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Diversity >> Race and Ethnicity

Articles
by Susana Muñoz, Michelle Espino & René Antrop-González — 2014
The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.

by Alejandro Covarrubias & Daniel Liou — 2014
After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.

by Arlo Kempf — 2014
This article examines the way Cuban teachers address racism in their professional practice, with a specific focus on teacher home visits to address issues of racism with parents and guardians. Using critical race theory and a reconsideration of the ecological systems theory, this article analyzes the relationship between Cuban teachers and the families of students they teach based on in-depth interviews and a survey of Cuban teachers.

by Ebony McGee — 2014
In this article the author explores the mathematics and life experiences of 13 Black elementary education pre-service college students, encompassing both their reflections as students of mathematics and as future mathematics teachers of most likely Black and Latino students. Their “voices” suggest that these Black pre-service students generated constructions that include considerations of race and racism as part of their shared African American experience in the United States; that is, a mathematics learning experience and future mathematics-based teaching ideologies structured, in part, by larger negative and unjust race relations existing in US culture, in spite of early at-home mathematics support.

by Hua-Yu Cherng, Kristin Turney & Grace Kao — 2014
We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of high school sophomores, to examine patterns of social engagement in friendships and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents. Results show that racial/ethnic minority adolescents, as well as first- and second-generation adolescents, are less engaged in friendships than their third-generation White counterparts, and there is no clear pattern of advantage or disadvantage in extracurricular activity participation.

by Timothy Lensmire — 2014
This article examines the social production of racial identity for four White men and explores how their racial identities were dependent on relations with real and imagined racial others.

by Anjalé Welton — 2013
This article problematizes the concept of “diversity” by exploring how one racially mixed high school’s vision for diversity was mismatched with the reality of apparent inequities within the school. Students of color who transferred to the high school for better opportunities were ultimately resegregated to racially isolating structures. The study’s findings align with scholars who call for further critique of what it means to be truly diverse or integrated, and suggest current policies designed to achieve diverse schooling fail to chisel at mechanisms that inevitably sustain the inequitable racial and social order within schools.

by Lauri Johnson — 2013
This comparative paper analyzes the historical development of Black-focused education in Toronto and London from 1968 to 2008 as a response by Black parents and community activists to the historic underachievement of African Caribbean students (particularly males) in the public schools of both cities. I situate the development of Black-focused education in each city within the larger social, political, and national policy contexts, trace critical incidents that fueled the development of race-based school district policy, and explore how the “politics of place” has influenced the trajectory of Black-focused education in each city.

by Sarah Diem & Jeffrey Brooks — 2013
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, an expert in civil rights and employment discrimination and served as the lead counsel for plaintiffs in the St. Louis metropolitan school desegregation litigation. Dr. Middleton discusses the history, current status, and future of school desegregation.

by Lovey Walker & Moin Syed — 2013
This study used a developmental approach to investigate the relationship between academic and ethnic identities among ethnically diverse college students. The findings indicate that Students of Color perceive a greater connection between their academic and ethnic identities compared to White students, and that this difference can be partially explained by differences in ethnic identity.

by Raquel Farmer-Hinton, Joi Lewis, Lori Patton & Ishwanzya Rivers — 2013
This article critiques the caricaturization of urban communities and their schools as places where students and community members lack agency and resources. Instead, through narrative inquiry, the authors reveal the community cultural wealth that they were exposed to as K-12 students in East St. Louis, Illinois.

by Yolanda Sealey-Ruiz — 2013
This paper examines the use of Black Feminist Thought and critical race theory as conceptual and methodological frameworks to investigate the counter-narratives Black reentry women offer to three troubling and persisting stereotypes about Black motherhood.

by Ezekiel Dixon-Román, Howard Everson & John McArdle — 2013
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of family income on SAT performance for Black and White test-takers. Family income was found to have a nonlinear direct effect on total SAT performance and the association was substantially larger for Black students than for White students, especially for those families living in poverty.

by Scott Seider, James Huguley & Sarah Novick — 2013
This study reports that college students of color participating in a university-based community service learning program characterized the classroom experience within the program as offering a weaker sense of community than did their White classmates, and many expressed a reluctance to engage in race discussions with their classmates or to respond to perspectives they perceived as naïve, inaccurate, or offensive.

