The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.
After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.
This article examines the way Cuban teachers address racism in their professional practice, with a specific focus on teacher home visits to address issues of racism with parents and guardians. Using critical race theory and a reconsideration of the ecological systems theory, this article analyzes the relationship between Cuban teachers and the families of students they teach based on in-depth interviews and a survey of Cuban teachers.
In this article the author explores the mathematics and life experiences of 13 Black elementary education pre-service college students, encompassing both their reflections as students of mathematics and as future mathematics teachers of most likely Black and Latino students. Their “voices” suggest that these Black pre-service students generated constructions that include considerations of race and racism as part of their shared African American experience in the United States; that is, a mathematics learning experience and future mathematics-based teaching ideologies structured, in part, by larger negative and unjust race relations existing in US culture, in spite of early at-home mathematics support.
We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of high school sophomores, to examine patterns of social engagement in friendships and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents. Results show that racial/ethnic minority adolescents, as well as first- and second-generation adolescents, are less engaged in friendships than their third-generation White counterparts, and there is no clear pattern of advantage or disadvantage in extracurricular activity participation.
This article examines the social production of racial identity for four White men and explores how their racial identities were dependent on relations with real and imagined racial others.
This article problematizes the concept of “diversity” by exploring how one racially mixed high school’s vision for diversity was mismatched with the reality of apparent inequities within the school. Students of color who transferred to the high school for better opportunities were ultimately resegregated to racially isolating structures. The study’s findings align with scholars who call for further critique of what it means to be truly diverse or integrated, and suggest current policies designed to achieve diverse schooling fail to chisel at mechanisms that inevitably sustain the inequitable racial and social order within schools.
This comparative paper analyzes the historical development of Black-focused education in Toronto and London from 1968 to 2008 as a response by Black parents and community activists to the historic underachievement of African Caribbean students (particularly males) in the public schools of both cities. I situate the development of Black-focused education in each city within the larger social, political, and national policy contexts, trace critical incidents that fueled the development of race-based school district policy, and explore how the “politics of place” has influenced the trajectory of Black-focused education in each city.
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, an expert in civil rights and employment discrimination and served as the lead counsel for plaintiffs in the St. Louis metropolitan school desegregation litigation. Dr. Middleton discusses the history, current status, and future of school desegregation.
This study used a developmental approach to investigate the relationship between academic and ethnic identities among ethnically diverse college students. The findings indicate that Students of Color perceive a greater connection between their academic and ethnic identities compared to White students, and that this difference can be partially explained by differences in ethnic identity.
This article critiques the caricaturization of urban communities and their schools as places where students and community members lack agency and resources. Instead, through narrative inquiry, the authors reveal the community cultural wealth that they were exposed to as K-12 students in East St. Louis, Illinois.
This paper examines the use of Black Feminist Thought and critical race theory as conceptual and methodological frameworks to investigate the counter-narratives Black reentry women offer to three troubling and persisting stereotypes about Black motherhood.
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of family income on SAT performance for Black and White test-takers. Family income was found to have a nonlinear direct effect on total SAT performance and the association was substantially larger for Black students than for White students, especially for those families living in poverty.
This study reports that college students of color participating in a university-based community service learning program characterized the classroom experience within the program as offering a weaker sense of community than did their White classmates, and many expressed a reluctance to engage in race discussions with their classmates or to respond to perspectives they perceived as naïve, inaccurate, or offensive.
Although Latinas’ relatively low rate of college-going has sometimes been explained by the influence of traditional gender roles, this article argues that sometimes it might instead represent emergent feminism and a means of contesting and remaking those roles. Based on a 5-year case study of one academically gifted Mexican American immigrant youth who decided to go to work instead of college, the article considers implications for Latina college recruitment.
Using data from the Digest of Educational Statistics, this article argues that an intergenerational comparison is a more productive, progressive method to interpret data used to gauge the achievement gap.
This essay introduces the issue, Educating Immigrant Students, Refugees, and English Language Learners: A No Borders Perspective
This chapter examines what some teacher educators are already doing and what all teacher educators need to do to prepare general classroom teachers to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). The authors argue that, because of the trend toward inclusion of ELLs in the mainstream class and the role of language in schooling, it is essential that all teachers be prepared to teach ELLs. They then present a conception of linguistically responsive teaching that outlines essential curriculum content for preparing teachers for ELLs, and they highlight elements of program design that can support the preparation of teachers for teaching ELLs.
