special and "regular" education. Also, the book should raise broad issues of ideology and policy and at the same time include examples of effective educational practice. If we addressed these questions, the book would concern not just special education but education in general and its principal focus would be on the place of students with disabilities in education. Hence the title, Schooling and Disability.

by Douglas Biklen — 1989
Many parents want schools to approximate the inclusive society that is envisioned in the autobiographies of people with disabilities and in firsthand.accounts of parents such as Mary Lou. Some want and expect only that schools merely recognize their children with disabilities as more than the clinical terms that have been attached to them. But how well have the schools done? Put another way, what is the place of disability in schools and of students classified as disabled?

by Dianne Ferguson — 1989
In this chapter I try to locate the areas of intersecting interests between the general reform efforts and special education in the public schools by (a) briefly summarizing some of the major themes to be found in the current reform literature, (b) outlining the implications of both the reports and their critiques for public special education, and (c) describing some of the promising developments within the area of educational reform for students with handicaps (especially those with severe handicaps) that have potential implications for ongoing critical reform in other areas of public schooling.

by Kathy Albright, Lou Brown, Pat VanDeventer & Jack Jorgensen — 1989
The primary purpose of this paper is to delineate and justify eleven characteristics of educational services that are critical to the growth of students who are severely intellectually disabled. If school personnel fail to actualize at least these characteristics in direct educational services, they are remiss in their instructional responsibilities.

by Mara Sapon-Shevin — 1989
Are the categories used to separate and identify students with disabilities real and educationally responsive? Could educational institutions respond differently to the students they now label as "mildly handicapped"? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the origins, growth, and development of the field of mild disabilities within a broad social and political context and to examine alternatives for describing and educating children now served within the categories of mild disability.

by Philip Ferguson & Adrienne Asch — 1989
It is our contention that personal narratives constitute a large and neglected source of data for understanding how society in general, and schools in particular, could better support disabled children and their families. More specifically, since these narratives are situationally rather than conceptually based, they can reveal the personal perspectives in words chosen by the authors, rather than the predetermined categories of the researcher's survey questionnaire. This chapter will discuss what these perspectives—combined with some of our own views—suggest as being most supportive of the families with disabled children. Our overall purpose in this chapter is more descriptive than prescriptive. A deeper understanding of the complexity of living with a disability must precede—or at least accompany—our society's efforts to improve the educational experience of disabled students and their families.

by Alison Ford & James Black — 1989
What is meant by a community-referenced curriculum? What conditions have surrounded its emergence in education? Furthermore, what lessons have we learned from implementing it, and what future directions do we foresee? The purpose of this chapter is to reflect on these questions, while simultaneously exploring the relationship between community-referenced curricula and what is generally referred to as "regular" education.

by Arnold Goldstein — 1989
The present chapter is devoted to a prosocial instructional goal. Constructive alternatives to aggression are being effectively taught to disruptive youth, and thus we will seek to describe in detail the procedures, materials, and evaluation evidence which essentially constitute this contemporary prosocial skills training approach.

by Susan Stainback & William Stainback — 1989
If we want to foster an integrated society, then students need to be integrated throughout their school years in order to provide opportunities to learn how to accept each other and live together in positive and productive ways. We need integrated schools where students of different abilities, disabilities, and racial and socioeconomic backgrounds can learn and play side by side. The issue for these professionals is not whether heterogeneous or homogeneous grouping is best, but rather how heterogeneous classrooms can be made to work to the advantage of all students in their academic, social, and emotional development.

by Robert Gaylord-Ross — 1989
While vocational education programs have grown steadily over the years, recently there have been criticisms about the efficacy of vocational education. If vocational education is to survive and grow, it must answer such stinging critiques. Most importantly, there needs to be a demonstration that essential academic content can be taught in vocational contexts. Research and demonstration efforts need to document how academic skills are infused within the vocational curriculum in both occupational training and work experience courses.

by Ian Evans & Elvera Weld — 1989
In this chapter we assume that the typical educator is really most interested in steadily enhancing the quality of a school's special education programs. Rather than looking for global judgments, today's professionals should be seeking data to guide decision making at various levels, such as Curriculum revision, allocation of resources, or innovation in school routines. This approach is in accord with the strong empirical tradition that has emerged in the field of special education.

by Douglas Biklen, Alison Ford & Dianne Ferguson — 1989
This final chapter reflects our assumption that a disability, whether retardation, learning disabled, deafness, emotional disturbance, or other classification, is never experienced apart from its social and cultural context.

by Mara Sapon-Shevin — 1987
Two assumptions underlying gifted education are considered: (1) that gifted children are empirically identifiable; and (2) that the needs of gifted children differ significantly from children in general. Equity issues are addressed, and possible ways of interpreting equality are presented.

by Jonathan Silin — 1987
Because Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome has been construed as a disease of the "other" who is somehow not part of society, efforts at education are destined to fail. Individual rights can easily be suborned to the perceived public good. Educators are urged to grapple with the ethical issues.

by Virgil Ward — 1985
A response to Barry Bull's article, Eminence and Precocity: An Examination of the Justification of Education for the Gifted and Talented.

by Barry Bull — 1985
Special programs for gifted and talented children cannot be justified. A program of education for gifts and talents is proposed. Since it would be open to all, it would naturally serve the special educational needs of the precocious in a way that is less morally problematic than selective programs.

