This introduction to the Yearbook focuses on: conceptualizations of engagement, the processes of engagement, portraits of engaging learning environments, and whole-school approaches to education.
The authors examine changes in the level and dispersion of student engagement across the transition to high school. Changes in the total dispersion in engagement among all students, as well as divergence in engagement between students of differing gender, race, socioeconomic background, and initial levels of achievement are reported.
This chapter explains the links between relational developmental systems theory and the strength-based, positive youth development (PYD) perspective. The Five Cs model of PYD (involving competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) is used to assess the role of school engagement in PYD.
A body of research has emerged during the past three decades focusing on how students engage in the schooling process and the broader positive developmental outcomes associated with high levels of engagement and lower involvement in high-risk behaviors. This chapter suggests that gratitude might offer a unique contribution for understanding how affective engagement and positive relationships could enhance student school bonding and thereby student social-emotional and academic outcomes.
The quality of students’ relationships with teachers and peers is a fundamental substrate for the development of academic engagement and achievement. This chapter offers teachers and researchers a motivational framework that explains how positive and negative student–teacher and student–peer relationships are sustained in the classroom, and strategies for creating solutions to improve relationships.
This chapter presents findings of a three-year longitudinal study of academic motivation and school engagement among low-income high school students enrolled in a corporate work–study program. Our findings demonstrate ways in which the workplace functioned for students as a conduit of emotional resources, offering instrumental support from caring and competent adults, knowledge about the connection between work and school, and an opportunity to occupy the essential adult role of worker.
Callahan and Chumney use a comparative case study approach to examine the experiences and outcomes of remedial writing students enrolled in two urban public institutions: a community college and a research university. Applying Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this ethnographic study reveals that institutions further determine the advantage or disadvantage of remedial students by controlling their access to cultural capital, which is critical for navigating the field of higher education successfully.
The growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools and the low academic achievement of many of these learners have been the subject of much debate. A significant related issue is determining the sources of ELLs' difficulty, namely, understanding the distinction between learning disabilities (LD) and learning difficulties due primarily to contextual factors and second-language learning. This article addresses the future directions for research in this area, with an emphasis on the need to build consensus through converging lines of evidence.
David Berliner's 2005 Presidential Invited Speech to the American Educational Research Association meeting in Montreal, Canada, May, 2005.
The authors argue that society holds largely negative views of youth. As a result, at least in part, too many youth are left alone or are given very little guidance and support. We must begin to view youth as an investment instead of a burden if we are to sustain the quality of our society.
This article draws on the author’s experience both as a teacher in inner city schools and as a researcher to explain the cause of student's blank stare when asked open-ended questions, and the keys to eliminating the problem.
Drawing on an interpretive study of classroom authority relations in a U.S. metropolitan high school, this article describes and analyzes the character of these relations, and their connection to social theory and educational ideologies.
The article examines how zero tolerance policy is enacted in schools, and how the policy is supported by developments in technology, crime and prison policy, and social science theories of delinquency. The reseach is based on qualitative research and policy analysis, and has an interdisciplinary focus that would be of interest to educators, policymakers, and school administrators.
A story about "tacit to explicit" learning and the importance of conversation to the learning process.
This commentary argues that we must understand and respond to the emotional issues posed for students by violent school environments so that all students can begin to prepare for the academic challenges envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act.
Study examines the relationship between pedagogy and classroom control in traditional and progressivist teaching practices. Based on study of current Israeli school reform program, I argue that this relationship has been inadequately addressed, both in theory and in practice.
What factors place a child at risk of academic failure and dropping
out of school? In this chapter, we argue that educators, researchers,
and policymakers are developing a richer and more complex understanding
of the conditions and experiences that lead to negative educational
outcomes. In the first section, we describe how thinking
about risk in education has begun to shift from identifying risk factors
solely in terms of students’ individual and family characteristics to an
acknowledgment that substandard teaching and learning environments
allow far too many children to fail. In the second section, we
examine the scope of risk through an examination of individual/family-level
risk indicators. In the third section, we explore school-related
risk factors to round out our assessment of risk. We conclude with a
brief summary of the extent and consequences of risk of educational
failure in the U.S. in which we emphasize the need to focus on the
compound nature of risk, specifically interactions between
individual/family-level and school-level risk factors.