by Linda Harklau — 2013
Although Latinas’ relatively low rate of college-going has sometimes been explained by the influence of traditional gender roles, this article argues that sometimes it might instead represent emergent feminism and a means of contesting and remaking those roles. Based on a 5-year case study of one academically gifted Mexican American immigrant youth who decided to go to work instead of college, the article considers implications for Latina college recruitment.

by Christopher Span & Ishwanzya Rivers — 2012
Using data from the Digest of Educational Statistics, this article argues that an intergenerational comparison is a more productive, progressive method to interpret data used to gauge the achievement gap.

by Christian Faltis & Guadalupe Valdés — 2010
This essay introduces the issue, Educating Immigrant Students, Refugees, and English Language Learners: A No Borders Perspective

by Tamara Lucas & Ana María Villegas — 2010
This chapter examines what some teacher educators are already doing and what all teacher educators need to do to prepare general classroom teachers to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). The authors argue that, because of the trend toward inclusion of ELLs in the mainstream class and the role of language in schooling, it is essential that all teachers be prepared to teach ELLs. They then present a conception of linguistically responsive teaching that outlines essential curriculum content for preparing teachers for ELLs, and they highlight elements of program design that can support the preparation of teachers for teaching ELLs.

by George Bunch — 2010
Given the increasing likelihood that secondary teachers either are or will be responsible for teaching English learners (ELs) and other language minority students from immigrant backgrounds, this chapter explores recent efforts to conceptualize and act upon what mainstream secondary teachers need to know about language. While widespread agreement exists regarding the importance of “academic language” for ELs in secondary school, there is less agreement about how this language should be conceptualized or how teachers should be prepared to facilitate students’ development of it. The chapter reviews different conceptions of academic language and argues for the importance of collaborative efforts between content-area and language specialists to promote ELs access to mainstream curriculum and opportunities to expand their linguistic repertoire for increasingly challenging academic endeavors.

by Elsa Billings, Melinda Martin-Beltrán & Anita Hernández — 2010
This chapter describes bilingual approaches to teaching immigrants and English learners in elementary schools, situating program models within a shifting sociopolitical climate, grounding bilingual education theoretically, and describing bilingual teaching practices. Profiles are presented of successful dual language programs that demonstrate the ways that schools must negotiate priorities of bilingualism with pressures of accountability in English.

by Bárbara Merino & Kathleen Dixon — 2010
The authors explore how two exemplary beginning teachers investigate their instruction in English language arts as they scaffold the development of academic literacy/language at two critical points of entry: kindergarten and sixth grade. Tanya targets the development of narrative structure; Rachel focuses on grammatical resources to provide support to claims in response to literature. The authors rely on multiple frameworks of AL to investigate how each demonstrates evolving professional competence and understandings of how to facilitate development in their students as they progress through their inquiry.

by Paula Wolfe — 2010
This chapter explores the concept of transmediation or translation from one mode (textual) to another (visual). Transmediation has proven valuable in increasing English Learners’ academic reading abilities. There are multiple conceptions of what transmediation is and how it should be implemented, and this paper argues that choices about implementation should be connected to student needs and abilities.

by Jin Sook Lee — 2010
This chapter offers a conceptual review of culturally relevant pedagogy and a synthesis of research that documents its application to immigrant children and English language learners. The examination of culturally relevant pedagogy across various subject matters and student populations shows how this critical approach can make a difference in the learning experiences for linguistic and culturally diverse students.

by Christina Chávez-Reyes — 2010
This chapter presents a strength-based approach to inclusive parent involvement for young English language learners and their families. The approach recommends that schools re-orient their ideology and organization of parent-school interaction to emphasize human relations (collaboration and mutual relationships) rather than human resource management (efficient use of human capital). It also provides administrators and teachers practical strategies guided by research and theoretical considerations.

by Lilia Bartolomé — 2010
This chapter chronicles the curricular efforts in one applied linguistics graduate department to prepare prospective and current language-teachers to work more effectively with non-white, low socioeconomic (SES) immigrants and other linguistic minority students from subordinated cultural groups by infusing the explicit study of ideology and its role in teacher preparation into the course of study. Since most language teachers will likely work with these students, it is important that teachers understand that there are political and ideological dimensions to English as a Second Language (ESL) and Sheltered English (SE) education that, in most instances, may adversely impact their work.