by Barry Bull — 1985
The author replies to Virgin Ward's response to his article, Eminence and Precocity: An Examination of the Justification of Education for the Gifted and Talented.

by Seymour Sarason & John Doris — 1982
The speed with which mainstreaming as a concept, value, and public policy has emerged in our society is little short of amazing. Indeed, the change has come about so fast and with such apparent general approbation as to raise a question about what people understand about mainstreaming and its implications for schools. Let us try to gain some historical perspective on this question in the hope of avoiding an oversimple stance to a very complicated set of issues. To think that mainstreaming is desirable is no excuse for assuming that institutional realities will accommodate our hopes. To confuse change with progress is to set the stage for disillusionment.

by Allan Pallay, Gaea Leinhardt & William Bickel — 1982
Compensatory education students and mildly handicapped special education students would be better served by a single system meeting the needs of both groups. Student classification methods, historical, political, and pedagogical reasons for separating the programs, and alternatives to the existing arrangement are discussed.

by Thomas Achenbach — 1980
This chapter focuses on behavior disorders occurring between ages ten and fifteen. The title refers broadly to research on behavior of clinical concern rather than being restricted to research in clinical settings or to the unsystematic accumulation of clinical impressions sometimes known as clinical research.

by Abraham Tannenbaum — 1979
The half-decade following Sputnik in 1957 and the last half-decade of the 1970s may be viewed as twin peak periods of interest in gifted and talented children. Separating the peaks was a deep valley of neglect in which the public fixed its attention more eagerly on the low functioning, poorly motivated, and socially handicapped children in our schools. It was not simply a ease of bemoaning the plight of able and then disadvantaged learners, with each population taking turns as the pitied underdog or the victim of unfair play. Rather than transferring the same sentiments from one undereducated group to another, the nation found itself transforming its mood from intense anxiety to equally profound indignation: anxiety lest our protective shield of brainpower became weaker, rendering us vulnerable to challenge from without, followed by indignation over social injustice in the land, which could tear us apart from within. Now we are experiencing a revival of earlier sensitivities to the needs of the gifted. Judging from these vacillations in national temperament, it seems as if we have nor yet succeeded in paying equal attention simultaneously to our most and least successful achievers at school.

by James Gallagher — 1979
In every field of endeavor each generation leaves a mixed legacy to the next. Along with the hard-won wisdom that comes from experience and the progressive accumulation of knowledge, collections of misinformation and misjudgments that can only be explained by understanding the temper and biases of the times are also passed along. As an antidote to any misplaced confidence that we at last have the tiger of education for the gifted by the tail, it may be useful to catalogue some unsolved issues or misguided efforts that have been created or accepted by the present generation and which we are in danger of turning over to the next generation.

by David Jackson — 1979
A slow but steady development has characterized the federal concern for the gifted and talented since the late 1960s. This effort has coalesced with the diffused efforts of several pioneering states to produce what can now be viewed as an initial effort of truly national dimensions. While the most recent attention on the part of federal and state governments is best viewed as continuous with earlier attempts, current federal activity springs most directly from the Education Amendments of i969, and specifically from an amendment offered by Congressman John Erlenborn of Illinois.

by Jeffrey Zettel — 1979
The Council for Exceptional Children, under a grant from the Office of the Gifted and Talented of the U.S. Office of Education, undertook a nationwide survey of state education agencies in 1977 to ascertain the current status of services to gifted and talented children and youth. This chapter is a summary of the findings and presents a picture of educational provisions for this population from the perspective of the states.

by Pauline Sears — 1979
Terman's famous study of gifted children, started soon after his return from test construction duties during World War I, reflected his great interest in children who scored at the extremely high end of the scale, the upper 1 to 2 percent. He was confident that they were a very able and potentially productive part of the population, and was concerned that common "myths" about them were injuring their development.

by Lynn Fox — 1979
For the purpose of this chapter, the term "programs for the gifted" will be used loosely to encompass a wide variety of means of providing learning experiences for children of well above average general intellectual and/or specific academic aptitude. In some cases the discussion is also relevant to specific nonacademic abilities that are provided for within the curriculum of many schools, by such offerings as art, music, and athletics.

by Stephen Gerencser — 1979
My experience as a teacher for many years in different countries, and most especially my experience as a clinical psychologist, led to the idea of the Calasanctius School as an experiment in the education of gifted and talented children. After many consultations with educators, psychologists, and members of the academic and business community, the decision was made to formulate a special program for intellectually talented and gifted children from grade five to college level. The suggestion was for a separate school with a comprehensive program, where the only criteria for acceptance were ability and interest. It was envisioned that the curriculum would not be a copy of any other design. Nor would it employ the so-called enrichment or acceleration methods, but rather it would have a unified program built around the psychological and sociological needs of gifted children.

by Halbert Robinson, Wendy Roedell & Nancy Jackson — 1979
The information and ideas presented in this chapter have been generated in the context of the Seattle Project--a longitudinal study of intellectually advanced children undertaken by the Child Development Research Group at the University of Washington. Service activities connected with the study include a preschool program for some of the project children and a counseling and diagnostic service which provides families of intellectually advanced children with assessment and information on school placement.

by Sandra Kaplan — 1979
Although a good deal of information concerning the language arts and social studies curriculum for the gifted is well articulated and readily available in the literature, there is a gap between this information and its application in classroom practice. Several factors contribute to this situation.

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