This chapter explains how a perspective on educational resiliency
might improve the education of at-risk students. Such a framework
may also help educators design more effective educational interventions
that specifically take into account those “alterable” factors that
distinguish resilient from nonresilient students. First, we discuss issues
related to the definition of resiliency. Next, we review several recent
studies in the area of educational resiliency, specifically those that focus
on differences between resilient and nonresilient students’ characteristics,
family background, and perceptions of the classroom and school
environment. The final sections of the chapter focus on implications
for educational practice and research.
The issues considered in this chapter overlap with concerns for all
students. For example, the issues of educating the whole child, the role
of teachers, and school choice, which we will address below, are part of
the educational discussion in all segments of American society. However,
our focus will be specifically on the schooling of urban African
American children, because of their unique experience of racial oppression
and the distinct cultural adaptations that occur in inner-city environments.
We begin the chapter with a cursory treatment of race, class,
culture, and learning outcomes.
The focus of this chapter is to examine factors that may contribute to Hispanic students’ success and to address the complex issues created by cultural diversity among Hispanics in relation to their values and beliefs, since any single approach may not address the needs of all Hispanic students.
This chapter will first define the term “quality” with respect to preschool and kindergarten curriculum. An outline of the components of effective preschool and kindergarten programs for at-risk children will then be presented. These components are based on research findings from intervention practices that have been shown to have a positive impact on children’s later growth and development (Wasik, Bond, & Hindman, in press). In addition, systemic issues regarding class size, length of the day, and grouping practices will be addressed. Finally, the importance of professional development as the key to effective classroom practices will be discussed.
The first half of this chapter briefly summarizes the lessons learned to date regarding components that are absolutely essential for transforming high poverty middle schools. As developers of the Talent Development Middle School (TDMS) model,2 we draw upon our own experiences from the past 6 years working with high poverty middle schools in Philadelphia, Memphis, New Jersey, and Michigan. We argue that by focusing on the infrastructure of teaching and learning and by creating a communal organization of schooling, it is possible to make significant achievement and motivational gains in high poverty middle schools. In the second half of this chapter, we discuss several remaining instructional, school culture, and policy obstacles that must be overcome, and we consider the additional components that are still needed to reliably transform the most troubled high poverty middle schools into strong learning institutions.
The extent and location of weak learning environments and poor student outcomes in American high schools need to be better understood if we are to focus attention and resources where reforms are most needed. We begin this chapter by providing various indicators of the serious problems affecting high schools and then describe how the indicators are concentrated in large high schools in high-poverty areas. There is an emerging consensus that comprehensive reform approaches that address high school organization and operations offer promising solutions to these problems. Therefore, we also provide a brief history of earlier reform recommendations that have evolved into the comprehensive change models now available. We conclude with a description of four common components of comprehensive reform models for high schools, with examples and recent evaluation evidence from one selected model that offers specific materials and support systems.
This chapter discusses the current state of family and community involvement in the schooling of students placed at risk. It describes developments in research and policy in family and community involvement during the past decade. It also reports continued barriers to family and community involvement, especially in low-resource, high-risk schools and communities. The chapter concludes with suggestions for maximizing schools’ capacity to involve families and communities in the education of children and youth placed at risk. It emphasizes the importance of teacher preparation and professional development, a team approach to partnership program design and implementation, and district-level support and facilitation.
Schools can and should provide access to purposeful,
transformative, empowering experiences that move students from the ability to read to full literacy.
This chapter explores the issues underlying technology in the education of at-risk students. First it examines facts that have emerged from large scale surveys of students’ access to computers in home and school settings as related to low income status and ethnic/racial background. Then it examines some of the survey data on schools’ use of computers and research on achievement related to technology. The next section of the chapter discusses directions for research that might help illuminate the role of technology in the learning of at-risk youth, focusing on “situated case studies” of authentic instructional practices that carefully examine how technology is related to the unique cultural and social circumstances of learning settings. Particular attention is devoted to those instructional practices that build on students’ background knowledge and motivation to communicate and learn in after-school as well as classroom settings.
In this chapter, I discuss the evolution and effectiveness of Title I, the largest federal investment in the nation’s public schools. Specifically, I summarize how the program has evolved from one that is ineffectual and poorly implemented to one that is relatively well implemented and somewhat effective, but clearly in need of further improvement. I conclude the chapter by discussing how the Title I research base may inform current and future efforts to research and evaluate the program.
In this chapter, we examine how CTE can improve education for students placed at risk of failure and dropping out, and we present what empirical evidence exists of the success that CTE-related reforms have had. We examine CTE reforms that have been driven by legislation, those that have not, and other reform efforts that are conducive to including CTE elements. In addition, we discuss how CTE reforms should be structured in order to maximize their effectiveness.