Given the increasing likelihood that secondary teachers either are or will be responsible for teaching English learners (ELs) and other language minority students from immigrant backgrounds, this chapter explores recent efforts to conceptualize and act upon what mainstream secondary teachers need to know about language. While widespread agreement exists regarding the importance of “academic language” for ELs in secondary school, there is less agreement about how this language should be conceptualized or how teachers should be prepared to facilitate students’ development of it. The chapter reviews different conceptions of
academic language and argues for the importance of collaborative efforts between content-area and language specialists to promote ELs access to mainstream curriculum and opportunities to expand their linguistic repertoire for increasingly challenging academic endeavors.
This chapter describes bilingual approaches to teaching immigrants and English learners in elementary schools, situating program models within a shifting sociopolitical climate, grounding bilingual education theoretically, and describing bilingual teaching practices. Profiles are presented of successful dual language programs that demonstrate the ways that schools must negotiate priorities of bilingualism with pressures of accountability in English.
The authors explore how two exemplary beginning teachers investigate their instruction in English language arts as they scaffold the development of academic literacy/language at two critical points of entry: kindergarten and sixth grade. Tanya targets the development of narrative structure; Rachel focuses on grammatical resources to provide support to claims in response to literature. The authors rely on multiple frameworks of AL to investigate how each demonstrates evolving professional competence and understandings of how to facilitate development in their students as they progress through their inquiry.
This chapter explores the concept of transmediation or translation from one mode (textual) to another (visual). Transmediation has proven valuable in increasing English Learners’ academic reading abilities. There are multiple conceptions of what transmediation is and how it should be implemented, and this paper argues that choices about implementation should be connected to student needs and abilities.
This chapter offers a conceptual review of culturally relevant pedagogy and a synthesis of research that documents its application to immigrant children and English language learners. The examination of culturally relevant pedagogy across various subject matters and student populations shows how this critical approach can make a difference in the learning experiences for linguistic and culturally diverse students.
This chapter presents a strength-based approach to inclusive parent involvement for young English language learners and their families. The approach recommends that schools re-orient their ideology and organization of parent-school interaction to emphasize human relations (collaboration and mutual relationships) rather than human resource management (efficient use of human capital). It also provides administrators and teachers practical strategies guided by research and theoretical considerations.
This chapter chronicles the curricular efforts in one applied linguistics graduate department to prepare prospective and current language-teachers to work more effectively with non-white, low socioeconomic (SES) immigrants and other linguistic minority students from subordinated cultural groups by infusing the explicit study of ideology and its role in teacher preparation into the course of study. Since most language teachers will likely work with these students, it is important that teachers understand that there are political and ideological dimensions to English as a Second Language (ESL) and Sheltered English (SE) education that, in most instances, may adversely impact their work.
This chapter examines ways that high schools have addressed the needs of English learners and immigrant students from diverse language backgrounds in an era of nationwide high-stakes testing and accountability policies. Tapping into a host of programmatic efforts and pedagogical approaches from prior and extant research, the authors propose a number of ways to help English learners and immigrants become successful in today’s high schools.
This chapter counters the notion of refugee-ness as a condition to overcome in favor of a holistic and actor-oriented approach to the experiences of refugee students and their families in United States schools. Examples of refugees in the U.S. as well as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia illustrate the heterogeneity of refugees, challenges of isolation, and expressions of agency as refugee students and parents seek possibilities for economic mobility and selectively adapt to their new host community, often characterized by class and racial struggle. The last section of the chapter presents a number of promising practices and recommendations for educators.
This article describes the collaborative theory-building process used by a diverse creative team of academics, artists, teachers, and undergraduate students to develop a model to teach about race and racism through storytelling and the arts.
This chapter analyzes how global immigrant youth living in diaspora communities are transformed by participating in real and imagined cultural practices of their homeland and practices of schooling, peers, and various forms of popular culture in their new host nations. In particular, the chapter examines how Somali youth draw on transnational cultures, local schooling practices, political affiliations, and specific hip-hop and racial practices as they define their identities as new migrants in Canada. Further, the chapter discusses how Somali youth frame and interpret their sense of race, ethnicity, and multicultural citizenship in the public school system in Canada.
This article reports an interview study examining the perceptions of school-to-home literacy practices held by African American and immigrant ESL parents in two urban communities in the northeastern United States.