by Reynaldo Reyes & Leena Her — 2010
This chapter examines ways that high schools have addressed the needs of English learners and immigrant students from diverse language backgrounds in an era of nationwide high-stakes testing and accountability policies. Tapping into a host of programmatic efforts and pedagogical approaches from prior and extant research, the authors propose a number of ways to help English learners and immigrants become successful in today’s high schools.

by Karla Sarr & Jacqueline Mosselson — 2010
This chapter counters the notion of refugee-ness as a condition to overcome in favor of a holistic and actor-oriented approach to the experiences of refugee students and their families in United States schools. Examples of refugees in the U.S. as well as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia illustrate the heterogeneity of refugees, challenges of isolation, and expressions of agency as refugee students and parents seek possibilities for economic mobility and selectively adapt to their new host community, often characterized by class and racial struggle. The last section of the chapter presents a number of promising practices and recommendations for educators.

by Lee Bell & Rosemarie Roberts — 2010
This article describes the collaborative theory-building process used by a diverse creative team of academics, artists, teachers, and undergraduate students to develop a model to teach about race and racism through storytelling and the arts.

by Sunil Bhatia — 2010
This chapter analyzes how global immigrant youth living in diaspora communities are transformed by participating in real and imagined cultural practices of their homeland and practices of schooling, peers, and various forms of popular culture in their new host nations. In particular, the chapter examines how Somali youth draw on transnational cultures, local schooling practices, political affiliations, and specific hip-hop and racial practices as they define their identities as new migrants in Canada. Further, the chapter discusses how Somali youth frame and interpret their sense of race, ethnicity, and multicultural citizenship in the public school system in Canada.

by Curt Dudley-Marling — 2009
This article reports an interview study examining the perceptions of school-to-home literacy practices held by African American and immigrant ESL parents in two urban communities in the northeastern United States.

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Resources
  • High School Dropout, Race-Ethnicity, and Social Background from the 1970s to the 1990s
    Between 1972 and 1998, data from the October Current Population Surveys show that dropout is lease among whites and greatest among Hispanics, and it has declined among whites and African-Americans since the late 1970s.
  • Journal of Latinos and Education
    The Journal of Latinos and Education provides a cross, multi and interdisciplinary forum for scholars and writers from diverse disciplines who share a common interest in the analysis, discussion, critique, and dissemination of educational issues that impact Latinos.
  • Center for Multicultural Education
    The Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle WA, focuses on research projects and activities designed to improve practice related to equity issues, intergroup relations, and the achievement of students of color.
  • Latina High School Leaving: Some Practical Solutions
    An examination of how gender roles, families, schools, and friends influence Latinas in their education and career decisions, and steps schools and society can take to help these girls feel accepted.
  • Race Ethnicity and Education
    Race Ethnicity and Education published original and critical writing on the dynamics of race and ethnicity in education theory, practice, and policy. In particular, the journal welcomes research and analyses that deal with the interconnections between multiple axes of social differentiation and exclusion (including social class, sexuality, and disability).
  • Center for American Indian Research and Education
    The Center for American Indian Research and Education (CAIRE), located at the University of California at Berkeley, works to improve the status of Native people by promoting, developing, and evaluating culturally appropriate health, education, and social programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives nationally.
  • The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions - Chapter 1
  • American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)
    American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) has as its purpose to publish original empirical and theoretical studies and analyses in education.
  • Mid-Atlantic Equity Center
    The Mid-Atlantic Equity Center, part of the Mid-Atlantic Equity Consortium, Inc., is funded by the U.S. Department of Education under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It is one of ten federally-funded Equity Assistance Centers (formerly called "Desegregation Assistance Centers") across the country that provide technical assistance and training services to school districts. The Center specializes in three program areas: race, gender, and national origin equity.
  • The Dynamics Of Race in Higher Education: An Examination of the Evidence
    The purpose of this online full-text book is to examine the research base that can contribute to the current debates about the value, means of achieving, and consequences of racial diversity in colleges and universities.
  • Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education
    EMME is an on-line magazine for scholars, practitioners and students of multicultural education. In order to reach the wide audience in the U. S. and the world we are committed to make this magazine available only in the electronic format and free of charge to the public.
  • Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence
    The purpose of CREDE's research is to identify and develop effective educational practices for linguistic and cultural minority students, such as those placed at risk by factors of race, poverty, and geographic location.
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